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L O U I S I A N A, 

O R O F 




Containing aDBSCRiPTiONofthe 
Countries that He on both Sides of the River Missisippt:- 

With an Account of the 



Tranflated from the French 

Of M. Le page Du PRATZ; 

With fome Notes and Obfervations relating to our Colonieg. 



Printed for T. Bbcket, Corner of the Adelphi, in the Strand* 



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BOOK 1. 

^i&tf franfaSfions of the French *» Louifiana.' 

CHAK t. y^ //&^ /»y? Difcovety and StttUment of Ldd- 
vy fiana * . - Pagp i 

CHAP. II. The Return of M. dc St. Denis: Hisfittling 
the Spaniards at the Aifinais. His fecond Journey to 
Mexico, and Return from thence -> «• * 8 

CiSfAf*^ lit. Embarkation of eight hundred Men by the Weft- 

N Itldia Company /o'Louifiana. Arrival and Stay at Cape 

Francois. Arrival at the Ifle Dauphine. Defcriptton of 

that I/land - - - - Ij 

CKAP. IV. The Jttthor*s Departure for his Grant. Dtfcrip-- 
tian of the Places he pajptd through^ at far as New Or- 
leans - -. m. . • ly" 

CHAP. V* The Author put in ^offiffton tf his TeffHsTf. 
His Refilution to go and fettle among the Natchez 20 

CHfAP. VI. The Voyage of the Author to Biloxi. Defcrtpm 
tien of that Place, Settlement of Grants, The Author 
difcovers two Copper Mines, His Return to the Natchez 30 

CHAP, VII. Ftrji fTar with the Natchez. Caufe of tbt 
War • • . - . • 3^ 

A 2 





CHAP. Vlll. Tlie Governor furprized the Natchez with 
feven hundred Men, Jjionijhing Cures performed by the 
Natives, The Author fends upwards of three hundrid 
Simples to the Company - - - 41 

CHAP. IX. French Settlements, or Pojis. Pojl at Mobile. 
7he Mouths of the Miffifippi. The Situation and Defcrip-^ 
/io» tf/* New Orleans - A -• -■ ■ 4^ 

CHAP. X. 7}>e Voyages of the French to the Miflburis, 
Canzas, and Padoucas. T%e Se^lements they in vain at- 
tempted to make in thofe Countries j with a Defcription of 
an extraordinary Phanomcnon . - - 63 

CHAP. XI. The War with the Chitimachas. The Confpi- 
racy of the Negroes againji the French. Their Execu- 
tion - - - "11 

CHAP. XII. The War of the Natchez. Maffacre of the 
French /« 1729. Extirpation of the t^Atchti in 1730 79 

CHAP. XIII. The War with the Chicafaws. The fr/i Ex- 
pedition by the River Mobile. Thefecond by the Miffifippi. 
The War with the Chaftaws terminated by the Prudence of 
M, de Vaudreuil - - - 96 

... ^ - 

CHAP. XIV. PefeSfions on what gives Occafton to Wars in 
Louifiana. Tlie Means of avoiding Wan in that Prtyuince, 
as alfo the Manner of coming off with Advantage and little 
Expence in them - " - - . - 166 

CHAP. XV. Penfacola taken by Surprize by the French. 
Retaken by the Spaniards. Again retaken by the French, 
and demolijhed - - - . , iii 





Of the Country and its Produ£lsi 


CHAP. I. Geographkal Defcription of Louifiana. Its Cti" 
I mati ■*- - - - 119 

Defcripiion of the Lower Louifiana, and the Mouths of 
/^ Miififippi - • ik ... ...ii^j 

* ■ 

CHAP. II. The Author's Journey in Louifiana, /raw the 
Natchez to the River St. Francis, and the Countty of the. 
Chicafaws - - -.,nrV'f»3J 

CHAP. in. The Nature of the Lands of Louifiana. The 
Lands on the Coaji -, „ , .« ,^r *. ISl 

CHAP. IV. ^dHty of the Lands above the Fork. A 
^arry of Stone for building. High Lands to the Eqft: 
Their vaft Fertility, JVeJl Coajt : Wejl Lands: Sak^ 
petre - - - - 13(8 

CHAP. V. ^alfty of the Lands of the Red River. Pojt 
of Nachitoches. A Silver Mine. Lands of the Black 
.fover. - ^ - 165 

CHAP. VI. A Brook of fait Watef : Salt Lakes, Lands of 
. the River of the Arkznhs, Red-veined Marble : Slate : 
Plajier. Hunting the Bujff^ , The dry Sand-banks in 
^^Miffifippi.^.,.^^ - ..=^^^^jr , • siT^ 

CHAP. VIL The Lands of the River St. Fruncis, Mneof 

Mzrzmtg, and other Mines. A Lead Mine. AfoftStotiey 

tefemhling Porphyry. Lands of the Mifrouri. The Lands^ 

• North of the Wabache. The Lands of the Illinois. De' 

LaMothe'iil^fw, and other Mines - 176 

< i 






CHAP. VIII. Of 'the Agriculture^ or Manner of cultivating^ 
ordering^ and manHfiaSlufingtfhe ComModities that are pro* 
fer Articles of Commerce. Of the Culture of Maiz, Rice^ 
and other F¥uiU ef 4hi Conmrjl, Cff thi SiU JTorm 183 

CHAP. IX. Of Indigo, Toteueoy CoMn, U^dXy Jfofi, Mef 
Saffron > - „ -. » .1^9 

CHAP. X. Of the Commerci that is, andm^ he eetrfied on 
in Louiftana. Of the CommoeUties which that Ptovina 
mayfurnijh in Return for thofe of Europe. Of the Com" 
therei^ Lam&unk with the Ij/les - - t^i 

Coffim^dS^es which Louidzttitmay ftirm/h in Return fir th^e 
^Europe - - - - ibid, 

^kfContmerti of Lojutfuna with the IJlands • 2(9 J 

CHAP. XI. Of the Commerce with the Spaniards, ^he 
CommoMties they bring to the Cohny, ifthnre is A DlnM^tt 
for them. Of fmh as may be given in Return, and may 
fuit them, ReJle£lions nn the Commerce of this Pr&uinee, 
and the great Advantages which the State and partioular 
Perfons may derive therefrom - - - 204 

fhiComrttercev^iththtSpBii^lM^ -, - Ibid. 

^he Commodates which the Spaniards hring to Louiiiana^ if 
there is a Demand for them - - ibid. 

Some AhJhnaSls fnm the imioricd Memoirs #/* LflUifiatMy 

i^/Af. Dumont. 

1. OfTohacto, with the Way of cultivating andcUring tt 2iO 

11, Of the Way of making biSgo - - .vt/^ 

Itt. Of tar ; the Way of making it \ and of making it 

into Pitd} - - - AJ7 

iV. Of ihe. Mines of Louii^na - - ^8 

Jkti'a£l from a late FrtWdl fF¥it&, cottt&nirtg tii Imfm- 
emce of Louifiana to France ' . - - 221 


q O N T JE N T S. 

BOOK m. 

The Natural Hiftory of Louifiana. 

C^AP. I. Of Com$itdfHlfi * r . «15 

CHAP. n. Of tk Fruk Trm pf LjouiQana t 231 

CHK? All, Of Foreft Trees -" - - 238 

CHA?,iy, Of Skrsfks/mdJEfc^efcerffefi . 244 

C^A?,y. Of CwptMgPknts ^ « 248 

CHA?, VI, Of the ^adrupedes . - 254 

CHAP. VIL Of Birds and fyififfnfe£ls - r 271 

CHAP. VIII. Of Fijhes qnd SbfllrFifi, * .286 

fi O O K IV. 

Of the Natives of \xm{\2^, 
CHAP. I. The Origin of the Amgrtcaas ▼ 291 

CHAP^ II. An Account of the feveral Nations of Loui- 
fiana -. - . • 304 

Sect. I. Of the Nations inhabiting on the Eajt of the 
Miffifippi - . . . ibid. 

Sect. II. Of the Nations inhahiting on theWeJiof the 
Miilifippi . . . 31^ 

CHAP. III. A Defcription of the Natives of Louifiana ; of 
their Manners and Cu/ioms, particularly thofe of the Nat- 
chez : Of their Language^ their Religiony Ceremonies^ 
Jlulers, or Suns, Feajs, Marriages ^ &c, - 322 

. .. Sect. 


8 E c T . I . J Defcription of the Natives \ the different Em- 
ployments of the two Sexes } and their Manner of bring- 
ing up their Children ... ^22 

SiCT. II. Of the Language^ Government^ Religion, Cere- 
": monies^ and Feajis of the Natives - -• 327 

Sect. III. Of their Marriages^ and DiJiinSlion of 
Ranks - - - 343 

Sect. IV. Of the Temples, Tombs, Burials, and other rt' 
ligious Ceremonies of the People of Louifiana - 349 

Sect. V. Of the Arts and Manufactures of the Na* 
tives - - _ 2^8 

Sect . VI. Of the Attire and Diverftons of the Natives :^ 
Of their Mtals and Fajlings - - 362 

Sect, VII. Of the Indian Art of War 
CHAP. IV. Of the Negroes of Louifuna 


Sect. I. Of the Choice of Negroes; of thtir Dijlempers^ 
and the Manner of curing them - - ibid. 

Sbct* II. Of th( Manner of governing the Negroes 380 




THE Hiftory of Louifiana, which wc here 
prcfent to the public, was wrote by a 
planter of fixteen years experience in that 
country, who had likewife the advantage of being 
overfeer or dircAor of the public plantations, both 
when they belonged to the company, and after- 
wards when they fell to .the crown; by which 
means he had the beft opportunities of knowing 
the nature of the foil and climate, and what they 
produce, or what improvements they are likely to 
admit of*, a thing in which this nation is, without 
doubt, highly concerned and interefted. And 
when our author publifhed this hiftory in 1 758, he 
had likewife the advantage, not only of the accounts 
of F. Charlevoix, and others, but of the Hiftori- 
cal Memoirs of Louifiana, publifhed at Paris in 
,1753, by Mr. Dumont, an officer who refided 
two- and- twenty years in the country, and was per- 
fonally concerned and acquainted with many of the 
tranfadlions in it ; from whom we have extraded 
fome paffages, to render this account more com-, 
plcte. ^ 

But whatever opportunities our author had of 
gaining a knowledge of his fubjed, it muft be 
owned, that he made his accounts of it very per- 
plexed. By endeavouring to take in every thing, 
be (Jcfcends to many trifles ; and by dwelling too 

* A long 


long on a fubjed, he comes to render it obfcure, 
by being prolix in things which hardly relate a^ 
what he treats of. He interrupts the thread of 
his difcourfc? with private anecdotes, long ha- 
rangues, an4 tediou§ narrj|tions, which, have little 
or no relation to the fubjeft, and are of much lefs 
confequence to the reader. The w^Pt; of i|is|Ji24 
and order throughout the v/hole work is ftill igore 
apparent-, and that, joined to thefe digrefl^ns, 
renders his accounts, however iuft ^nd interefting, 
fo tedious and irkfome to read, gind at the fame 
time h indiftinft, that few feem to fiaye reaped tjie 
benefit of them. For thefe re^fons jt was neceflary 
to methodize the whole work; to al^ridge fome 
parts of it 5 and to le^ve out many things that ap- 
pear to be trifling. This we have endeavoured to 
do In the tranflation, by r^ducipg the whple 
work to four general heads or books; an4 hy 
bringing the feveral fubjed 5 treated of^ the ac- 
counts of which lie fcattere up ancj down Ji> dif- 
ferent parts of the original, nder thefe t,heir pro- 
per heads 5 fo that the conn* l;ioj;i bcty^reen them, 
and the accounts of any on fybjeft^ m^y more 
cafily appear. 

This, it is prcfumed, wilJ tppear to be a fub^ 
jeft of no fmall confequencv ind importance to 
this nation, efpecially at this time. The/ countries 
here treated of, have not only by right always be- 
longed to Great-Britain, but part of thpm is now 
acknowledged to it by tl^e former ufurpers : and it 
is to be hoped, that the nation may pow reap fome 
advantages from thofe countries, on >yhich it has 
expended fo many million? 5 which there is np more 
3 likely 



liHely way to 4o, %Hn by inaking thenj better 
Hnpwn in the firft pl^c^) ^n4, hy learning fron} tli<; 
experience of others, what they dp or are likely 
to produce, that may turn to accpunt to the 

It ha$ been geni^r^ly fufpe^d, that this inatipn 
has fuffer^d much, from tl^e want of a d,ue I^nqwr 
ledge of her dominipns ii^ Aqrjcrica, w,^ch we 
fhpuld efideayour to prevent fpr the future. If 
that may be faid of any part o£ Aipenc^ it cer- 
tainly nT^ay of thpfe cojijn tries, ^yhich haye beeij^ 
called by the French Lpuifiana. They Jiaye not 
ooly includ^ji u|T^d|er that name all the \vcftcrn partf 
of yirginis^ and Ca,roiina 5 and thereby imagined, 
that they had, from this npipipal title, a juft ri^t 
to tjiofe ar)tii^nt dpmjnipr^s of the crowi> of Britain : 
but what is of wor^ cpfifequence pjcrhaps, the^ 
jjiaye e^j^ually deceived an^4 iAPPP^cd upon many, by 
the e3f;tr^yagai;it hopes ^o^ unreafonable exp^^a- 
tipn^ thf^ had formed t,o th^tpjjelyes, of ^He ya(^ 
adyafltages they were co rei^p ifrpm thpfe cppntricsj, 
as fqon a^ thpy had ufurped them ; which wl^en 
they c^me tp be dif^pppintcd in, they ran from onq 
extreme to anctther, and condemned the coyriJiry as 
gpqd for nothing, becaufe it did not anfwer the 
extravagant hppes they had conceived of it ; and 
we fecm to be mjfled by their prejudices, and tq 
be dra>yn into miftakes by their artifice or follyi 
Becaufe the Miflifippi fchenie failed in 17 19, every 
other reafonablc fch^me of improving that coun- 
try, and of reaping any advantage from it, muft 
do the fame. It is tp wipe off thefe prejudices, 
that the foUovying account of theft countries, which 



W , P R E F AC E. 

•pp^krs ttili^ b6th juft atid feafonable, and agree* 
able to cverj^ thing wc knoW df America, may be 
the more ftctelthry. 

W^ have bech l6ng ago told by 'F. Charlevoix, 
from whence it is, that many people have formed 
a contemptible opinion of this country that lies on 
and abogt the MilTifippi. Thcy^ arc milled, fays 
he, by the relations of fome feafaring people, and 
others, who are nc mannerof judges of fuch things, 
and have never fecn any part: of the country but 
the cbaft Itde, about Mobile, and the mouths of the 
Miflirippi J which bur author here tells us is as 
difmal to appearance, t\\c only thing thofe people 
* are capable of judging of, as the interior parts of 
the country, which they never faw, are deljghtful, 
fruitfiil, and inviting. They tell us, beRdes, that 
the country is unhealthful \ becaufe there happens 
to be a marfli at the mouth of the Miflifippi, (and 
what river is there without one ?) vvhicli they ima- 
gine murt be unhealthful, rather than that tliey 
know it to be foj not confidering, that all the 
coaft both of North and South America is the 
lame \ and not knowing, that the whole continent, 
above this finglc pait on the coaft:, is the moft 
likely, from its lltuation,, and has been found by 
all the experience that has been luid of it, to be 
the moft healthy part of all North America in the 
fame elimates, •'.s will abundantly appear from the 
following md all other accounts. 

To> give a general view of thoft countries, we 

fHoiild confidcr them .is tliey are naturally dividcil 

into four parts \ i. The fca coaft \ a. The Lower 

JLoui liana, or weftcrft part 6f Cai*olinai 3. The 

* - . Upper 




Upper Loulfiana, or wcftcrn part of Virginia j and 
4. the river Mifllfippi. 

I. The fea coaft is the fame with all the reft of 
the coaft of North America to the foiithward of 
New York, and indeed from thence to Mexico, as 
far as we are acquainted with it. It is all a low 
flat fandy beach, and the foil for fomc twenty or 
thii ly miles diftance from the fliorc, more or l^fs, 
is all a pine barren^ as it is called, or a fimdy de- 
fart s with few or no good [X)rts or h;iibours on 
the coaft^ efpeciaily in all tliofe Ibuthern parts of 
America, from Chefapcak bay to Mexico. But 
however barren this coaft is in other refpcdls, it is 
entirely covered with tall pines, which afford great 
ftore of pitch, tar, and turpentine. Thefe pines 
likewile make good mafts for fhips •, which I have 
known to laft for twenty odd years, when it is well 
known, that our common mafts of New England 
white pine will often decay in three or four years. 
Thefe mafts were of that kind that is called the 
pitch pine, and lightwood pine •, of which I knew 
a fliip built that ran for fixtecn years, when her 
planks of this pine were as found and rather harder 
than at firft, although her oak timbers were rot* 
ten. The cyprefs, of which there is fuch plenty 
in the fwamps on this coaft, is reckoned to be 
equally fcrviccable, if not more fo, both for mafts 
(of which it would afford the largeft of any tree 
that we know), and for fliip building. And fhips 
might be built of both thefe timbers for half the 
price perhaps of any others, both on account of the 
vaft plenty of them, and of tlieir being fo cafijy 

% In 



P R ^ F ACE. 

In mod pa^-ts of thf fe coafts likey/ife, pfpccially 
about the Miffifippi, there is great plenty of cedars 
and ever-green oaks -, which make the bcft fliips of 
any that are built in North America. And we fuf- 
pedl it is of thefe cedars and the American cyprefs, 
that the Spaniards build their ihips of war at thq 
Havanna. Of thefe there is the greateft plenty, 
immediately to the weftward of the moyth of the 
Miflifippii where "l^rge yeffels cangoto tl^e lake 
of the Chetimachas, and nothing hinders t^em to 
go and cut the fineft paks in the world, with which 
all that coaft is covered ^ j " which, moreover, is 
a fure lign of a very good, ipftead of a ba4 foil ; 
and accordingly we (^e the French h^y^ fettled 
their tobacco plantations thereabouts. It i;s not 
without reafon then, that; our author te^s os, the 
^argell navies might be built in that cquotry at a 
very fmall e^fpcnce. 

prom this it appears, that even the <ea coaft, 
barren as it is, from >yhich the "vyhole. country has 
been fo much depreciated, is not without its ad- 
vantages, and thofe peculiarly adapted to a trading 
and maritime nation. Had thefe fai^dy d^farts in- 
deed been in fuch a climate as Canada, they would 
have been of as little value, as many would make 
them here. It might be difficult indeed to fcttl^ 
colonies merely for thefe or any other produftions 
of thofe poor lands : but to the ^yeftward of the 
Miflfi^pi} the coaft is much more fruitful all along 
the bay of Mexico •, being watered with a grea,t 
number of rivers, the banks of which are vcrf 
fti:ti}e, ajid are covered with fpr#§ of th^ talleft 


* a«r/<v*;x Hift. N|.Fraacej Tom, III. p. 444* 


oaks, ice. as far as to New Mexico, a thing not to 
be feen any where elfe on thefe coafts. That coaft 
alone will fupply all the produds of North Ame- 
rica, and is as convenient to navigation as any part 
of it, without going nigh the Miirifippi ; fo that it 
is with good reafon our author fays, " That country 
promifes great riches to fuch as fhall inhabit it, 
from the excellent (quality of its lands *," in fuch 
a climate. 

Thefe are the productions of the dry (we cannot 
call them high) grounds : the fwamps, with which 
this coaft abounds,- -are ftill more fruitful', and 
abundantly compenfate the avidity and baii^ennefs 
pf the foil around them. They bear riee iii fuch 
plenty, efpecially the miarfh about New Orlfeans', 
** That tl^ inhabitants reap the greateft advantage 
from it, and reckon it the manna of the land f .^ 
It was fuch marHrek on the Nile, in the fame 
climate, that were the granlary of the Rom^ erti»- 
pire. And from a few fuch marfhes irt Carolina; 
-not to be oohipared to thofe 6n the Miflifippi, either 
in extenfti ©i> fertility, Britain receives at ledft" two 
or three Huiidred tKoufand pounds a yeaf, and 
might Vftnd' twice thdt value of their proctu^. 

But howe;ver barren of noxiou$ thefe iQw laiidi 
©n thefei'icoift may be,' they extend but a little 
way aboiut the Miffifippij not above thirty dffo^'ty 
miles in a ftraight line, on the eaft fide of that 
river, atid' about twice a^ far on the Weft fide j ift 
which laft, the lands^ are, in recompence, much 
more fruitful. To follow the courfe^ of the riVer 
indeed^ which runs very obliquely fduth-eaft and 

• See p. 163. f Dument, 1. 15. 




viii PREFACE, 

north-weft, as well as crooked, they reckon it 
eighty-two leagues from the mouth of the river to 
the Cut- Point, where the high lands begin. 

II. By the Lawer Louifiana, our author means 
only the Delta of the Miffifippi, or the drowned 
lands made by the overflowing of the river. But 
we may more properly give that appellation to the 
whole country, from the low and flat fea coaft above; 
defcribed, to the mountains, which begin about the 
latitude 35°, a little above the river St. Francis -, 
that is, five degrees of latitude, or three hundred 
and fifty ftatute miles from the coaft ; which they 
reckon to be fix hundred and fixty miles up the 
Miflilippi. About that latitude a cbntinued ridge 
of mountains runs weftward from the Apalachean 
mountains nigh to the banks of the Miflifippi, 
which^are thereabouts very high, at what we have 
called the Chicafaw Cliff^s. Oppofite to thefe on 
the weft fide of the MiflTifippi, the country is moun- 
tainpjjs, and continues to be fp here aftd there, as 
far as we have any accounts of it, weftward to the 
jBOuntains of New Mexico; j which run in a chain 
of continjued ridges frpm north to fouth, and are 
reckofiftd tO; divide that, country from Louifiana, 
aiboyit 9D0 miles weft fern the MifTifippi. 

This-i? one entire level champaign country ; the 
part of which that lies weft of the Miflifippi is 900 
n^flcs (of fixty to a degree) by ,300, and .contain^ 
27o,i0!Q0 fquare milesj,as much as both France and 
Spain put together. This country lies in the lati- 
tude of thofe fruitful regioins of Barbary, Syria, 
jP^rfiaj India, and the middle of China, and is alone 
fi^QJent to fupply the world with all the produ<5ts 



tW^-'^-^i ■"■ 




of North America. It is very fertile in every thing, 
both in lands and metals, by all the accounts we 
have of it ; and is watered by feveral large naviga- 
ble rivers, that fpread over the whole country from 
the Mifljfippi to New Mexico j befides feveral 
fmaller rivers on the coaft weft of the Miflifippi, 
that fall into the bay of Mexico •, of which we have 
no good accounts, if it be not that Mr. Coxe tells 
us of one, the river of the Cenis, which, he fays, 
" is broad, deep, and navigable almoft to its heads, 
which chiefly proceed from the ridge of hills that 
feparate this province from New Mexico *," and 
runs through the rich and fertile country on the 
coaft above mentioned. 

The weftern part of this country is more fertile, 
fays our author, than that on the caft fide of the 
Mifljfippi i in which part, however, fays he, the 
Ig.nds are very fertile, with a rich black mould three 
fc^t deep in the hills, and much deeper in the bot- 
toms, with a ftrong clayey foundation. Reeds and 
canes even grow upon the hill fides •, which, with 
the oaks, walnuts, tulip-trees, &c. are a fure fign 
of a good and rich foil. And all along the Mifli- 
fippi on both fides, Dumont tells, " The lands, 
which are all free from inundations, are excellent 
for culture, particularly thofp about Baton Rouge, 
Cut-Point, Arkanfas, Natchez, and Yafous, which 
produce Indian corn, tobacco, indigo, &c. and all 
kinds of provifions and efculent plants, with little 
or no care or labour, and almoft without culture ; 
the foil being in all thofe places a black mould of 
an excellent quality f ." 

a 3 Thefe 

* DefLfipcion of Carolina, p. 37, 

f Memoirei, 1. iC. 


. Thefe accounts arc confirmed by our own peo- 
ple, who were lent by the government of Virgini^^ 
in 1 741, to view thefe the weftern parts of that 
province ; and although they only went down the 
Ohio and Miffifippi to New Orleans, they reported, 
that " they faw more good land on the Miffifippi, 
dnd its many large branches, than they judge is in 
all the Engllfh colonies, as far as they are inha- 
bited '" as appears from the report of that govern- 
ment to the board of trade. ' 

What makes this fertile country more eligible 
and valuable, is, that it appears both from its fitu- 
ation, and from the experience the French have 
had of it *, to be by far the moft. healthful of any 
in all thefe fouthern parts of North America •, a 
thing of the laft confequence in fettling colonies, 
efpecially in thofe fouthern parts of America, 
which are in general very unhealthful. All the 
fea coafts of our colonics, to the fouthward o^ 
Ghefapeak bay, or even of New- York, are low 
and flat, marlhy and fwampy, and very unhealth- 
ful on that account : and thofe on and about the 
bay of Mexico, and in Florida, are withal excef- 
fively hot and intemperate, fo that white people are 
unfit for labour in them -, by which all our fouth- 
ern colonies, wliich alone promife to be of any 
great advantage to the nation, are fo thin of peo- 
ple, that we have but 25,000 white people in all 
South Carolina -f. But thofe lands on the Miffi- 
fippi are, on the contrary, high, dry, hilly, and in 
fome places mountainous at no great diftance from 


t Se« p. -lac, III. 

f Defctiption of South Carolina, by ■ 

-, p. 30. 



the river, befides the ridges of the Apalachean 
mountains above mentioned, that He to the north- 
ward of them i which mull greatly refrefh and cool 
the air all over the country, efpecially in compari- 
fon of what it is on the low and flat, fandy . and 
parched fta coafts of our prefent colonies. Thefe 
high lands begin immediately above the Delta, or 
drowned lands, at the mouth of the Miffifippi; 
above which the banks of that river are from one 
hundred to two hundred feet high, without any 
marihfeS about them i and continue fuch for nine 
hundred miles to the river Ohio, efpecially on the 
caft fide of the river *. 

Such a fituation on rich and fertile lands in that 
climate, and on a navigable river, muft appear to 
be of the utmoft confequence. . It is only from the 
rich lands on the river fides (which indeed are the 
only lands that can generally be called rich in all 
countries, and efpecially in North America), that 
this nation reaps any thing of value from all the 
colonies it has in that part of the world. But 
^' rich lands on river fides in hot climates are ex- 
tremely un healthful, fays a very good judge -f, and 
we have often found to our coft. How ought we 
then to value fuch rich and healthfu?. countries on 
the Mifllfippi ? As much fureh; as fome would de- 
preciate and vilify them. It may be obferved, 
that all the countries in America are only populous 
in the inland parts, and generally at a diftance 
from navigation *, as the Tea coafts both of North 
and South America are generally low, damp, ex- 
f elTivcly hot, and unhealthful j at leaft in all the 

a 4 fouihern 

t See p, 158, 

f Arbutbtiot on Air. App, 


fouthern parts, from which alone we can expe^ 
any confiderable returns. Indances of this may 
be fecn in the adjacent provinces of Mexico, New 
Mexico, Terra Firma, Peru, Quito, &c. and far 
more in our fouthern colonics, which never became 
populous, till the people removed to the inland 
parts, at a diftancc from the fea. This we are in 
a manner prevented to do in our colonies, by the 
mountains which furround us, and confine us to 
the coaft j where,is on the MifTifippi the whole con- 
tinent is open to them, and they have, befides, this 
healthy fituation on the lower parts of that river, at 
a fmall diftance from the fea. 

If thofe things arc duly confidered, it will ap- 
pear, that they who are poflefled of the Miflifippi, 
will in time command that continent ; and that we 
Ihall be confined on the fea coafts of our colonies, 
to tliat unhealthful fituation, which many would 
perfuade us is fo much to be dreaded on the Mifli- 
fippi. It is by this means that we have fo very few 
people in all our fouthern colonies ; and have not 
been able to get in one hundred years above twen- 
ty-five thoudmd people in South Carolina -, when 
the French have not lefs than eighty or ninety 
thoufand in Canada, befides ten or twelve thoufand 
on the Miflifippi, to oppofe to them. The low 
and drowned lands, indeed, about the mouth of the 
Miflifippi mufl: no doubt be more or lefs unhealth- 
ful i but they are far from being fo very pernio 
cious as many reprelent them. The waters there 
are frefli, which we know, by manifold experience 
in America, are much lefs prejudicial to health 
than the offenflve fetjd marflies, that are to be 



PREFACE, x'ui 

found every where elfe on the fait waters. Ac- 
cordingly we are credibly informed, that fonie of 
the inhabiunts of New Orleans fay, they never 
enjoyed better health even in France ; and for that 
l-cafon they invite their countrymen, in their letters 
to them, we arc told, to come and partake of the 
falutary benefits of that delightful country. The 
clearing, draining, and cultivating of thofe low 
lands, muft make a very great change upon them^ 
from the accounts we have had of them in their 
rude and uncultivated ftate. ., 

III. The Upper Louifiana we call that part of 
the continent, which lies to the northward of the 
mountains above mentioned in latitude 35°. This 
country is in many places hilly and mountainous, 
for which reafon we cannot expeft it to be fo fertile 
as the plains below it. But thofe hills on the weft 
fide of the Miflifippi are generally fufpedted to con- 
tain mines, as well as the mountains of New 
Mexicoji of which they are a continuation. But 
the fertile plains of Louifiana are perhaps more 
valuable than all the mines of Mexico ; which 
there would be no doubt of, if they were duly cul- 
tivated, They will breed and maintain ten times 
as many people, and fupply them with many more 
neceflaries, and articles of trade and navigation, 
than the richcft mines of Peru. 

The moft in>portant place in this country, and 
perhaps in all North America, is at the Forks of 
the Miflifippi, where the Ohio falls into that river; 
which, like another ocean, is the general receptacle 
of all the rivers that water the interior parts of 
that vaft continent. Here thofe large and naviga- 

ptlv PREFACE' 

blc rivers, the Ohio, river of the Cherokces, Wa- 
bache, Illinois, Miflburi, and Mifliflppi, befldes 
fliany others, which fpread over that whole conti- 
nent, from the Apalachean mountains to the moun- 
tains of New Mexico, upwards of one thoufand 
miles, both north, fouth, eaft, and w;{l, all meet 
together at this fpot } and that in the bett climate, 
dnd one of the moft fruitful countries of any in all 
that part of the world, in the latitude 370, the 
latitude of the Capes .of Virginia, and of Santa 
pc, the capital of New Mexico, By that means 
there is a convenient navigation to this place from 
our prefent fettlcments to New Mexico j and from 
atl the inland parts of North America, farther 
than we are acquainted with it : and all the natives 
of that continent, thofe old friends and allies of the 
French, have by that means a free and ready accefs 
to this place -, nigh to which the French formed a 
Settlement, to fecure their intereft on the frontiers 
of all our fouthern colonies. In fliort this place 
'' is the centre of that vaft continent, and of all the 
nations in it, and feems to be intended by nature 
to command them both ; for which reafon it 
ought no longer to be neglected by Bl^itain. As 
foon as we pafs the Apalachean mountains^ thi$ 
feems to be the moft proper place to fettle 
at; and was pitched upon for that purpofe, 
by thofe who were the beft acquainted with 
thofe countries, and the proper places of making 
fettlements in them, of any we know. And if the 
lettlements at this place had been niade, as they 
were propofed, about twenty years ago, they might 
have prevented, or at leaft fruftrat^d, the late at- 


tempts to wreft that country, and the terfitories of 
fhe Ohio, out of the hands of the En^lilh i an4 
they may do the fame again. ' 

Bnr many will tell us, th^t thofe inland parts of 
N'^rth A. ypfica will be of no ufe to Britain, oi| 
accoufi^ of their diftance from the fea, and incon- 
ffnience to navigation. That indeed might btt 
faid of the parts which lie immediately beyond the 
mountains, as the country of tlic Cherokecs, and 
Ohio Indians about Pitfburg, the only countries 
thereabouts that we can extend our fettlements to ; 
which are fa inconvenient to navigation, that nothing 
can be brought from them acrofs the mountains, at 
Icaft none of thofe grofs commodities, which are the 
ftaple of North America ; and they are as inconve- 
nient to have any thing carried from them, nigh two 
thoufand miles, down the river Ohio, and then by the 
Miffifippi. For that reafon thofe countries, which 
wc look upon to be the moft convenient, are the moft 
inconvenient to us of any, although they join upon 
our prefent fettlements. It is for thefe reafons, that 
the firft fettlements we make beyond the moun- 
tains, that is, beyond thofe we are now pofleffed 
of, fliould be upon the Miffifippi, as we have faid, 
convenient to the navigation of that river ; and in 
time thofe new fettlements may come to join to our 
prefent plantations; and we may by that means 
reap the benefit of all thofe inland parts of North 
America, by means of the navigation of the Miffi- 
fippi, which will be fecUred by this poft at the 
Forks. If that is not done, we cannot fee how 
any of thofe inland parts of America, and the ter- 
ptories of the Ohio, which v^cre the great objefts 

§ of 


of the prefent war, can ever be of any ufe to Bri- 
tain, a: the inhabitants of all thofe countries can 
otherwife have little or no correfpondcnce with it. 

IV. This famous river, the Miffifippi, is navi- 
gable upwards of two thoufand miles, to the falls 
of St. Anthony in latitude 45°, the only fall we 
know in it, which is 16 degrees of latitude above 
its mouth', and even above that fall, our author 
tells us, there is thirty fathom of water in the 
river, with a proportionable breadth. About one 
thoufand miles from its mouth it receives the rivrr 
Ohio, which is navigable one thoufand miles far- 
ther, fome fay one thoufand five* hundred,- nigh to 
its fource, npt far from Lake Ontario in New 
York ; in all which fpace there is but one fall or 
rapide in the Ohio, and that nayiga|b}e both up and 
d' , at leaft in canoes. This fall is three hun- 
dicd miles from the Miffifippi, and one thoufand 
three hundred from the fea, with five fathom of 
water up to it. The other large branches of the 
Ohio, the river of the C^herol^ees, ^nd the Wa- 
bache, afford a like navigation, from lake Erie in 
the north to the Cherokees in the fouth, and from 
tl>ence to the bay of Mexico, by the Miffifippi ; 
not to mention the great river Miflburi, which runs 
to the north-weft parts of New Mexico, much far- 
ther than we have any good accounts of that con- 
tinent. From this it appears, that the Miflburi 
affords the moft extenfive navigation of any river 
we know ; fo that it may juftly be compared to an 
inland fea, which fpreads over nine tenths of all 
the continent of North America; all which the 
French pretended to lay claim to, for no other 




reafon but becaufe they were poflefled of a paltry 
fettlement at the mouth of this river. 

If thofe things are confidered, the importance 
of the navigation of the Miffifippi, and of a port 
at the mouth of it, will abundantly appear. What- 
ever that navigation is, good or bad, it is the only 
one for all the interior parts of North America, 
which are as large as a great part of Europe ; no 
part of which can be of any fervice to Britain, 
'.vi-hout the navigation of the Miffifippi, and fet- 
tlements upon it. It is not without reafon then, 
that we fay, whoever arc poflefled of this river, and 
of the vafl: tra(fts of fertile lands upon it, muil in 
time command that continent, and the trade of it, 
as well as all the natives in it, by the fupplies which 
this navigation.,.will enable them to furnifti thofe 
people. By ttiofe means, if the French, or any 
.others, are left in poflcffion of the Miflifippi, while 
we negled it, they mufl: commapd all that conti- 
nent beyond the Apalachean mountains, and difturb 
our fettlcments much more than ever they did, or 
were able to do ; the very thing they engaged in 
this war to accomplifti, and we to prevent. 

The Miffifippi indeed is rapid for twelve hundred 
miles, as far as to the MiflTouri, which makes • it 
difficult to go up the river by water. For that rea- 
fon the French have been ufed to quit the Miffi- 
fippi at the river St. Francis^ from which they have 
a nigher Way to, the Forks of the Miffifippi by land* 
But however difficult it may be to afcend the river, 
it is, notwithftandjiig, often done ; and its rapidity^ 
facilitates a defcent upon it, and a ready convey- 
ance for thofe grofs commodities, which are t^he chief 
. ' llaple 

i^vriii :^ R E F A c a. 

ftaple of North America, from the moft rcmort 
places of the continent above mentioned : and as 
for lighter European goods, they are more eafily 
carried by land, as our Indian traders do, over 
great part of the continent, on their horfes, of 
\/hich this country abounds with great plenty* 

The worft part of the navigation, as well as of 
the country, b reckoned to be at the mouth of the 
river 5 >vhich, however, our author tells us, is from 
feventeen to eighteen feet deep^ and will admit Ihips 
of five hundred tons, the largeft generally ufed in 
the plantation trade. And even this navigation 
might be eafily mended, not only by clearing the 
river of a narrow bar in the pafles, which our 
author, Charlevoix, and others, think might be 
eafily done ; but hkewile by means, of a bay, de- 
fcribcd by Mr. Coxe, from the adljial furvey of his 
peoplp, lying to the woftward of tlie Ibuth pais of 
the river ^ which, he fays, has from twenty-five to 
fix fathom water in it, clofe to the (hore, and not 
above a mile from the Miflifippi, above all the fhoah 
and difficult paffes in it^ and where the river has 
one hundred feet of water. % cutting through 
that one mile then, it would appear that a port 
might be made there for (hips of any burden ; the 
importance of which is evident, from its command- 
ing all the inland parts of North America on one 
fide, and the pafs from Mexico on the other ; fo as to 
be preferable in thefe r<iipe^s even to the Havanna^ 
Qoe to mention that k i$^ frefh water, and free {torn 
worms* which deflroy all the fhips in thofe parts. 

And as for the navigation from the MiffiHppi to 
Europe, our author ihew«^ that voyage may be per- 


formed in fix weeks ; lyhich u as (hort a time as 
our (hips generally take to go to and irom our 
colonies. They go to the Miffifippi with the trad« . 
winds, and return with the curreptis. 

It would lead us beyond the bounds of a preface* 
to ihew the many advantages of thofe lands on the 
MiflSfippi to Britain, or the neccflity of poifefliing 
theni. T^lat would require a treatife by itfelf,, oi 
whi^h ^e can only give a fe>y abflradls in this place. 
]por this purpofe we ihouljd compare thofe land^ 

' with oijir prefent colonies ', and fhould be weU iti' 
formed of the quantity and condition of the lands wo 
already poilefs, before we can form any juft judgc-» 
racntof what may be farther proper or requifite. . 

"^ Ou^ prefent pofleffipns in North America between 
the i^a 9n4 ^hP mountains appear, from many fur- 
yeys and ^^V^^ menfuration^, as well as from all 
the maps and ot;her ac^punts w;e have of them, to 
^ at a medium ^bput three degrees of longitude, 
9^ one hundred and forty miles broad, in a itraight 
IJflfi} and they ej^tend fropi Georgia, in latitiidq 
32*?, to t\;^ bay of Fundi, in latitude 450 (which h 
much farthj^r, both north and fouth than the landsi 
appear; to. t>€ of any great yajue)j which majfces 
13 d^rees difference of lajtitvjde, or 780 mUes : 
this 1/^ngth multiplied by the, breadth 140, makea 
109,200 fquare miles. This is not above as much 
lapd as i^ contained in ^ritaj^ and Ii-ela;id i whi^h, 
by Teq^pl^naan's S,urvey, mak^ iQ5,^34 iJqu^re 

. miles,. Jnfteadof being a^ la^ge as a, great patiiof 
Eijrqpq tjjcn,, as we; aye commonly tpld, aJtt the 
landj5;,MFf.ppffefs in Nppth America, between the 
f^aandtiHiflMnj^Sj dQ i^PtamoM^t to much.morc 


aht P R E F A C E!. 

than thefe two iflands. This appears farther, frofrt 
the particular furveys of each of ouf colonies, as 
Well as from this general eftimate of the >vhole. 

Of thefe lands which we thus poflcfe, both the 
northern and fouthern parts are very poor and bar- 
ren, and produce little or nothing, at leaft for Bri- 
tain. It is only in our middle plantations, Virgi- 
nia, Maryland, and Carolina, that the lands pro- 
duce any ftaple commodity for Britain, or that 
appear to be fir for that purpofe. In fhort, it is 
only the more rich and fertile lands on and about 
Chefapeak bay, with a few fwamps in Carolina, 
like the lands on the Miffifippi, that turn to any 
great account to this nation in all North America, 
or that are ever Hkely to do it. This makes the 
quantity of lands that produce any ftaple commo- 
dity for Britain in North America incredibly fmall, 
andV£iilly lefs than what is commonly imagined. 
It is reckoned, that there are more fuch lands in 
Virginia, than in all the reft of our colonies ; and 
yet' it appeared from the public records, abot^t 
twenty-five years ago, that there was not above as 
much land patented ini that colony, which is at the 
fame time the oldeft of any in all North America, 
than is in the cbunty 6f Yorkfliire, in England, to 
wit, 4684 fquare miles ; although the country was 
then fettled to the mountains. 'J^i*p 

If we examine all our other colonies, there will 
appear to be as great a fcarcity and want of good 
lands in them, at leaft to anfwer thc^ great end of 
colonies, the making <j'f a ftaple commodity for 
Britain. In Ihort; bur colonies are^^ already fettled 
to the mountains, and haV<fe fio landa^, either tb ex- 



tend their fettlements, as they increafc and multi- 
ply ; to keep up their plantations of ftaple com- 
modities for Britain ; or to enlarge the BritiQi 
dominions by the number of foreigners that remove 
to them ; till they pafs thofe mountains, and fettle 
on the MifTifippi. 

This fcarcity of land in our colonies proceeds 
from the mountains, with which they are furround- 
ed, ' and by which they are confined to this narrow 
trad, and a low vale, along the fea fide. The 
breadth of the continent from the Atlantic ocean 
to the Miflifippi, appears to be about 600 miles (of 
60 to a degree) of which there is about 140 at a 
medium, or 150 at moft, that lies between the fea 
and mountains : and there is fuch another, and 
rather more fertile trad of level and improvcable 
lands, about the fame breadth, between the weftern 
parts of thofe mountains and the Miflifippi : fo that 
the mountainous country which lies between thefe 
two, is equal to them both, and makes one half of 
all the lands between the Miflifippi and Atlantic 
ocean •, if we except a fmall tradt of a level cham- 
paign country upon the heads of the Ohio, which 
is poflefled by the Six Nations, ? d their depend- 
ents. Thefe mountainous and bar jn defarts, which 
lie immediately beyond our prefent fettlements, are 
not only unfit for culture themfelves, and fo incon- 
venient to navigation, whether to the ocean, or to 
the Miflfjfippi, that little or no ufe can be made of 
them ', but they likewife preclude us from any ac- , 
cefs to thofe moie fertile lands that lie beyond them, 
which would otherwife have been occupied long 
ago, but never can be fettled, fo at leaft as to turn 
to any account to Britain, without the pofleflion 

'# and 

xxii PREFACE. 

and navigation of the Miflifippi ; which is, as it 
were, the fea of all the inland parti of North Ame- 
rica beyond the Apalachean mountains, without 
which thole inland parts of tliat continent can 
never turn to any account to this nation. 

It is this our fituation in North America, that 
renders all that continent beyond our prefent fet- 
tlements of little or no ufe, at lead to Britain •, and 
makes the pofleffion of the Miflifippi abfolutely ne- 
ceflary to reap t' e benefit of it. We poflefs but a 
^' fourth part of the continent between that river and 
the ocean •, and but a tenth part of what lies eaft of 
Mexico V and can never enjoy any great advantages 
from any more of it, till we fettle on the Miflifippi. 
. How neceflary fuch fettlements on the Miflifippi 
may be, will farther appear from what we poflefs 
on this fide of it. The lands in North America are 
in general but very poor or barren •, and if any of 
them are more fertile, the foil is light and ftiallow, 
and foon worn out with culture. It is only the 
virgin fertility of frefli lands, fuch as thofe on the 
Miflifippi, that makes the lands in North America 
appear to be fruitful,, or that renders them of any 
great value to this nation. But fuch lands in our 
colonies, that have hitherto produced their fl:aple 
commodities for Britain, are now exhaufted and 
worn out, and we meet with none fuch on this fide 
of the Miflfifippi. But when their lands are worn 
out, neither the value of their commodities, nor the 
circumfl:ances of the planters, will admit of ma- 
nuring them, at leafl: to any great advantage to this 

The fl:aple comrpodities nf North America are lb 
grofs and bulky, and of fo fmall value, tJiat it ge- 





' t R E FACE. 

ftefally takes one half of them to pay the freight 
land other charges in fending them to Britain ; fo 
that unlefs oUr planters have fome advantage in 
making them, fuch as cheap, rich, and fre(h lands, 
they never can make any -, their returns to Britain 
are then neglected, and the trade is gained by others 
who have thefe advantages •, fuch as thofe who may 
be poflcfled of the Miflifippi, or by the Germans, 
Ruffians, Turks, &c. who have plenty of lands, 
and labour cheap : by which means they make more 
of our ftaple of North America, tobacco, than wc 
do ourfelves i while we cannot make their ftaple of 
hemp, flax, iron, pot-afh, &c. By that means our 
people are obliged to interfere with their mother 
country, for want of the ufe of thofe lands of which 
there is fuch plenty in North America, to produce 
thefe commodities that are fo much wanted from 

The confequences of this may be much more 
prejudicial to this nation, than is commonly appre- 
nended. This trade of North America, whatever 
may be the income from itjConfifts in thofe grofs and 
bulky commodities that are the chief and principal 
fources of navigation; which maintain whole coun- 
tries to make them, whole fleets to tranfport them, 
and numbers of people to manufadture them at 
home i on which accounts this trade is more pro- 
fitable to a nation, than the mines of Mexico or 
Peru. If wc compare this with other branches of 
trade, as the fugar trade, or even the fifliery, it will 
appear to be by far the mofl: profitable to the nation^ 
whatever thofe others may be to a few individuals. 
W6 fet a great value on the fifliery, in which we do 
not employ a third part of the feamcn that we do in 

b 2 th» 



the plantation trade of North America •, and th^ 
fame may be faid of the fugar trade. The tobacco 
trade alone employs more feamen in Britain, than 
either the fifhery, or fugar trade * ; and brirtgs in 
more money to the nation than all the produds of 
America perhaps put together. 

But thofe grofs commodities that afford thefe 
fources of navigation, however valuable they may 
be to the public, and to this nation in particular, 
are far from being fo to individuals : they are cheap, 
and of fmall value, either to make, or to trade in 
them ; and for that reafon they are negleded by 
private people, who never think of making them, 
unlcfs the public takes care to give them all due 
encouragement, and to fet them about thofe em- 
ployments-, for which purpofe good and proper 
lands, fuch as thofe on the Miffifippi, are abfolutely 
neceflary, without which nothing can be done. 
, The many advantages of fuch lands that produce 
a ftaple for Britain, in North America, are not to 
be told. The whole intereft of the nation in thofe 


* By tlie beft accounts we have, there were 4000 feamen employed' in 
the tobacco trade, in the year 17339 when the infpefiion on tobacco pafled 
into a law ; and we may perhaps reckon them now 4500, although fome 
reckon them lefs. 

By the fame accounts, taken by the cuftom-houfe officers, it appeared, 
that the number of Britifli fliips employed in all America, including the 
fiHiery, were 1400, with 17,0^0 feamen ; befides 9000 or 10,000 feamen 
belonging to Norfh- America, who are all ready to enter into the fervice of 
Jritain on any emergency or encouragement. 

Of thefe there were but 4000 feamen employed in the fifliery from Bri> 
tain ; and about as many, or 3600, in the fugar trade. 

The French, on the other hand, employ upwards of 20,»oo feaqoen In 
the iifhery, and many more thaa we do in the fugar trade. 

In fliott, the plantation trade of North America is to Britain, wh«t th«i 
iifliery is to France, the great nurfery of feamen, which may be much im- 
proved. It is for this reafon that we have always thought this nation ought, 
for its fafety, to enjoy an exclullve tight to the one or the other of thefe at 


colonies depends upon them, if not the colonies 
themfelves. Such lands alone enable the colonies 
to take their manufadures and other neceffaries from 
Britain, to the mutual advantage of both. And 
how neceflary that may be will appear from the 
ftate of thofe colonies in North America, which do 
Hot make, one with another, as much as is fufficient 
to fupply them only with the neceflary article of 
cloathing ; not to mention the many other things 
they want and take from Britain; and even how 
they pay for that is more than any man can tell. 
In fhort, it would appear that our colonies in North 
America cannot fubfift much longer, if at all, in 
a ftate of dependance for all their manufactures and 
other neceflaries, unlefs they are provided with 
other lands that may enable them to purchafe them ; 
and where they will find any fuch lands, but upon 
the Miflifippi, is more than we can tell. When 
.their lands are worn out, are poor and barren, or in 
jan improper climate or fituation, fo that they will 
produce nothing to fend to Britain, fuch lands can 
only be converted into corn and pafture grounds ; 
and the people in our colonies are thereby necefla- 
rily obliged, for a bare fubfiftence, to interfere 
with Britain, not only in manufadlures, but in the 
yery produce of their lands. 

By this we may perceive the abfurdity of the po- 
pular outcry, that we have already land enough^ and 
more than we can make ufe of in North America. 
They who may be of that opinion fliould fhew us, 
where that land is to be found, and what it will pro- 
duce, that may turn to any account to the nation. 
Thofe people derive their opinion from Avhat they 
fee in Europe, where the quantity of land that we 

b,.3 poflefs 

xxvi P R E F •A C E. 

pofTcfs in North America, will, no doubt, maintain 
a greater number of people than we have there. But 
they Ihould confider, that thofe people in Europe 
are not maintained by the planting of a bare ra^f 
commodity, with fuch immenfe charges upon it, 
but by farming, manufadlures, trade, and com- 
merce •, which they will foon reduce our colonies 
to, who would confine them to their prefcnt fettle^ 
ments, between the fea coaft and the mountains 
that furround them. 

Some of our colonies perhaps may imagine they 
cannot fubfift without thefe employments; which 
indeed would appear to be the cafe in their prefent 
ilate : but that feems to be as contrary to their true 
intereft, as it is to their condition of Britilh colo- 
nies. They have neither (kill, materials, nor any 
other conveniencies to make miinufadlures •, whereas 
their lands require only culture to produce a ftaple 
commodity, providing they are poflefled of fuch as 
are fit for that purpofe. Manufadures are the pro- 
duce of labour, which is both fcarce and dear among 
them ; whereas lands are, or may, and (hould be 
made, both cheap and in plenty ; by which they 
may always reap much greater profits from the one 
than the other. That is, moreover, a certain pledge 
for the allegian^'e and dependance of the colonies i 
and at the fame time niakes their dependance to be- 
come their intereji. It has been found by frequent 
experience, that the making of a liaple commodity 
for Britain, is more profitable than manufat^ures, 
providing they have good lands to work. 

It were to he wifhed indeed, that we could fup- 
port our intereft in America, and thofe fourccs of 
navigation, by countries that were more convenient 


PREFACE. xxvii 

CO it, than thofe on the Miflifippi. But that, we 
f^ar, is not to be done, however it may be defired. 
We wifh we could fay as much of the lands in Flo- 
rida, and on the bay of Mexico, as of thofe on the 
MilTifippi : but they are not to be compared to thefe, 
by all accounts, however convenient they may be in 
other refpeds to navigation. In all thofe fouthern 
and maritime parts of that continent the lands are 
in general but very poor and mean, being little 
more than pine barrens^ or fandy defarts. The 
climate is at the Ikme time fo intemperate, that white 
people are in a great meafurc unfit for labour in it, 
as much as they are in the iflands ; this obliges them 
to make ufe of flaves, which are now become fo 
dear, that it is to be doubted, whether all the 
produce of thofe lands will enable the proprietors 
of them to purchafe flaves, or any other labourers ; 
without which they can turn to little or no account 
to the nation, and thofe countries can fupport but 
very few people, if it were only to protedl and (Je^ 
fend them. 

The mod convenient part of thofe countries feems 
to be about Mobile and Penfaeola ; which are, as it 
were, an entrepot between our prefent fettlements 
and the MiJTifippi, and fafe flation for our (hips. 
But it is a pity ^ that the lands about them are the 
mofl: barren, and the climate the moft intemperate, 
by ali aeC.counts, of any perhaps in all America *. 
And our author tells us, the lands are not much bet- 
ter even on the river of Mobile ; which is but a very 
inconfiderable one. But the great inconvenience of 
thofe countries proceeds from the number of Indians 

b 4 in 

. * See pag» 49, ill, kct CbarUvtix Hift. N. Fraace^ Tom. IU« 484. 

Laval, InfrOy 8iC, ' 

xxviii PREFACE. 

in them \ which will m^e it very difficult to fettle 
any proBrable plantations among them, efpecially 
in the inland parts that are more fertile ; whereas 
the MifTifippi is free from Indians for looo miles. 
It was but in the year 17 15, that thofe Indians over- 
ran all the colony of Carolina, even to Charles- 
Town ; by which the French got pofleffion of that 
country, and of the Miflifippi ; both which they had 
juft before, in June 1713, difpoflefled us of. 

If we turn our eyes again to the lands in our 
northern colonie.i, it is to be feared we can cxpeA 
much lefs from them. There is an inconvenience 
attending them, with regard to any improvements 
on them for Britain, which is not to be remedied. 
The climate is fo fcverc, and the winters fo long, 
that the people are obliged to fpend that time in 
providing the neceflaries of life, which fhould be 
employed in profitable colonies, on the making of 
lome ftaple commodity, and returns to Britain. 
They are obliged to feed their creatures for five or 
fix months in the year, which employs their time in 
fummer, and takes up the bed of their lands, fuch 
as they are, which fhould produce their flaple com- 
modities, to provide for themfelves and their flocks 
againft winter. For that reafcn the people in all 
our northern colonies are neceffarily obliged to be- 
come farmers, to make corn and provifions, inflead 
of planters, who make a flaple commodity for Bri- 
tain : and thereby interfere with their mother coun- 
try in the mofl material and efTential of all employ- 
ment^ to a nation, agriculture. 

In fhort, neither the foil nor climate will admit 

of any improvements for Britain, in any of thofe 

northern colonies. If they would produce any thing 

5 ■ . •■ ' of 


pi that kind, it mud be hemp } which never coul4 
be made in them to any advantage, as appears from 
many trials of it in New England *. The great dc- 
pendance of thofe northern colonies is upon the fup* 
plies of lumber and provifions which they fend to 
the iflands. But as they increafe and multiply, their 
woods are cut down, lumber becomes fcarce and 
dear, and the number of people inhances the value 
of land, and of every thing it produces, efpecially 

If this is the cafe of thofe northern colonies on 
the fea coaft, what can we expert from the inland 
parts ; in which the foil is not only more barren, 
and the climate more fevere, but they are, with all 
thefe difadvantages, fo inconvenient to navigation, 
both on account of their diftance, and of the many 
falls and currents in the river St. Lawrence, that it 
h to be feared thofe inland parts of our northern 
colonies will never produce any thing for Britain, 
more than a few furrs j which they will do much 
better in the hands of the natives, than in ours. 

Thefe our nortlSrn colonies, however, are very 
populous, and increafe and multipl) very faft. 
There are above a million of people in them, who 
can make but very little upon their lands for them- 
felves, and ftill lefs for their mother country. For 
thefe reafons it is prefumed, it would be an advan- 
tage to them, as well as to the whole nation, to re- 
move their fpare people, who want lands, to thofe 
vacant lands in the fouthern parts of the continent, 
which turn to fo much greater account than any that 
they are pofTefled of. There they may have the necef- 


* See Douglai's Hift. N. America« Elliotts Improveoaentt oa New Eng- 
land, &c, 

)■■<■■ ■ 


laries of life in the grcateft plenty-, their docks 
maintain themfelves the whole year round, with lit- 
tle or no coft or labour ; " by which means many 
people have a thoufand head of cattle, and for one 
man to have two hundred, is very common, with 
other flock in proportion *." This enables them 
to beftow their whole labour, both in fummer and 
winter, on the making of fome ftaple commodity 
for Britain, getting lumber and provifions for the 
iflands, &c. which both enriches them and the whol^ 
.nation. That is much better, fur?ly, than toperifh 
in winter for want of cloathing, which they muft do 
unlefs they make itj and to excite thofe grudges 
and jealoufies, which mufl everfubfift between them 
and their mother country in their prefent ftate, and 
grow fo much the worfe, the longer they continue 
in it. J ti 

The many advantages that would enfue from the 
peopling of thofe fouthern parts of the continent 
from our northern colonies, arc hardly to be told. 
We might thereby people and fecure thofe courir 
tries, and reap the profits of them, without any lofs 
of people ; which are not to be fpared for that pur- 
pbfe in Britain, or any other of her dominions. 
This is the great ufe and advantage th^t may be 
made of the expulfion of the French from thofe 
northern parts of America. They have hithf^ito 
obliged us to ftrengthen thofe northern colonies, and 
have confined the people in tliem to towns and 
townfhips, in which their labour could turn to no 
great account, either to themfelves or to the nation, 
by which we have, in a great meafure, loft the la- 
bour of one half of the people in our colonies. 


* Defcription of South Carolinni p. 68. 



B«t as they are now free from any danger on their 
borders, they may extend their fettlemerjts w;th 
fafety, difperfe themfelves on plantations, and cul- 
tivate thofe lands that may turn to fome account, 
both to them aiid to the whole iiation. In Ihort, 
they may now make fome ftaplc commodity for 
Britain; on which the intereft of the colonies, and 
9f the nation in them, chiefly depends ; and which 
we can never expeft from thofe colonies in their 
prefent fituation. 

What thofe commodities are, that we might get 
from thofe fouthern parts of North America, will 
appear from the following accounts ; which we 
have not ropm here to confider more particularly. 
We need only mention hemp, flax, and filk, thofe 
great articles and nepeflary materials of manufac- 
tures ; for which alone this nation pays at leafl: 9, 
million and an half a-year, if not two millions, and 
could never get them from all the colonies we have. 
Cotton and indigo are equally ufeful. Not co men- 
tion copper, iron, potafh, &?:, which, with hemp, 
flax, and fill^, make the great balance of trade 
agginft the nation, and drain it of its treafure ; 
when we might have thofe commodities from our 
polonies for manufadlures, and both fupply our- 
felves and others with them. Wine, oil, raifins, and 
currants, &c. thofe produ(5ts of France and Spain, 
pn which Britain expends lb much of Iier treafure, 
to enrich her enemies, might iikewife be had from 
thofe her own dominions. Bricran might thereby 
cut off thofe refources of h^r eiieinies j fecure her 
colonies for the future ; and prevent fuch calamities 
of war, by cultivating thofe more laudable arts of 
peace : which will be the more neccflary, as thefe 



are the only advantages the nation can expe6t, for 
the many millions th^t have been expended on. 

^ Defer iption of the Harbour of P^ N s ACO L A» 

AS the harbour of Penfacola will appear to be 
a confiderable acquifition to Britain, it may 
be fome fatisfaftion to give the following account of 
it, from F. Laval, royal profeflbr of mathematics, 
and mafter of the marine academy at Toulon j who 
was fent to Louifiana, on purpofe to make obferva- 
tions, in 17 19; and had the accounts of the officers 
who took Penfacola at tliat time, and furveyed the 

" The colonies of Penfacola, and of Dauphin- 
Ifland, are at prefent on the decline, the inhabitants 
having removed to fettle at Mobile and Biloxi, or 
at New-Orleans, where the lands are much better ; 
for at the firft the foil is chiefly fand, mixed with 
Tittle earth. The land, however, is covered with 
woods of pines, firs, and oaks i which make good 
trees, as well as at Ship-Ifland. The road of Pen- 
facola is the only good port thereabouts for large 
ihips, and Ship-Ifland for fmall ones, where veflfels 
that draw from thirteen to fourteen feet water, may 
ride in fafety, under the ifland, in fifteen feet, and 
a good holding ground; as well as in the other 
ports, which are all only open roads, expofed to the 
fouth, and from wefl: to eafl:. 

" Penfacola is in north-latitude 30° 25'; and is 
the only road in the bay of Mexico, in which ftiips 
can be fafe from all winds. It is land-locked on 
every fide, artd will hold a great number of ftiips, 



which have very good anchorage in it, in a goo4 
holding ground of foft fand, and from twenty-fivQ 
to thirty- four feet of water. You will find not lefs 
than twenty-^ le feet of water on the barr, which is 
at the entrance into the road, providing you keep 
in the dcepeft part of the channel. Before a (hip 
enters the harbour, fhe (hould. bring the fort of Pen- 
facola to bear between north and north ^ eaft, and 
keep that courfe till fhe is weft or weft ^ fouth, from 
the fort on the ifland of St. Rofe, that is, till that 
fort bears eaft, and eaft -J. north. Then ftie muft 
bear away a little to the land on the weft fide, keep^ 
ing about mid-way between that and the ifland, to 
avoid a bank on this laft, which runs out to fome 
diftance weft-north-weft from the point of the ifland, 

" If there are any breakers on the ledge of rocks, 
which lie to the wefliward of the barr, as often hap- 
pens 5 if there is any wind, that may ferve for a 
mark to fliips, which fteer along that ledge, at the 
diftance of a good muflcet-fliot, as they enter upon 
the barr ; then keep the courfe above mentioned. 
Sometimes the currents fet very ftrong out of the 
road, which you fliould take care of, left they 
fliould carry you upon thefe rocks. 

** As there is but half a foot rifing (levee) on the 
barr of Penfacola, every ftiip of war, if it be not in 
a ftorm, may depend upon nineteen (perhaps twenty) 
feet of water, to go into the harbour, as there are 
twenty-one feet on the barr. Ships that draw twenty 
feet muft be towed in. By this we fee, that fliips 
of fixty guns may go into this harbour : and even 
feventy gun fliips, the largeft requifite in that coun- 
try in time of war, if they were built flat-bottomed, 


xjotiv CfeSCRIPtlON OF THE 

fike the Dutch (hips, might pafs every where jfi 
that harbour. 

"In 17 19 Penfacola was taken by Mr. Charfip- 
melin, in the Hercules man of war, of fixty-fouf 
guns, but carried only fifty-fix j in company with 
the Mars, pierced for fixty guns, but had in only 
fifty-four; and the Triton, pierced for fifty-four 
guns, but carried only fifty ; with two frigates of 
thirty-fix and twenty guns *. 

" This road is fubjeft to one inconvenience ; 
fevcral rivers fall into it, which occafion ftrong cur- 
rents, and make boats or canoes, as they pafs back- 
wards and forwards, apt to run a-ground -, but as 
the bottom is al! land, they are not apt to founder. 
On the other hand there is a ^reat advantage in this 
road ; it is free from worms, which never breed in 
frefh water, fo that veflcls are never worm-eaten 
in it.'* 

, But F. Charlevoix feems to contradi(Sb this laft 
circumftance : " The bay of Penfacola would be 
a pretty good port, (fays he) if the worms did not 
cat the veflTels in it, and if there was a little more 
water in the entrance into it ; for the Hercules, 
commanded by Mr. Champmelin, touched upon it." 


* The admiral was on board of the Hercules, which drew twenty-one 
feet of water, and there were bvt twenty -two feet into the har)~our in the 
faigheft tides ; fo that they defpaired of carrying in this fliip. But an old 
Canadian, named Grimeau, a man of experience, who was perfc<£lly ac- 
quainted with that coaft, boafted of being able to do it, and fucceeded j for 
which he was the next year honoured with letters of nobleiTe. Dumont (an 
officer there at rhat time) II. 12. 

Bat BelUn, from the charts of the admiralty, makes but twenty feet of 
water on tlie barr of Penfacola. The difference may arife from the 
tides, which are very irregular and uncertain on all that coaft, according to 
the winds ; never j'ifing above three feet, fometimet much lefs. In twenty- 
four hourt the tide ebbs In the harbour for eighteen or ainetcen bouri, mA 
flows five or fix. LavaU 


it is not fo certain then, that this harbour is altoge- 
ther free from worms ; although it may not be fo 
fubjeft to them, as other places in thofe climes, 
from the many fmall frefti water rivers that fall into 
this bay, which may have been the occafion of thefe 
accounts, that are feemingly contradiftory. 

In fuch a place Ihips might at leaft be preferved 
from v/orms, in all likelihood, by paying their bot- 
toms with aloes, or mixing it with their other ftufF. 
That has been found to prevent the biting of thefe 
worms •, and might be had in plenty on the fpot. 
Many kinds of aloes would grow on the barren fandy 
lands about Penfacola, and in Florida, which is the 
proper foil for them •, and would be a good improve- 
ment for thofe lands, which will hardly bear any 
thing elfe to advantage, whatever ufe is made of it. 

Having room in this place, we may fill it up with 
an anfwer to a common objedtion againft Louifiana ; - 
which is, that this country is never likely to turn to 
any account, becaufe the French have made {6 lit- 
tle of it. 

But that objedion, however common, will' appear 
to proceed only from the ignorance of thofe who 
make it. No country can produce any thing with- 
out labourers ; which, it is certain, the l^'rench have 
never had in Louifiana, in any numbers at leaft, 
fufEcient to make it turn to any greater account than 
it has hitherto done. The reafon of this appears 
not to be owing to the country, but to their pro- 
ceedings and mifcondud in it. Out of the many * 
thoufand people who were contrafted for by the 
grantees, to be fent to Louifiana in 17 19, there 
were but eight hundred fent, we fee ; and of thefe 
the greateft part were ruined by their idle fchemes, 


xxxvi DESCRIPTION, &<J. - 

which made them and others abandon the country 
entirely. The few again who remained in it were 
cut off by an Indian maffacre in 1729, which broke 
up the only promifing fettlements they had in the 
country,- thofe of the Natchez, and Yafous, which 
were never afterwards reinftated. Inftead of en- 
couraging the colony in fuch misfortunes, the mini- 
fter, Cardinal Fleuri, cither from a fpirit of oeco* 
nomy, or becaufe it might be contrary to fome 
other of his views, withdrew his proteftion from 
It, gave up the public plantations, and mufl: there- 
jby, no doubt, have very much difcouraged others. 
By thc^e means they have had few or no people in 
Louifiana, but fuch as were condemned to be fent 
to it for their crimes, women of ill fame, deferted 
foldiers, infolvent debtors, and gall6y-flaves, /<?r- 
fats, as they call them -, ** who, looking on the 
country only as a place of exile, were diflieartened 
at every thing in it \ and had no regard for the pro- 
grefs of a colony, of which they were only mem- 
bers by compulfion, and neither knew nor confi- 
dered its advantages to the ftate. It is from fuch 
people that many have taken their accounts of this 
country ; and throw the blame of all mifcarriages 
in it upon the country, when they are only owing 
to the incapacity and negligence of thofe who were 
intruded to fettle it *.'* 

* Cbarltveix Hift. New France, Tom. III. p. 447* 


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U I S I A N A. 



fbi tranfaSlions of the French iVlSitrl'itANA. 


Cy thi firft Difcovtry and SettUment of hQpitiAiSA,^ 

AFTER the Spaniards came to hafd fettlementi ^ 
on the Great Antilles, it wasnot long before they 
attempted to make difcoveries on the doafts of the 
Gulf of Mexico. In 1520, Lucas Vafquez de Aillon 
landed on the continent to the north of that Gulf, being 
favourably received by the people of that country, who 
made him prefents in gold, pearls^ and plated filver. This 
favourable reception made him return thither four years 
after ; but the natives having changed their friendly fen- 
timents towards him^ killed two hundred of his men, and 
obliged him to retire. 

In 1528, Pamphilo Nefunez * landed alfo oh that coaft, 

' receiving from the firft nations he met in his way, pre- 

f«ntt mside in gpld | yfhKha ^y ^gns, they made him to 

B tiadcr* 

1 T H E H 1 S t fe V 

underflfand, came from the Apalachean mountains, in tfte' 
country which at this day goes under the name of Flo- 
rida: and thither he attempted to go, undertaking a 
hazardous journey of twenty-live days. In this march he 
was fo oftdn attacked by the new people he continually 
difcovered, and loft fo many of his men, as ortly to tkink 
of re -embarking with the few that were left, happy to 
have himfelf efcaped the dan^rs which his imprudence 
had expofed him to. 

The relation publifhed by the Hiftorian of Dominico 
♦ Soto, who in 1539 landed in the Bay of St. Efprit, is- 
ig romantic, and fo conftantly CQntradi<Sled ..b^ all who. 
have travelled that country, that far from giving credit 
to it, we ought rather to fuppofe his enterprize had no 
fuccefs } as no traces of it have remained, any more than 
of thofe that went before. The inutility of thefc attempts 
pxpved nQ..niaQi;ier of difcouragement to the Spaniards. 
After the difcovery of Florida, it was with a jealous eye 
they faw the French fettle there in 1564, under Ren^de 
Laudonniexe, fent thither by the Admiral <le Coligni, 
where he built Fort Carolin ; the ruins of which are ftill 
to be feen above the Fort of Penfacola f , Thiere the 
Spaniards fome time after attacked them, and forcing 
them to capitulate, cruelly murdered them, without any 
regard had to the treaty concluded between them. As 
France was at that time involved in the calamities of a 
religious war, this a£t of barbarity had remained unre- 
fented, had not a fingle man of Mont Marfan, named 
Dominique de Gourges, attempted, in the name of the 
nation, to take vengeance thereof. In 1567, having fit- 
ted out a veflel, and failed for Florida, he took three forts 
„built by the Spaniards ; and after killing many of them 
in the feveral attacks he made, hanged the reft: and 


* Ferdinando. 

f Thii intended Settlement of Admiral Colfgni wat on tbeeaftcoaft 
of Florida, about St. Auguflin, inftead of Penfacola. De Laet it of opi- 
nion, that their Fort Carolin was the fame with St. Auguftin* 

I coaft 


having fettled there a new poft *, returned to France. 
But the diforders of the ftate having prevented the main- 
taining that poft, th^ Spaniards fooh after retook pof- 
ibfllort of the country, where they remain to'this day. 

From that time the French feemed to have dropped all 
thoughts of that coaft, or of attempting any difcoveries 
therein ; when the wars in Canada with the natives af- 
forded them the khowledge of the vaft country they are 
pofTeilcd c f at this day. In one of thefe wars a Recollet, 
or Ffancifcan Friar, name F. Hennepin, was taken and 
carried to the Illinois. As he had fome (kill in furgery, 
he proved ferviceable to that people, and was alfo kindly 
treated by them : and being at full liberty, he ti a veiled 
over the country, following for a confiderable time the 
banks of the river St. Louis, or Miffifipi, without being 
able to proceed to its mouth. However, he failed not to 
take pofleflion of that country, in the name of Louis XI V. 
calling it Louiftana. Providence having facilitated his 
r return to Canada, he gave the moft advantageous account 
of all he had feen ; and after his return to France, drew 
up a relation thereof, dedicated to M. Colbert. 

The account he gave of Louifiana failed not to produce 
its good efte<^s. Me de la Salle, equally famous for his 
misfortunes and his courage, undertook to traverfe thefe 
unknown countries quite to the fea. In Jan. 1679 he 
fet out from Quebec with a large detachment, and being 
come among the Illinois, there built the firft fort France 
ever had in that country, calling it Crevecccur ; and there 
he left a good garrifon under the command of the Cheva- 
lier de Tonti. From thence he went down the river St. 
Louis, quite to its mouth } which, as has been faid, is in 
the Gulf of Mexico : and having made obfervations, and 
taken the elevation in the beft manner he could, re- 
turned by the fame way to Quebec, from whence he pafted 
over to France. , ' 

* He abandoned the country without making any fettleroent} nor have 
the French ever had any fettlcment in it from that day to thii. See Lau* 
denniere, Hakluyt, fcc. 

B 2 After 


After giving the particulars of his journey to M. Col- 
bert, that great minifter, who knew of what importance 
it was to the flate to make fure of fo fine and extenfive a 
country, fcrupled Qot to allow him a (hip and a fmall 
frigate, in order to find out, by the way of the gulf of 
Mexico, the mouth of the river St. Louis. He fet fail in 
1685 • ^"^ ^'' obfervations, doubtlefs, not having had 
all the juftnefs requifite, after arriving in the gulf, he go( 
beyond the river, and running too far weftward, entered 
the bay of St. Bernard : and fome mifunderftanding hap« 
pening between him and the officers of the veflels, he de- • 
bar^ued with the men under his command, and having 
fettled a poft in that place, undertook to go by land in 
queft of the great river. But after a march of feveral 
days, fome of his people, irritated on account of the 
fatigue he expofed them to, availing themfelves of an op- 
portunity, when feparated from the reft of his men, bafely 
aflaffihated him. The foldiers, though deprived of their 
commander, ftill continued their route, and, after croffing 
many rivers, arrived at length at the Arkanfas, where 
they unexpeftedly found a French poft lately fettled. I'he 
Chevalier de Tonti was gone down from the fort of the 
Illinois, quite to the mouth of the river, about the time 
he judged M. de la Salle might have arrived by fea; and 
not finding him, was gone up again, in order to return to 
his poft. And in his way entering the river of the Ar- 
kanfas, quite to the village of that nation, with whom he 
made an alliance, fome of his people infifted, they 
might be allowed to fettle there ; which was agreed to, 
he leaving ten of them in that place : and this fmall 
cantonment maintained its ground, not only becaufe from 
time to time encreafed by fome Canadians, who came down 
this river ; but above all, becaufe thofe who formed it 
had the prudent precaution to live in peace with the natives, 
and treat as legitimate the children they had by the 
daughters of the Arkanfas> with whom they matched out 
of neceffity. 


:d it 



The report of the pleafantnefs of Louifiana fpreading 
through Canada, many Frenchmen of that country re- 
paired to fettle there, difperfing themfelves at pleafure 
along the river St. Louis, efpecially towards its mouth, 
and even in fome iflands on the coafl:, and on the river 
Mobile, which lies nearer Canada. The facility of the 
commerce with St. Domingo was, undoubtedly, what 
invited them to the neighbourhood of the fea, though the 
interior parts of the country be in all refpedls far preferable. 
However, thefe fcattered fettlements, incapable to main- 
tain their ground of themfelvety and too diftant to be able 
to afFord mutual afliftance, neither warranted the pofi^ffion 
of this country, nor could they be called a taking of pof- 
feffion. LouiHana remained in this negle^ed ftate, till 
M. d'Hiberville, Chef d'Efcadre, having difcovered, in 
1698, the mouths of the river St. Louis, and being nomi- 
nated Governor General of that vaft country, carried 
thither the fir<l colony in 1699. As he was a native of 
Canada, the colony almoft entirely confifted of Canadi- 
ans, among whom M. de Luchereau, uncle of Madam 
d'Hiberville, particularly diftinguifhed himfelf. 

The fettlement was made on the river Mobile, with all 
the facility that could be wiihed ; but its progrefs proved 
flow^: for thefe firft inhabitants had no other advantage 
above the natives, as to the neceflaries of life, but what 
their own induftry, joined to fome rude tools, to give the 
plaineft forms to timbers, afforded them. 

The war which Louis XIV. had at that time to main- 
tain, and the preffing neceflities of the flate, continually 
cngroiTed the attention of the miniftry, nor allowed them 
time to think of Louifiana. What was then thought 
moft advifable, was to make a grant of it to fome rich 
perfon ; who, finding it his intereft to improve that coun- 
try, would, at the fame time that he promoted his own 
intereft, promote that of the ftate. Louifiana was thus 
ceded to M. Crozat. And it is to be prefumed, had M. 
4*Hib?rville lived longer, the colony would have made 

B 3 confiderabl^ 


conftderable progrefs : but that illuftriout fea-olHcer, 
whofe authority was confidetable, dying at the Havannah, 
in 1 701 (after which this fettlement was deferted) a 
long time muft intervene before a new Governor could 
arrive from France. T he perfon pitched upon to fill that 
poft, was M. de la Mqtte Cadillac, who arrived in that 
country in June J713, 

The colony had but a fcanty meafure of commodities, 
Jand money fcarcer yet : it was rather in a ftate of languor, 
than of vigorous adivity, in one of the fineft countries 
in the world ; becaufe impofltble for it to do the laborious 
work"::, and make the firft advances, always requifite in 
the bert lands. , > 

The Spaniards, for a long time, confidered Loujiiana 
as a property juftlv theirs, becaufe it conftitutes the great- 
eft part of Florida, which they firft difcovered. The 
pains the French were at then to fettle there, roufed their 
jealoufy, to form the defign of cramping us, by fettling 
at the Affinal's, a nation not very diftant from the Nadt- 
chitoches, whither fome Frenchmen had penetrated, 
There the Spaniards met with no fmall difficulty to form 
that fv'ttlemeht, and being at a lofs how to aceompliih it, 
one F. Ydalgo, a Fiancifcan Friar, took it in his head to 
write to the Fit-neh, to beg their affiftance in fettliiig a 
iTjifiiOn among the Affinais. Hefent three different copies 
of his letter hap-ha^ard three different ways to our fet- 
tlements, hoping one of them af leaft might fall into the 
handj^ of ihe Frcnc,h. . 

Nor was he difappqlntcd in his hope, one of them, 
from one poft to another, and from hand to hand, falling 
into the hands of M. de la Matte. That General, iiicef- 
fantly taken up v.?ith the concerns of the colony, and th^ 
means of relieving it, was not apprized of the defigns of 
the Spaniards in that letter i could only fee therein a fure 
and Ihort method to remedy the prefent evils, by favour-r 
ing the Spaniards, and making a treaty of commerce i^ith 
them, which might procure to the colony what it was i^ 


want of, and what the Spaniards abounded with, namely, 
horfes, cattle, and money : He therefore communicated 
that letter to M. de St. Denis, to whom he propofed to 
undertake a journey by land to Mexico. 

M. de St. Denis, for the fourteen years he was in Loui- 
fiana, had made feveral excurilons up and down the eoun-^ 
try ; and having a general knowledge of all the languages 
of the different nations which inhabit it, gained the love 
and efteem of thefe people, fo far as to be acknowledged 
their Grand Chief. This gentlenian, in other refpefls a 
man of courage, prudence, and refolution, was then the 
fitteft perfon M. de la Motte could have pitched upon, to 
put his defign in execution. 


How fatiguing foever the enterprize was, M. de St. 
Denis undertook it with pleafure, and fet out with t«Venty - 
five men. This fmall company would have made fome 
figure, had it continued entire ; but fome of them dropped 
M. de St. Denis by the way, and mapy of them remained 
among the Na<^hitoches, towhofe country he was pome. 
He was therefore obliged to fet out from that place, ac- 
companied only by ten men, with whom he traverfed up- 
wards of an hundred and fifty leagues in a country entirely 
depopulated, having on nis route met with no nation, till 
he came to the Prefidio, or fortrefs of St. John Baptifl:, 
on the Rio (river) del Norte, in New Mexico. 

. The Governor of this fort was Don Diego Raimond, 
an officer advanced in years, who favourably received 
M. de St. Denis, on acquainting him, that the motive to 
his journey was F. Ydalgo's letter, and that he had orders 
to repair to Mexico. But as the Spaniards do.not readily 
allow flrangers to travel through the countries of their 
dominion in America, for fear the view of thefe fine 
countries ihould infpire notions, the confequences of 
which might be greatly prejudicial to them, D. Diego did 
not chufe to permit M. de St. Denis to continue his route, 
without the previous confent of the Viceroy, It was 

B 4 tberefpr? 


therefore neceflary to difpatch a courier to Mexico, and t» 
wait his return. 

The courier, impatiently longed for, arrived at length, 
with the permiilion granted by the Duke of Linares, 
Viceroy of Mexico. Upon which M. de St. Denis fet 
outdire£lIy, and arrived at Mexico, June 5, 1/15. The 
Viceroy had naturally an afFei^ion to France } M. de St. 
Denis was therefore favourably received, faving fome pre- 
cautions, which the Duke thought proper to take, not to 
give any difguft to fome officers of juftice who were about 

The affair was foon difpatched ; the Duke of Linarez 
having promifed to make a treaty of commerce, as foon 
as the Spaniards fhould be fettled at the Affinais ; which 
M. de St. Denis undertook to do, upon his return to 

CHAP. 11. 

Tbt Return 9/M. de St. Denis : HisfittUng the Spaniards 
at the Affinal's. His fecond 'Joumtj to Mexico, and 
Return from thence, 

MDe St. Denis foon returned to the fort of St. 
• John Baptift ; after which he refolyed to form 
the caravan, which was to be fettled at the Affinais ; at 
whofe head M. de St. Denis put himfelf, and happily coiv 
du6^ed it to the place appointed. And then having, in 
quality ofGrand Chief, aflembled the nation of the Affinais, 
he exhorted them to receive and ufe the Spaniards well. 
The veneration which that people had for him, made 
theih fubmit to his will in all things ; and thus the pro- 
mife he had made to the Duke of Linarez was faithfully 
fulfilled. ^ 

The Affinais are fifty leagues diftant from the Na£lichr- 

toches. The Spaniards, finding themfelves ftiil at too 

great a diAance from us, availed themfelves of that firft 

5 fettlement. 


fettlament, in order to form a fecond among the Adaiet, 
a nation wkich is ten leagues from our pbft of the Nat- 
chitoches : whereby they confine us on the weft within 
the neighbourhood of the river St. Louis; and from 
that time it was not their fault, that they had not cramp* 
ed us to the north, as I fliall mention in its place. 

To this anecdote of their hiftory I (hMl, in a word or 
two, add that of their fettlement at Penfacola, on the 
coaft of Florida, three months after M. d'Hiberville had 
carried the firft inhabitants to Louifiana, that country 
having continued to be inhabited by Europeans, ever 
£nce the garrifon left there by Dominique de Gourges ; 
which either periihed, or deferted, for want of being 
fupported *• 

To return to M. de la Motte and M. de St. Denis : the 
former, ever attentive to the proje£l of having a treaty of 
commerce concluded with the Spaniards, and pleafed with 
the fuccefs of M. de St. Denis's journey to Mexico, pro- 
pofed his return thither again, not doubting but the Duke 
of Linarez would be as good as his word, as the French 
)iad already been. M. de St. Denis, every ready to obey, 
accepted the commiflionof his General. But this fecond 
journey was not to be undertaken as the firft ; it was pro- 
per to carry fome goods, in order to execute that treaty^ 
as foon as it fhould be concluded, and to indemnify him- 
felf for the expences he was to be at. Though the ftore- 
houfes of M. Crozat were full, it was no eafy matter to 
get goods. The factors rcfufed to give any on credit ; 
nay, refufed M. de la Motte*s fecurity ; and there was no 
money to be had to pay them. The Governor was there- 
fore obliged to form a company of the moft refponfible 
men of the colony : and to this company only the fa£kors 
determined to advance the goods. This expedient was 
far from being agreeable to M. de St. Denis, who opened 
his mind to M. de la Motte on that head, and told him, 
that fome or all of his partners would accompany the 


* Th«y returned to Fra«cc. See p. 3. 



goods they had engaged to be fecurity for; and that^' al- 
though it was abfolutely neceflary the efFedls Oiould ap« 
pear to be his property alone, they would not fail to dif- 
cover they theinfelves were the proprietors; which would 
he fuHicient to caqfe their confifcation, the commerce 
between the two nations not being open. M. de la Motte 
faw the folidity of thefe reafons ; but the impoilibility of 
a£ling otherwife conflrained him to fuperfede them : and, 
as St. Denis had forefeen, it accordingly happened. 

He fet out from Mobile, Auguft 13, 17 16, efcorted, 
as he all along apprehended, by fome of thofe concerned ; 
and being come to the Aflinais, he there pafled the winter. 
Od the 19th of March, the year following, fetting out 
on his journey, he foon arrived at the Prefidio of St. John 
Baptift. M. de St. Denis declared thefe goods to be his 
own property, in order to obviate their confifcation, 
which was otherwife unavoidable ; and wanted to ihew 
fome a(^s of bounty and generofity, in order to gain the 
friendChipof the Spaniards. 3ut the untracSlablenefs, the 
avarice, and indifcretion of the parties concerned, brokft 
through all his meafures ; and to prevent the entire dif- 
concerting of them, he haftenpd his departure for Mexico, 
where he arrived May 14, 1717. The Duke of Linarest 
was yet there, but fick, and on his death-bisd* M* de St. 
Denis had, however, tiipe to fee him, who knew hittl 
again ; and that Nob}eman took care to .have him recom- 
mended to the Viceroy his fucceflbr j namely, the Mar- 
quis of Balero, a man as much againft the French as 
the Duke was for them. • 

M. de St. Denis did not long folicit the Marquis of 
Balero for coiicluding the treaty of commerfce ; he foon 
had other bufinefs to mind. F. Olivarez, who, on the 
reprefentation of F. Ydalgo, as a perfon of a jealous, 
turbulent, and dangerous difpofition, had been excluded 
from the mifTion to the'AITmais, being then at the court of 
the Viceroy, faw with an evil eye the perfon who had 
fettled F. Ydalgo in that million, and refolved to be 
' - . fiveng^ 





cwengcd on him for the vexation caufed by that difap* 
pointment. He joined himfelf to an officer, named Don 
Martin de Alaron, a perfon peculiarly proteded by the 
Marquis of Balero: and they fucceeded fowell with that 
nobleman, that in the time M. de St. Denis leaft expefled, 
l}e f/ound himfelf arrefted, and iclapt in a dungeon ; from 
which he was not difcharged till December 20 of this year» 
by an order of the Sovereign Council of Mexico, to 
which he found means to prefent feveral petitions. The 
Viceroy, conftrained to enlarge him, allotted the town 
for his plaipe q( confinement* 

The bufinefs of the treaty of commerpe being now at 
an end, M. de St. Denis's attention was only engaged 
how to make the mod of the goods, of which Don Diego 
Raymond had fent as large a quantity as he could, to the 
town of Mexico ; where they were feized by D. Martin 
de Alaron, as contraband } he being one of the emifTaries 
of his prote^or, appointed to |(>erfecute fuch Grangers as 
did not dearly purchafe the permiifion to fell their goods. 
M. de St. Denis could make only eneugh of his pillaged 
and damaged efFe6ts juft to defray certain expences of 
fuit, which, in a country that abounds with nothing elfe 
but g<>ld and filver, are enormous. 

Our prifoner having nothing further to engrofb his at- 
tention in Mexico, but the fafety of l^is perfon, ferioufly 
bethought himfelf how to fecurci it ; as he had ever juft 
grounds to apprehend fome bad treatment at the hands of 
his three avowed energies. Havii)g therefore planned the 
means of his flight, on September 25, 17 18, as the night 
came on, he quitted Mexico, and placing himfelf in am-- 
buih at a certain diftance from the town, waited till his 
good fortune (hould afford the means of travelling other- 
wife than on foot. About nine at night, a horfetnan, 
well-mounted, caft up. To rufh of a fudden upon him, 
difmount him, mount his horfe, turn the bridle, and fet 
tip a gallop, was the work of a moment only for St. Denis. 
^e rode on at a ^ood pace till day, then quitted the com- 


mon road, to repofe him : a precaution he obrerved all 
along, till he came near to the Prefidio of St. John Bap- 
tift. From thenct he continued hit journey on foot i 
and at length, on April 2, I7i9> arrived at the French 
colony, where he found confiderable alterations. 

From the departure of M. de St. Denis from Mexico, 
to his return again, almoft three years had elapfed. In 
that long time, the grant of Louiflana was transferred 
from M. Crozat to the Weft India Company ; M. de 
la Motte Cadillac was dead, and M. de Biainville, bro- 
ther to M. d'Hiberville, fucceeded as governor general. 
The capital place of the colony was no longer at Mobile, 
nor even at Old Biloxi, whither it had been removed : 
New Orleans, now begun to be built, was become the 
capital of the country, whither he repaired to give M. 
de Biainville an account of his journey ; after which he 
retired to his fettlement. The king afterwards conferred 
upo«i him the crofs of St. Louis, in acknowledgement and _ 
recompence of his fervices. 

The Weft India Company, building great hopes of 
commerce on Louifiana, made efforts to people that coun- 
try, fufficient to accomplifli their end. Thither, for 
the firft time, they fent, in 17 18, a colony of eight hun- 
dred : men fome of which fettled at New Orleans, others 
formed the fettleme.nts of the Natchez. It was with this 
embarkation I pafTed over to Louifiana. 




Mntbarkatton of tight hundred Mm kj tht Weft India Com- 
pany to Louifiana. Arriyai and Stay a/ Cape Fran- 
cois. Arrival at Ifle Dauphine. Dtfcription of that 

TH E embarkation was made at Rochelle on three 
different vefTels, on one of which I embarked. 
For the firft days of our voyage we had the wind con- 
trary, but no high Tea. On the eighth the wind turned 
more favourable. I obferved nothing interefting till we 
came to the Tropick of Cancer, where the ceremony 
of baptizing was performed on thofe who had never 
been a voyage : after paifing the Tropick, the Commo- 
dore fteered too much to the foutb» which our captain 
obferved. In ''^e^^, after feveral days failing, we were 
obliged to bear i.S to the north : we afterwards dif- 
covered the ifle of St. Juan de Porto Rico, which be- 
longs to the Spaniards. Lofing fight of that, we dif- 
covered the ifland of St. Domingo ; and a little after, as 
we bore on, we faw the Grange, which is a rock, 
overtopping the fteep coaft, which is almoft perpendi- 
cular to the edge of the water. This rock) feen at a 
diftance, feems to have the figure of a grange, or barn. 
A few hours after we arrived at Cape Francois* dif- 
tant from that rock only twelve leagues. 

W;e were two months in this pafTage to Cape Fran- 
cis ; both on account of the contrary winds, we had 
on fetting out, and of the calms, which are frequent 
in thofe feas : our veflel, befides, being clumfy and heavy, 
had fome difficulty to keep up with the others j which, 
not to leave us behind, carried only their four greater 
(ails, while we had out between feventeen ahd eighteen. 

It is in thofe feas we meet with the Tradewinds ; 
which though weak, a great deal of way might be made, 
did they blow conftantly, becaufe their courfe is from 
eaft to weft without varying i ftorms are never obferved 



in thefc fcas, but the calms often prove a great hiri- 
drance ; and then it is neceAary to wait fome days, till 
a grain, or fquall, brings back the wFnd : a grain is a 
fmall fpot feen in the air, which fpreads very faft, and 
forms a eloud, that gives a wind, which is b'rifk at firft, 
but not lading, though enough to make way with. No- 
thing befides remarkable is here fecn, but the chace of 
x\itflying-fi/h by the Boniias. 

The Bonita is a Rfh, which is fomctimes two feet 
long J extremely fond of the flying-fijh ; which is the 
reafon it always keeps to the places where thefe fifh are 
found : its flefh is extremely delicate and of a gooi fla- 

The Jlying'fi/h is of the length of a herring, but 
rounder. From its (ides, inftead of fins, iflue out two 
wings, each about four inches in length, by two in 
breadth at the extremity ; they fold together and open 
out like a fan, and are round at the end ; confifting of 
a very fine membrane^ pierced with a vaft many little 
holes, which ke<*p the water, when the fifh is out of it : 
in order to avoid the purfuit of the Bonita, it darts into 
t\it air, fpreads Out its wings, goes ftraight on, without 
being able to turn to the right or left ; which is the rea- 
fehf v%hat as Toon as the toilets, or little fheets of water, 
which fill up the fmall holes of its wings, are dried up^ 
it falls down again; and the fame Bonita, which pur- 
fued it in the water, ftill following it with his eye in the 
air, catches it when fallen into the water ; it fometimes 
falls on board fhips. The bonita, in his turn, becomes 
the prey of the feamen, by means of little puppets, in 
the form of fying-fijh, which it fwallows, and by that 
xneans is taken. 

We ftayed fifteen days at Cape Fran9ois, to take in 
wood and water, and to refreih. It is fituate on the 
north part of the ifland of St. Domingo, which part the 
French are in polTeffion of, as the Spaniards are of the 
Other, The fruits and fweet-meats of the country are 
2 excellent. 

OF Louisiana. i^ 

excellent) but the meat gobd" for nothing, hacd) dry, and 
tough. This counti^y being fcorched, grafs is very 
(carce, and the animals therein languifh and droop. Sixl 
weeks before our arrival, fifteen hundred perfohs died of 
an epidemic diftemper, called the Siam diftcmper. 

We failed from Cape Francois, with the fame wind, 
and the fineft weather imaginable. We then pafled be- 
tween the iflands of Tortuga and St. ivomingo, where ws 
efpied Port de Paix, which is over-againft I'ortuga : we 
afterwards found ourfelves between the extremities of St^ 
Domingo and Cuba, which belongs to the Spaniards : 
we then fteered along the fouth coaft of this laft, leaving 
to the left Jamaica, and the great and little Kayemans, 
which are fubjeft to the £ngli(h. We at length quitted 
Cuba at Cape Anthony, fteering for Louifiana a north 
weft courfe. We efpied land in coming towards it, but 
fo flat, though diftant but a league from us, that we had 
great difficulty to diftinguifli it, though we had then but 
four fathom water. We put out the boat to examine 
the land, which we found to be Candlemas ifland (la 
Chandeleur.) We dire£lly fet fail for the ifland of Maf* 
facre, fince called Ifle Dauphine, lltuated three leagues 
to the fouth of that continent, which forms the Gulf 
of Mexico to the north, at about 27° 35' North lati- 
tude, and 288*^ of longitude. A little after we difcovered 
the Iflc Dauphine, and caft anchor before the harbour, in 
the road, becaufe the harbour itfelf was choaked up. To 
make this paflTage we took three months, and arrived only 
Auguft 25th. We had a profperous voyage all along, 
and the more fo, as no one died, or was even dangeroufly 
ill the whole time, for which wecaufed Te Dm/72 folemnly 
to be fung. 

We were then put on fhore with all our effe6^s. 
The company had undertaken to tranfport us with our 
fervants and elFedls, at their expence, and to lodge, 
maintain and convey us to our feveral conceflions, or 




Thit gulf abounds with delicious fifti \ as the fardt 
(pilchard) red fi(h, cod, fturgeon, ringed thornback, and 
many other forts, the beft in their kind. The/arit is a 
large f\0\ ) its flclh is delicate, and of a fine flavour, the 
fcales grey, and of a moderate fize. The red fifli is (6 
called, from its red fcales, of the fize of a crown 
piece. The cod, fiflicd for on this coaft, is of the mid- 
dling fort, and very delicate. The thornback is th« 
fame as in France. Before wc quit this ifland, it will 
not, perhaps, bq improper to mention fome things about it. 

The Ifle Maflacre was fo called by the firft Frenchman 
who landed there, becaufe on the (horc of this ifland they 
found a fmall rifing ground, or eminence, which ap- 
peared the more extraordinary in an ifland altogether 
flat, and feemliigly formed only by the fand, thrown in 
by fome high gufts of wind. As the whole coaft of the 
gulf is very flat, and along the continent lies a chain of 
fuch iflands, which feem to be mutually joined by their 
points, and to form a line parallel with the continent^ 
this fmall eminence appeared to them extraordinary : it 
was more narrowly examined ) and in different parti 
thereof they found dead mens b^nes, juft appearing above 
the little earth that covered them. Then their curi- 
ofity led them to rake ofF the earth in feveral places ; 
but finding nothing underneath, but a heap of bones, 
they CTied out with horror, Jh ! what a Majptat ! They 
afterwards underflood by the natives, who are at no 
great diftance ofl^, that a nation adjoining to that ifland, 
being at war with another much more powerful, was 
conftrained to quit the continent, which is only three 
leagues off, and to remove to this ifland, there to live 
in peace the reft of their days; but that their enemies, 
juftly confiding in their fuperiority, purfued them to 
this their feeble retreat, and entirely deftroyed them; 
and after raifing this inhuman trophy of their vi^« 
rious barbarity, retired again. I myfelf faw this fatal 
monument, which made me imagine this unhappy 


OF LOUIfilAKA. tf 

nUloA ihuft have betn evtn numerous toward iti period, 
fli only the bonei of their warriori and aged men muft 
have lain there, their cuftom being to make flAvei of 
their young people. -Such h the origin of the iirft name 
of thii ifland, which, M our arrival, wai changed to 
that of Ifle Dauphioe : an «£t of prudence, it Ihould 
ibertii todifcontinue an ippellation, foodioui, of a p)ac« 
that wai the cradle of the colony i as Mobik was its birth- 

Thit ifland is very flat, and all a white fand, as ure 
all the others, and the coaft In like manner. Its length 
it about fevc- Wgues from eaft to well } iti breadth a 
(hort league . > outh to north, ^efpecially to the eaft^ 
where the fettlemunt was made, on account of the har- 
bour which was at the fout' end of the ifland, and 
choaked up by a high fea, i. littjle before our arrival : 
this eaft end runs to a point. It is tolerBbIi^ well ftored 
with pine) but fo dry and parched, on account of iti 
cryftai fand, as that no greens or pulfe can grow therein^ 
«nd beafts are pinched and hard put to it for fuftenance. 

In the mean time, M. de Biainville, commandant ge-« 
neral for the company in this colony, was gone to mark 
out the fpot on which the capital was to be built, 
namely, one of the banks of the river MiOifippi, where 
at prefent ftands the city of New Orleans, fo called in 
honour of the duke of Orleans, then regent. 

C H A P. IV. 

77>i Author*! Dtparturi fir hh Grant, Dtfcriptlon of tht 
Places hi pajftd through^ as far as New Orleans* 

TH E time of my departure, fo much wi(hed for, 
came at length. I fet out with my hired fervants, 
all my effects, and a letter for M. Paillou, major ge« 
neral at New Oi "jins, who commanded there in the ab- 
fttKt pf M. 4e Biainville. We coafted along the con- 

. . C tinentf 



tinent, and came to lie in the mouth of the river of thi*^ 
Pafca-Ogoulasj fo called, becaufe near its moiith, and 
to the eaft of a bay of the fame name, dwells a nation, 
called Pafca-Ogoulas, which denoties the Nation of Bread. 
Here it maybe remarked, that in. the province of Loui-' 
liana, the appellation of feveral people terminates in 
the word Ogoula, which fignifies fiation ; and that moft 
of the rivers derive their nahies from the nations which 
dwell on their banks. We then palled in view of Biloxi, 
where formerly was a petty nation of that name ; then 
in view of the bay of St. Louis, leaving to the left fucr 
ceflively Ifle Dauphine, Ifle aCorne, (Horn-ifland,) Ifle 
aux VaifTeaux, (Ship-ifland,) andljje aux Chats, (Cat«* 

I have already defcribed Ifle Dauphine, let us now 
proceed to the three following. Horn-^ifland is very flat 
and tolerably wooded, about fix leagues in lengthy nar- 
rowed to a point to the weft fide. I know not whether 
it was for this reafon, or on account of the number of 
horned cattle upon itj that it received this> name ; but it 
is certain, that the flrft Can ^dians, who fettled on Ifle 
Dauphine, had put moft of their cattle, in great numbers*, 
there j whereby they came !to grow rich even when they 
flept. Thefe cattle not requiring any attendance, or 
;Other care, in this ifland, came to multiply in fuch a 
manner, th^t the owners made great profits of them on 
our arrival in the colony. 

Troceedlng ftill weftward, we meet Ship-ifland ; fo 
called, becaufe ther? is a fmali harbour, in which veflels 
^t different times have put in for. fhelter. But as the ifland 
is diftant four leagues from the coaft, and that this coaft 
is fo fiat, that boats cannot approach nearer than lialf 
a league, this harbour comes to be entirely uielefs. This 
ifland may be about five leagues in length, and a large 
league in breadth at the weft point. Near that point 
to the north is the harbour,., facing the continent ', to- 
wards the eaft end it may be hdlf » league in breadth : 




k 10 fufliciently wooded, and inhabited only by rats, Which 
fwami there. ^ 

At two loagues diftance^ going ^ill weftward, we 
meet Cat-ifland ; fo called, becaufe at the time it was 
difcovered, great numbers of cats were found upon it. 
This iflaliid is very fmall, not above half i league in di- 
ameter. The forefts are over-run with iindeirwood : i, 
circumftance which, doubtlef^, determined M. ^e Bi- 
ainville to put in fomfi hogs to breed ; which multiplied 
to Aich numbers, that, in 1722, going to hunt them, 
no othel" cr^atii]fes were to be feen ; and it was judged, 
that in tihie they muft have devoured each other. It was 
found they ha:d deftrbyed the ckts* 

All thefe iflands are very flat, and have the fame bot« 
torn of white fand j the woods, efpecially of the three 
firft, condft of pine j they are almoft all at the fame difr 
tance from the continent, the coafl of which is equally* 
iandy. ' 

After pafling the bay of St. Louis, of which I have fpo^ 
ken, we enter the two channels which lead to Lak^ Pont-^ 
chartrain, called at prefent the Lak^ St. Louis : of thefe 
channels, one is named the Great, the other the Little ; 
and they are about two leagues m length, and formed 
by a chain of iflets, or little i/les, between the continent 
and Cockle-ifland. The great channel is to the fouth. 

We lay at the end of the channels ia Cockle-ifland ; 
fo called, becaufe almoft entirely formed of the ihelfg 
named Coquilles des Palourdes, in the fea>ports, ivithotit 
a mixture of any others. This ifle lies before the mouth 
.•f the Lake St. Louis to the eaft, and leaves at its two 
extremities two outlets to the lake i the one, by which 
we entered, which is the channel juft mentioned ; the 
Other, by the Lake Borgne. The lake, moreover, at 
the other end weftward, communicates, by a channel, 
with the Lake Maurepas ; and may be about ten leagues 
in length from eaft to weft, and feven in breadth. Se-; 
veral rivers, in ^<ir courfe foutbward, £a\l into it. 
' C a To 


To the £>uth of the lake k 9 greet creek (Bifouc^ a 
ftream of dead water, with little or no obfervftUe cur^ 
rei^t) called Bayouc St. Jean ; it comes doTe to New 
Orleans, and falls into this lake at Grafs Point (Points 
aux Herbes) which projedts a great way into the lake^ 
at two leagues diftance from Cockle-iil;u>d, We palled 
near that point, which 19 nothing but a quagmire. From 
thence we proceeded to the Bayouc Choupic, fo denomi- 
nated from a fiih of that name, and three leagues from 
the Pointe aux Herbes. The many rivulets, which dif- 
charge themfelves into this lake, meke its waters almoft 
frefh, though it communicates with the fea : and on this 
account it abounds not only with fea iifli but with freih 
water fi(h, fome of which, particularly carp, would ap- 
pear to be of a monftrous iize in France. 

We entered this Creek Choupic : at the entrance of 
which is a fort at prefent. We went up this creek for 
the (pace of a league, and landed at a place where for- 
merly ftood the village of the natives, who are called 
Cola-PilTas, an appellation corrupted by the French, the 
■true name of that nation being Aquelou-PiiTas, that is, 
ihe nation of men that hear and fie. From this place to New 
Orleans, and the river Miffifippi, on yrhlch that capiti 
is built, the diftance is only a league. 


X^je Author put in Pojejfton of his Territory, His Refilution 
to go 0nd fittle amift^g the^z\.z\i^z, 

BEING arrived at the Creek Choupic the Sieur La- 
yigne, a Canadian, lodged me in a cabin of the 
Aquelou-PilTas, whoffe village he had bought. 'He gave 
others to my workmen for their lodging ; dbd we werfe 
all happy to find, upon our arrival, that we were under 
ihelter, m a place that was uninhabited. A* feW days 
after ihy arrival I bought an Indian female flaVe of one of 
the inhabitants, in order, to have a perfon' who could 



dreia our viAuals, as I perceived the inhabitants did all 
they could to entice away our labourers, and to gain them 
by fair promifes. As for my flavc and me, wc did not 
underfland. one another's language; but I mademyfelf 
to be underfiood by figns, which thefe natives compr««. 
hend very eafily : fhe was of the nation of the Cbiti<^ 
macbas, with whom the French had been at yrM for fom^ 
years. , .;^:,':i . -t 

I w6nt.toview a fpoton St. John's Creek, abootlia}^ 
a league diftant from the place where the capital was 
to be founded, which was yet only marked out by a 
hut, covered with palmetto-leaves, and which the com^ 
mandant had caufed to be built for his own lodging | 
and after him for M. Paillou,! whom be left c6mmaiidani 
of chat poft. I had ehofbnl that place preferably to any 
others, with a view to difpofe more eafily <mF my goods 
and provifions, and that I might not have them to tranf<^ 
porttoagreatdSftance. I told M. Paillou of my choice, who 
came and put me in poileffion, in the name of the Weft« 
India company. - • 

I built a hut upon my fettlement, about forty yards 
from the creek of St. John, till I could build my houfe, 
and lodging foi> my people. As my hut. was compofed 
of very combuftible materials, I caufed a fire to be made 
at adiftance, about half way from the credc, to avoid 
accidents ; which occafioned an adventure, that put 
me in mind of the prejudices they have in Europe, from 
the relations that are ccMnmonly current. Theaccounit 
I am going to give of it,^may have upon tbofe who 
think as I did then, the fame efFe£^ that it had upon me. 

le was almoft night, when my flave perceived, within 
two yards of the ftre, a young alligator, five fe<!t long, 
which beheld the fire without moving. 1 was in the 
garden bard by, when fhe made me repeated figns to 
come to her ; I ran with fpced, at|d upon my arrival ihe 
(hewed me the crocodile, without fpeakingto me } thQ 
Uttlc liiife that I examined it, I could fee, its eyes were 

C 3 fo 


fo fixe& dh the fire, that all our motions could nit'' take 
thcmofF. I rah to my cabin to look f^rm^ gun, ^at 
am a pretty good markfman : but what wa$ my ftirprike, 
when I canie out, and fawthe jgirl with a gi-eat ftick in 
her hand attacking the monfterl Seeing me arrive, fh^ 
began to fmile, and faid many things, which I did nbt 
Comprehend. But (he made me underfbnd^ by figns, 
that there was no occafion for a gun to kill fuch a bead ; 
(or theftick (he (hewed mc wa^ fuffi(;ient for the purpofe. 

r The next day the former mafter of my flave tame td 
tlk me for fome falad- plants; for I was the ohly bnef 
who had any garden-ftuff, having taken eare to prefervC 
fh^lpeds I had brought over with me. As he under- 
Hood the language of the natives,' I begged him to a(k 
the girl^ why fhe hs^d killed the alligator (b )ra(hly. 
Hel^egan to iaugh, and told nte,' that all new comeraT 
were afraid of thofe creatures, although they have nO^ 
reafon to be fo t and that 1 ought not to be furprized at 
If^hat thci girl had done, becaufe her nation inhabited the 
borders of a lake, which was full of thofe creatures i 
that thf children, when they faw the young ones come 
qp land, purfued them, and killed them, by the affif-. 
Cahce pf the people pf the cabin, who made good chee^ 
pf them. ; ''^ > 

I was pleafed with my habitation, and I had good 
reafonsv' which I have alrejldy related, to make nie 
prefer it to others ) notwithftanding I had room to be- 
lieve, that the fituation was none of the healthiefl', the 
country about it being very damp.' But this caufe of 
an unwholefome air does not exift at prefent, finc^ 
they have cleared %he ground> and made a bank before 
the town. The quality of that land is very good, fojr 
what I had fown came up very well. Having found 
in the Tpring fomc peach-ftones which began to fprout, 
I planted them ; and j^e following autumn tLey had 
^ade (hoots, four fe^t high, with branches in proportion. 

• - ■ " Notwitii; 

I ' 


'Notwithfta^ndingthefe advantages, I took a refolution 
to quit this fettlement, in order to make another one, 
about a hundred leagues higher up j and I iball give the 
reaTons, which, in my opinion, will appear fufficient to 
have made me take that ftep. 

' My Airgeon came to take his leave of me, letting me 
know, he could be of no fervice to me, near ftich a town 
as was forming ; where there was a much abler furgeon 
thanhimfelf ; and that they had talked to him fo favourably 
of the poft of the Natchez, that he was very dcfirous 
to go there, and the more fo, as that place, being un- 
provided with a furgeon, might be more to his advan* 
tage. To fatisfy me of the truth of what he told me, 
be went immiediately and brought one of the old inhabi- 
tants, of whom I had bought my flave, who confirmed 
the account he had given me of the iinenefs of the coun- 
try of the Natchez. The account of the old man, joined 
tP many other advantages, to be found there, had made 
him think of abandoning the place where we were, to 
fettle there } and he reckoned to be abundantly repaid 
for it in a little time. . 

My flave heard the dtfcourfe that I have relatec*, and 
as (he began to underhand French, and I the language 
of the country, (he addrefledherfelf to me thus: ** Thou 
** art- going, then, to that country; the (ky is much 
*< finer there ; game is in much greater plenty $ and as 
*< I have relations, who retired there in the war which 
<« we had with the French, they will bring us every 
** thing we want : they tell me that country is very 
*} fine, that they live well in it, and to a good old age.** 

Two days afterwards I told M. Hubert what I had 
heard of the country of the Natchez. He made anfwer, 
that be was fo perfuaded of the goodnefs of that part 
of the country, that he was making ready to go there 
himfelf, to take up his grant, and to eftablifh a large 
fettlement for the company : and, continued he, *' I 
fF fhall be very glad, if you will do the fame : we (hall 

• Q 4 bt 


** be company to one another, and you will unc^HeT- 
** tionably do your bufinefi better there than here.'* 

This determined i^e to follow his advice : I quitted 
my fettlement, and took lodgings in the town, till I 
(hould find an opportunity to depart, and receive fomo 
negroes whom I expe4ted in a (hor( time. * My ftay at 
l^ew Orleans appeared long, before I heard of the ar- 
rival of the negroes. Some days after the news of their 
arrival, M. Hubert brought me two good ones, whicli 
had fallen to me by lot. One was a young negro about 
twenty, with his wife of the fame age { which coil me 
both together 1320 livres, or 55I. fterling. 

Two days after that I fet oflT with them alone in a 
pettyaugre (a large canoe,) becaufe I was told we ihould 
make much better fpeed in fuch a vefftl, than in the 
boats that went with us i and that I had only to take 
powder ai^d ball with me, to provide my whole com- 
pany with game fttfficient to maintain us ; for which 
purpofe it was neceflTary to make uft of a paddle, in- 
flead of oars, which make too much noife for the game, 
I had a barrel of powder, with Hfieen pounds of ihot, 
which I thought wpuld be fufficient for the voyage : 
but I found by experience, that tl^is was not « fufficient 
for the vaft plenty of game that is to be met with upon 
that river, without ever going out of your way. I had 
not gone above twenty-eight leagues, to the grant of M, 
Paris du Vernai, when 1 was obliged to borrow of him 
fifteen pounds of (hot niore. Upon this I took care of 
my ami^unition, and (hot nothing but what was fit for 
our proviAon ^ fuch as wild ducks^ fummer ducks, teal, 
and faw- bills. Among the rtfk I killed a carancro, wild 
geefe, cranes^ and flamingoes; I likewife often killed 
young alligators } the tail of which was a feaft for thq 
flaves, as well as for the French and Canadian rowers. 

Among others things I cannot omit to give an account 
of a oionilrous large alligator I killed with a mufquet 

• phap. v^r, 


baU,. as it Uy upon the bank» about ton feet tbove th« 
•dgeof the water. We meafiiffed U,,and found it to 
be nineteen feet long ; iu head three feet and a half lotig^ 
above two feet nine inehet broad» and the other parts Iq 
proportion : at the belly it wat two feet two iuchea 
thicic ( and it infected the whole air with the odor of 
mufk. M. Mehane told me, he had killed one twenty- 
two feet long. 

After feveial dayi -navigation, we arrived at Tonicaa 
on Chriftmas eve^ where we heard mafa from M. d' 
Avion, of the foreign miiBoni, with whom we pafled 
|he reft of the holy-days, on account of the good reception 
and kind invitation he gave ui. I aiked him, if his great 
zeal for the falvation of the natives wai attended with 
any fuccefs ; he anfwered me,, that notwithftanding the 
profound reCpeA the people ibewed himt It was with the 
greateft difficulty he could get leave to baptise a few 
children at the point of death ; that thofe of an advanced 
age excufed themfelves from embracing our holy celigioni 
becaufe they are too old, fay they, to accuftom them- 
felves to rules, that are fo difficult to be obferved ; that 
the chief, who had killed thd phyfician, that attended 
his only (on in a diftemper of which he died, had taken 
a refolution to fUft every Friday while he lived* lo re- 
morfe for his inhumanity with which he had been Co 
(harply reproached by him. This grand chief attended 
both morning and evening prayers ; the women and chil- 
dren likewife affifted regularly at them ; but the men, 
who did not come very often, took more pleafure in ring- 
ing the bell. ]A other refpe^ls, they did not fuffer this 
jealous paftor to wantf for any thing, but furniihed 
him with whatever he deflred. 

We were yet twenty-five leagues to the end of our 
journey to the Natchez, and we left the Tonicatf, where 
we faw nothing interefting, if it were not feveral ftee^ 
hills, which ftand together { among which there is one 
that they name the White Hill, becaufe they find in it 
^veri)) veins of an earth, that is white, greafy, and very 


fine, with which I have fern rtry good petten wir« 
liiadc. On the (lime hilt thei;e are velni of ochre, of 
whichlheNatchtft hud Juft taken feme to Aain their 
earthen ware, which looked well enough i when it wai 
brfmcared with ochre', It became red on burning. 

At laft wo arrived at the Natchec, after a voyage of 
twenty- four Icaguei i and we put on (hore at a lanaing- 
ptace, which is at the foot of a hill two hundred feet 
high, upon the top of whieh Fort Roflilie * ii built, 
Atrrounded only with palllfadoeii. About the middle of 
the hill ftanda the magattne, nigh to (bme houA^s of th« 
inhabitant!!, who are IVttl(^ there, becauft the afcent It 
not fo ftfcp in that place ) and it ii for the fame reafon 
that the maffaftine is buih there. When you are upon 
the top of tnis hill, you diCcover the whole country, 
which ii an extenflve beautiful plain, with fcveral littlb 
hillt interfperfed here and there, upon which the inha« 
bitants have built and made their ibttlementt. The pro* 
f)ic<!l of it ii charming. 

On our arrival at the Natchez I wai very well rea 
cctvcd by M. Loire de Flau<^ourt, {lore-keeper of thii^ 
po(l| who regaled us with the game that abounds In this 
place { and after two days I hired a houfc near the foft, 
iur M, Hubert and his ftimily, on their arrivnl, tijl. \it 
could build upon his own plantation. He lil^cjwii^ d^- 
fired mc to choofc two convenient parcels qf laiid, where- 
on tp fettle two confidciuble plantatioasi qnc for the com- 

. • Fort RtfalU, Yn tht (aiintry of iht Nttchf t, wii tt At(k phchH upon 
ffti iIm mtin>|Miii of thii i.ol.»nx. Qut iboitgh it h« ntt:«ir«r)r to bigln by 
a r«til«mcnl nctr the ft* t yet if ever Louil\«na comet to be In « Auurifli- 
}nf (oiiaition, «« it m»y »ery w»|l he, it eppeari to me, that the ei|>lt«l, 
•f it cannot be better lUu«tc4 ib«S in thii piece. It ii net fuhjeA to in- 
•nthttiont of the river | tht «!r it pure j the country very eittenAvt \ the 
UnJ fit for every thin^t. an«l well watered { it it not ul loo urett a dif- 
fence from the f«, and nothing hiiideri vefl'eli to go t«p to it. In fine, 
it ia within reath of every pUct ittte^ded to bo fettled. Charlevrix, Nift. 
4e UN. France, 1)1. 415. 

TbU tt on the eaft fide of tho Milfifippi, and «pp«in to bo the (trd pod 
•» tliat Hvet wkich wt ought to Secure. 


pinjr* ftnd the other for himfelf. I went to them In two 
or three tfiiyi nfter my Arrivali wifh an old inhabitant for 
my guide, and to ftiew me the proper plaoef, and at tht 
fame time to choofe a f))ot of ground for myfelf i thii Lafl 
I pitched upon the firft day, hecaufe it ii more eafy t« 
<ihoofe fur one'i felf than for otheri. 

I found upon the main road that leadi from the chief 
village of the Natchex to the fort, about an hundred 
pacei from thii la/l, a cabin of the native* upon the road 
futc, Airroundtd with a fpot of dearcd ground, the 
Whole of which 1 bought by t\icani of an interpreter. I 
fnado this purchafc with the more pleafure, ai I had upon 
the fpot, wherewithal to lodge me and my people, with 
alt my eflfb^s : the cleared ground wai about Ax acre*, 
which ^ould form a garden and a plantation for tobacco. 
Which wli then the only commodity cultivated by the in« 
habitnnti. I had water convenient for my houfe, and all 
my land wai very good. On 6ne fide Oood a riflng ground 
with a gentle declivity, covered with a thick field of 
canei, which alwayi grow upon the rich landi i behind 
<hat wai a great meadow, and on the other fid* wai a 
foreft of white walnuti (Hiccoriei) of nigh fifty acroi, 
. covered with grafa knee deep. All thii piece of ground 
wai in general good, and contained about four hundred 
acrei of a meafure greater than that of Parii : the foil it 
black and light. 

The other two plecei of land, which M, Hubert had 
ordered me to look for, I took up on the border of the 
little river of the Natchez, each of them half a league 
from the great village of that nation, and a league from 
the fort ( and my plantation ftood between thcfe two and 
the fort, bounding the two otheri. After thii I took 
(kp my lodging upon my own plantation, in the hut I 
had bought of the Indian, and put my people in another, 
which they built for thcmfelvei at the fide of mine i fo 
that I wai lodged pretty much like our wood-cuttcra 

fVy^Rce, when they are at work in the woods. 



As fooa as I wm put }n fU&ffion oi my babitation, I 
wcsit vith an interpreler to ice the other fieldt> wKicb 
fheladians had ckaied upon my land, and bought them 
ally cxoepi one, which an Indian would never fell to me : 
k wat fituated very convitnient for me, I bad a mind for 
it, and would have giyen bim a good pricey but I could 
never make him agree to my propofals^ He ^ve me to 
underftand, that without felling it, he would give it up 
to me, as foon as I Ihould clear my ground to his ; and 
that while he ftayed oa his own /ground near me, I fliould 
always find him ready to, and that he would go 
a-hunting and filhing for me. This anfwer Satisfied me, 
becaufe I muft have had twenty negroes, before I could 
have been able to have reactied him ; they afltired me 
likewife, that he was an honed man ; and far from having 
any occafion to complair. of him as a neighbour, his ftay 
there was extremely ferviceable to me. 

I had not been fettled at the Katebex fix months wbea 
I fbnnd % payi in my thi^, which, however, did nof 
hindes me to go about my bufmefs. X confulted our fur- 
geoa about, it, who caufcid me . to be bleeded j on which 
the humour fell upon the other thighs and fixed there 
with fuch violence, that I could not walk without ex- 
treme pain. I confiilted the phyficians and fiirgeons of 
New Orleans, who advifed me to ufe aromatic baths; and 
if they proved of no fervice, I muft go to France, to 
drink the waters, and to bathe in them. This anfwer 
fatisfied me to much the lefs, as I was neither certain of 
my cure by that means,* nor would my prefent fituation 
allow me to go to France. This cruel diftemper, I 
believe, proceeded from the rains, with which 1 was wet, 
during our whole voyage ; and might be fome 'eire£ls of 
the fatigues I had undergone in war, during feveral cam- 
paigns I had made in Germany. 

As I could not go out of my hut, feveral neighbours 
were fo good as to conie and fee me, and every day we 
were no Iris than twelve at table from tlie time of our ar- 


rival, wb k k nws on the fifth ^ Jaautry, 1720. Afllons 
the reft F. de Vilk, who waitod chcra, in Imb jonroey m 
the lUinoifi till Che ice, which bi^gan to come down 
finoa the north, was gone. His converiation afford^ me 
great lati^fa^Uon in my confinement, and allayed Ai 
vexation I was under from thy two negroes, being ruji 
away. In the mean time my diftemper did not abate, which 
made me refolve to apply to^ne of the Indian cenjuxcrs» 
who are both furgeons, divines, and forcerers; and wh» 
told me he would cure me by fucking the place where 
I felt my pain. He tr.ade feveral fcarifications upon the 
part with a Aiarp flint, each of them about as large as 
the prick of a lancet, and in fuch a form, that he could 
fuck them all at once, which gave me extreme pain 
for the (jpace of half an hour. The next day I found 
myfdf a little better, and wdked about into my field, 
where they advifed me to put myfelf in the hands of ibme 
of the Natchez, who, they faid, did furprizing cures, 
of which they told me many inftances, confirmed by 
creditable people. In fuch a fituation a man will do any 
diing for a cure, efpecially as the remedy, which they 
told me of, was very fimple: it was only a poultice, 
which they put upon the part afFedkd, and ir eight days 
time I was able to walk to the fort, finding myfelf per- 
fedly cured, as I have felt no return of my pain fince 
that time. This was, without doubt, a great fatisfac- 
tion to a young man, who founci himfelf otherwife in 
good health, but had been confined to the houfe for four 
months and a half, without being able to go out a mo*> 
ment $ and gave me as much joy as I could well have, 
after the lofs of a good negroe, who died of a defluxion 
on the breafl\ which he catched by /unniog away into 
the woods, where his youth and want of experience 
made him believe he might live without the toils of 
llavery } but being found by the Tonicas, conftant 
'friends of the French, who live about twenty leagues 
from the Natchez, they carried him to their village, where 
he and his wife were given to a Frenchman, for whom they 



workod, and by that that means got their livelihood ;' till 
M. de Montplaifirfenttheih home to me. 

This M. de Montplainr,^>ne of themoft agreeable 
gentlemen in the colony, wasfent by the company from 
Clerac in Gafcony, to manage their plantation at the 
Natchez, to make tobacco upon it, and to ihew the peo- 
ple the way of cultivating and curing it ; the company 
having learned, that this p^ice produced excellent to- 
bacco, and that the people of Clerac were perfe£lly Well 
acquainted with the culture and way of managing it. 


C H A P. VI. •* 

'■ i 

The Voyage of the Author to Biloxi. Defeription of that 
Place, Settlement of Grants, The Author £fcoiuers twa 
. Copper'fninei* His Return to the Natchez. ii ; 

TH £ fecond year after my fettling among the Nat- 
chez, I went to New Orleans, as I was defirous 
to fell my goods and commodities myfelf, inftead of 
felling them to the travelling pedlars, who often require 
too great a profit for their pains. Another reafon that 
made me undertake this voyage, was to fend my letters 
to France myfelf, which I was certainly informed, were 
generally intercepted. 

Before my departure, I went to the commandant of 
the fort, and afked him whether he had any letters for 
the govekiiiment. I was not on very good terms of friend- 
ihip with this commandant of the Natchez, who endea- 
voured to p;^y his court to the governor, at the expence 
of others. I knew he had letters for M. de Biainvillc, al- 
though he told me he had nonf , which made me get a cer- 
tificate from the commifTary general of this refufal to my 
demand ; and at the fame time the commifTary begged 
me to carry down a fervan£ of the company, and ^ave 
me an order to pay for his maintenance. As I made no 
great hafle, but flopt to fee my friends, in my going 


OF louis^aka: ^ ^ 

down the river, the commandant had time to fendbif: 
letters, and to write to the governor, that I refufed to> 
^ke them. As foon as I arrived at Biloxi, this occaiI> 
9ned M. de Biainville to tell me, with fome coldncfs, that 
I refufed to charge myfelf with his letters. Upon this £ 
ihewed him the certificate of the commiflary general j to 
which he could give no other anfwer, than by telling me, 
that A< lead I could not deny, that I had brought away 
by ftealth a fervant of the company. Upon this I 
ihewed him the other certificate of the commifTary ge- 
neral, by which He defired the directors to reimburfe me 
the charges of bringing down this ferVant, who was of 
no ufe to him above j which put the governor in a very 
bad humour. 

Upon my arrival at New Orleans I was informed, 
that there were feveral grantees arrived at New Biloxi. 
I thought fit then to go thither, both to fell my goods, 
and to get fure conveyance for my letters to Francei, 
Here 1 was invited to fup with M. d'Artaguette, king's 
lieutenant, who ufually invited all the grantees, as well 
as myfelf. I there found feveral of the grantees, who 
' were all my friends ; and among us we made out a furo 
conveyance for our letters to France, of which we after« 
wards made ufe. 

Biloxi is Htuate oppofite to Ship-Ifland, and four 
leagues from it. But I never could guefs the icafon, 
why the principal fettlemcnt was made at this place, nor 
why the capital fhould be built at it ; as nothing could 
be more repugnant to good fenfe ; vefTels not being able 
to come within four leagues of it ; but what was worfe, 
nothing could be brought from them, but by changing 
the boats three different times, from a fnfaller fize to an- 
other flill fmaller j after which they had to go upwards 
of an hundred paces with fmall carts through the water 
to unload the leaft boats. But what ought ftlll to have 
been a greater difcouragement againfl making a iettle- 
ment at Biloxi, was, that the land is the molt barren of 
any to be found thereabouts ; being nothing but a fim 



iktidy as white and fliiniiif as fiiorvr, oa which no kfnl 
of gnens can beraiM ( bdfidcs, the being extremdly in« 
«oimnoded with iiits» which fwarm theM in the Tandy 
and at that time ate «ven the ?erf ftochs of the gnnsy 
the famine being there fe ytty great, that more than 
lite hundred people died of hunger; bread being vety 
dear, and llelh-«ieat ftill more me. There was nothing 
in plenty but fifli^ with which this place abounds. 

This fcarcity proceeded from the arrival of feveral 
grantees all at once j fo as to have neither proviik>ns« 
nor boats to transport them to the places of their def- 
tinatioR, as the cdmpany had obliged themfelves to do. 
The great plenty of oyfters, found upon the coaft, faved 
the lives of fome of them, although obliged to wade 
almoft up to their thighs for them, a gun-{hot from the 
ihore. If this food nouriflied feveral of them, it threw 
numbers into ilcknefs ; which was ftill more heightened 
by they long time the were obliged to be in the water. 

The grants were thofe of M. Law, who was to have 
fifteen hundred men, confiding of Germans, Proven^als^ 
&c. to form the fettlement. His land being marked out 
at the Arkanfas, confined of four leagues fquare, and 
was ere6ted into a duchy, with accoutrements for a 
company of dragoons, and merchandize for more than 
a million of livres. M. Levans, who was truftee of 
It, had his chaife to vifit the different pbfts of the grant. 
But M. Law foon after betoming bankrupt, the company 
feized on all the efFe^s and merchandife ; and but a 
few of thofe who engaged in the fervice of that grant, 
remained at the Arkanfas ; they were afterwards all dif- 
perfed and fet at liberty. The Germans almoft to a man 
fettled eight leagues above, and to the weft of the ca- 
pital. This grant ruined near & thoufand perfons at 
L'Orient before their embarkation, and above two hun- 
. dred at fiiloxi ; not to mention thofe who came out at 
the fame time with me in 17 iS^^ All this diftrefs, of 




which I was a witnefs at Biloxi, determined me to 
make an excurflon a few leagues on the coaft, in orc^cr 
to 1^ fome days with a friend, who received me with 
pleafure. We mounted horfe to vifit the interior part 
of the country a few leagues from the fea. I found 
the fields pleafant enough, but lefs fertile than along the ^ 
MiffiTippi i as they have fome refemblance of the neigh- 
bouring coaft, which has fcarce any other plants but 
pines, that run a great way, and fome red and white 

When we came to the plain, I carefully fearched 
every fpot that I thought worth my attention. In con- 
fequence of the fearch I found two mines of copper, 
whofe metal plainly appeared above ground. They ftood 
about half a league afunder. We may juftly conclude 
that they are very rich, as they thus difclofe themfelves 
on the furface of the earth. 

When I had made a fufficient excurfion, and judged 
I could find nothing further to fatisfy my curiofity, I re- 
turned to Biloxi, where I found two boats of the com- 
pany, juft preparing to depart for New Orleans, and a 
large pettyaugre, which belonged to F. Charlevoix the 
jefuit, whofe name is well kown in the republic of let- 
ters : with him I returned to New Orleans. 

Some time after my return from New Orleans to the 
Natchez, towards the month of March 1722, a phae- 
nomenon happened^ which frightened the whole pro- 
vince. Every morning, for eight days running, a hol- 
low noife, fomewhat loud, was heard to reach from the 
fea to the Illinois ; which arofe from the weft. In the 
afternoon it was heard to defcend from the eaft, and that 
with an incredible quicknefs ; and though the noife feem- 
ed to bear on the water, yet without agitating it, or dif- 
covering any more wind on the river than before. This 
frightful noife was only the prelude of a moft violent 
tempeft. The hurricane, the moft furious ever felt in 


the province, lafted three days. As it arofe from the 
fouth-weft and north-eaft, it reached all the fetttletnents 
which were along the Miffifippi ; and was felt for fome ' 
leagues more or lefs ftrong, in proportion to the greater 
or lefs diilancc : but in the places, where the force or 
height of the hurricane pafTed, it overturned every thing in 
its way, which was an extent of a large quarter of a league 
broad ; fo that one .would talce it for an avenue made on 
purpofe, the place where it paifed being entirely laid flat, 
whilft every thing ftood upright on each fide. The 
lat,geft trees were torn up by the roots, and their branches 
broken to pieces and laid flat to the earth, as were alfo, 
the feeds of the woods. In the meadows, the grafs itfelf, 
■ which was then but r.x inch'»s high, and which is very 
Bn^e, coqld not efcape, but was trampled, faded, and laid 
quite flat to the earth. 

The height of the hurricane palled at a league from 
my v'^bitation ; and yet my houfe, which was built on 
piles,^ would have been overturned, had I not fpeediLy 
propped it with a timber, with the great end in the 
earth, and nailed to the houfe with an iron hook fcven, 
or eight inch-^s long! Several houfes of our poft were 
overturned. But i: was happy for us in this fcolony, that 
the height of the huriirane paflTed not direftly over any 
poft, but obliquely traverfed the Miflifippi, over a coun- 
try intirely uninhabited. As this hurricane came from 
the fouth, it fo fwelied thq fea, that the Miflifippi flowed 
back againft its current^ fo as to rife upwards of fifteen 



C H A P. VII. 

^irft War with the Natchez. Cau/e of the Tf^grJ 

IN the fame year, towards the end of fummer, we had 
the firft war with the Natchez. The French had 
fettled at the Natchez, without any oppofition from thefe 
people J fo far from oppofing them, they did them a great 
deal of iervice, and gave them very material aififtance 
in procuring provifions j for thofe, who were fent by 
the Weft India Company with the firft fleet, had been 
detained at New Orleans. Had it not been for the na^ 
tives, the people muft have perifhed by famine and dif- 
irefs : for, how excellent foever a new country may be, 
it muft be cleared, grubbed u'p, and fown, and then at 
leaft we are to wait the firft ,harveft, or crop. But du- 
ring all that time people muft live, and the company 
was well apprized of this, as they had fent, with the 
eight hundred men they had tranfported to Louifiana, 
provifions for three years. The grantees and planters, 
obliged to treaii or truck for provifions with the Natchez, 
in confequence of that faw their funds wafted, and them- 
felves incapable of forming fo confiderable a fettlement, 
without this trucking, as neceflary, as it was frequent. 

However, fome benefit refulted from this ; namely, 
that the Natchez, enticed by the facility cf trucking 
for goods, before unknown among them, as /ufils, gun- 
powder, lead, brandy, linen, cloths, and other like 
things, by means of an exchange of what they abound- 
ed* with, came to be more and more attached to the 
F.»?richi and would ' have continued very ufeful friends, 
had not the little fatisfa£lion which the commandant of 
Fort Rofalie had given them, for the mift>ehaviour of 
one of his foldiers, alienated their minds. This fort 
covered the Settlement of the Natchez, and protefled 
that of St. Catharine, which was on the banks of the 
rivulet of the Natchez j but both the defence and protec- 

D 2 tion 


tion it afforded were very inconflderable ; for this fort 
was only pallifaJoed, open at fix breaches, without a 
ditch, and with a very weak garrifon. On the other 
hand, the houfes of the inhabitants, though confiderably 
numerous, were of thennfelves of no ftrength; and then 
the inhabitants, difperfed in the country, each amidil 
his field, far from affording mutual afTiflance, as they 
would had they been in a body, flood each of them» 
upon any accident, in need of the affiflance of others. 

A young foldier of Fort Rofalie had given fome credit 
to an old warrior of a village of the Natchez } which 
was that of the White Apple, each village having its 
peculiar name : the warrior, in return, was to give him 
fome corn. Towards the beginning of the winter 1723, 
this foldier lodging near the fort, the old warrior came 
to fee him ; the foldier infifled on his corn ; the native 
anfwered calmly, that the corn was not yet dry 
enough tofhake out the grain ; that befides^his wife had 
been ill, and that he would pay him as Yoon as pofli- 
ble. The young man, little fatisfied with this anfwer, 
threatned to cudgel the old man : upon which, thi* lafl, 
who was in the foldier's hut, affronted It this threat, 
told him, he (hould turn out, and try who was the befl 
man. On this challenge, the foldier, calling out mur- 
der, brings the guard to his affiftance. The guard being 
come, the young fellow prefTed them to fire upon the 
warrior, who was returning to his village at his ufual 
pace } a foldier was imprudent enough to fire : the old 
man dropt down. The commandant was foon apprized 
of what happened, and came to the fpot ; where the wit- 
nefTes, both French and Natchez, informed him of the 
fa£l. Both juflice and prudence demanded td take an 
exemplary punifhment of the foldier; but he got off 
with a reprimand. After this the natives made a litter, 
afld carried off their warrior, who died the following 
flight of his wounds, though the fufil was only charged 

with great fhot. 



Revtnge ii the predominant pafllon of the people ia 
America : fo that we ought not to be furprized, if thi 
death of this old warrior ralfed his whole village againft; 
the French. The reft of the nation took no part at firft 
in the quarrel. v 

The firft efFe£l of the refentment of the Natchez fell 
upon a Frenchman named M. Guenot, whom they 
furprized returning from the fort to St. Catharine, and 
upon another inhabitant, whom they killed in his bed. 
Soon after they attacked, all in a body, the fettlement 
of St. Catharine, and the other below Fort Rofalie. It^ 
was at this laft I had fixed my abode : I therefore faw 
myfelf expofed, like many others, to pay with my goodly 
and perhaps my lifb, for the rafhnefs of a foldier, and 
the too great indulgence of his captain. But aa I waa 
already acquainted with the charader of the people we 

had to deal with, I defpaired not to fave both. I there- 
fore barricadoed myfelf in my houfe, and having put 
myfelf in a pofture of defence, when they came in the 
night, according to their cuftom, to furprize me, they 
durft not attack me. 

This firft attempt, which I juftly imagined was to be 
followed by another, if not by many fuch, made me re- 
folve, as foon as day came, to retire under the fort, as 
all the inhabitants alfo did, and thither to carry all the 
provifions I had at my lodge. I could execute only half 
of my fcheme. My flaves having begun to remove the 
beft things, I was fcarce arrived under the fort, but the 
commandant begged I might put myfelf at the head of 
a detachment of the inhabitants, to. go to fuccour St. 
Catharine. He had already fent thither all his garrifon, 
referving only five men to guard the fort ; but this fuc- 
cour was not fufficient to relieve the fettlement, which 
the natives in great numbers vignroufly ftraitned. 

I departed without delay : we heard the firing at a dif- 
tance, but the noife ceafed as foon ^s I was conic, and 

P 3 the 


the natives appeared to have retired : they had, doubtlcfs, 
difcovercd mc on my march, and the fight of a reinforcc- 
ment which I had brought with me, deceived them. The 
officer who commanded the detachment of the garrifon, 
and whom I relieved, returned to the fort with his men j 
and the command being thus devolved on me, I caufcd 
'a\\ the Negroes to be aflemblcd, and ordered them to cut 
down all the buflics ; which cov9ring the country, fa- 
voured the approach of the enemy, quite to the doors of 
the houfcs of that Grant. This operation was performed 
without moleftation,* if you except a few' (hot, fired by 
the natives from the woods, where they lay concealed on 
the other fide of the rivulet ; for the plain round St. Ca- 
tharine being entirely cleared of every thing that could , 
fcreen them, they durft not ihew themfclves any more. 

However, the commandant of Fort Rofalie fent to treat 
with the Stung Serpent j in order to prevail with him ta 
appeafe that part of his nation, and procure a peace. As 
that great warrior was our friend, he effcdtually laboured 
therein, and ho^ilities ceafed. After I had paiTed twenty <( 
four hours in St. Catharine, I was relieved by a new de- 
tachment from the inhabitants, whom, in my turn, I re- 
lieved next day. It was on this fecond guard, which I 
mounted, that the village we had been at war with fent me, 
liy their deputies, the calumet ov pips of peace. I at firft had 
(ome thoughts of refufing it, knowing that this honour was 
due to the commandant of the fort ; and it appeared to me 
a thing fo much the more delicate to deprive him of it, as 
we jvere not upon very good terms with each other, 
Howeyer, the evident rjfk of giving occafion to protraft 
the war, by refufing it, determined me to accept of it j 
after having, however, taken the advice of thofe about 
me i who all judged it proper to treat thefe people gently, 
to whom the commandant was become odious. 

lanced the deputies, what they would have? They 
gnTwered, faultcring, Peace. ** GooJ, fai?^ Ij but why 

" brin^ 


^ bring you the Ctdumet of Peace to me ? It if to the 
« Chief of the Fort you are to carry it, if you wi(h to 
«« have a Peace." Our orders, faid they, are to carry it 
*< firft'to you, if yoii choofe to receive it, by only fmolcing 
•* therein : after which we- will carry it to the Chief of 
<* the Fort ) but if you refufe receiving it, our orders are 
" to return." 

Upon this I told them, that I agreed to fmoke in their 
pipe, on condition they would carry it to the Chief of the 
Fort. They then made me an harangue ; to which I 
anfwered,' that it were beft to refume our former manner 
of living together, and ih^t the French and the Red-nun 
fhould entirely forget whit had pafled. To conclude, 
that they had nothing further to do, but to go and carry 
the Pipe to the Chief of the Fort, and then go home and 
deep in peace. 

This was the i/Tue of the firfl war we had with the 
^Natchez, which jafted only three or four days. 

The commerce, or truck, was fet again on the fame 
footing it had been before ; and thofe who had fuffered 
any damage, now thought only how they might beft repair 
it. Some time after, the Major General arrived from 
New Orleans, being fent by the Governor of Louifiana 
to ratify the peace ; which he did, and mutual fincerity 
was reftored, and became as perfe(^ as if there had never 
been any rupture between us. 

It had been much to be wifhed, that matters had re- 
mained on fo good a footing. As we were placed in one 
of the beft and fineft countries of the world ; \Vere i;i 
ftri£l: connexion with the natives, from whom we derived 
tnuch knowledge of the nature of the produilions of the 
country, and of the animals of all forts, with which it 
abounds j and liiccwifc reaped great advantage in cur traf- 
fick for furs and provifions j and were aided by them in 
many laborious works, we wanted nothing but a p.ofound 

^4 peace, 












^ lift 

£ l:^ 12.0 


11.25 11.4 

■ 22 





A>V ^^ ^ 












WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 





peace, in order to form folid fettlements, capable of mak- 
ing us lay afide all thoughts of Europe : but Providence 
had otherwife ordered. . 

The winter which fuccecded 'this war was fo fevere, 
that a colder was never remembered. The rain fell in 
icicles in fuch quantities as to aftonifh the oldeft Natchez, 
to whom this great cold appeared new and uncommon* 

Towards the autumn of this year I faw a phsenomenon 
which ftruck the fuperftitious with great terror : it was 
in efFeft fo extraordinary, that I never remember to have 
heard of any thing that either refembled, or even came up 
to it. I had juft fupped without doors, iii order to enjoy 
the cool of the evening ; my face was turned to the weft, 
and I fat before rriy table to examine fome planets which 
had already appeared. I perceived a glimmering light, 
which made me raife my eyes ; and immediately I faw, at 
the elevation of about 45 degrees above the horizon, a 
light pfoceeding from the fouth, of the breadth of three 
inches, which went off to the north, always fpreading itfelf 
as it moved, and made itfelf heard by a whizzing light 
like that of the largeft fky-rocket. I judged by the eye 
that this light could not be above our atmofphere, and the 
whizzing noife which I heard confirmed me in that 
notion. When it came in like manner to be about 45 
degrees to the north above the horizon, it ftopped fhort, 
and ceafed enlarging itfelf : in that place it appeared to be 
twenty inches broad ; fo that in its courfe, which had 
been very rapid, it formed the figure of a trumpet-marine, 
and left in its paflage very lively fparks, ihining brighter 
than thofe which fly from under a fmith's hammer ; but 
they were extinguiflxed almoft as faft as they were emit- 

At the north elevation I juft mentioned, there ifltied 
Out with a great noife from the middle of the large 
end, a ball quite round, and all on fire : this ball was about 
fix inches in diameter j it fell below the horizon to the 



north, and emitted, about twenty minutes after, a hollow, 
but very loud noife for the fpace of a minute^ which ap- 
peared to come from a great diftance. The light began 
to be weakened to the fouth, after emitting" the ball, and 
at length difappeared, before the nbife of the ball was 


ITte Governor furprixed the Natchez with /even hundred Men. 
AJioniJhing Cures performed by the Natives. The Author 
fends upwards of three hundred Simples to the Company. 

MDe Biainville, at the beginning of the winter 
• which followed this phaenomenon, arrived Mtty 
privately at our quarter of the Natchez, his march hav- 
ing been communicated to none but the Commandant of 
this Poft, who had orders to feize all the Natchez that 
ihould come to the Fort that jday, to prevent the news of 
his arrival being carried to their countrymen. He brought 
with him, in regular troops. Inhabitants and natives, who 
were our allies, to the number of feve^ hundred men. 

Orders were given that all our fettlers at the Natchez 
ihould repair before his door at midnight at the lateft : I 
went thither and mixed with the croud, without making 
myfelf known. 

We arrived two hours before day at the fettlement of 
St. Catharine. The Commandant having at length found 
me out, ordered me, in the King's name, to put myfelf 
at the head of the fettlers among the Natchez, and to 
take the command upon me ; and thefe he ordered to pay 
the fame obedience to me as to himfelf. We advanced 
with great filence towards the village of the Apple. It 
may be eafily feen that all this precaution was taken in 
order to furprize our enemies, who ought fo much the 
lefs to exped this aA of hoftility, as they had fairly made 
/ , peace 


peace with us, and as M. Paillou, Major General, had 
come and ratified this peace in behalf of the Governor. 
We marched to the enemy and inverted the firft hut of 
the Natchez, which we found feparate ; the drums, in 
concert with the fifes, beat the charge } we fired upon 
the hut, in which were only three men and two women. 

From thence we afterwards moved on to the village, 
that is, to feveral huts that ftood together in a row. Wc 
halted at three of them that lay near each other, in 
which between twelve and fifteen Natchez had entrenched 
thcmfelves. By our manner of proceeding one would 
have thought that we came only to view the huts. Full 
of indignation that none exerted himfelf to fall upon 
them, I took upon me with my men to go round and take 
the enemy in rear. They took to their heels, and I pur- 
fued i but we had need of the fwiftnefs of deer to be able 
to come up with them. I came fo near, however, that they 
threw away their cloaths, to run with the greater fpeed. 

I rejoined our people, and exped^ed a reprimand for hav- 
ing forced the enemy without orders ; though I had my 
excufe ready. But here I was miftaken ; for I met with 
nothing but encomiums. 

This v^rar, of which I ftiall give no further detail, lafted 
only four days. M. de Biainville demanded the head of 
an old mutinous Chief of this village j and the natives, in 
order to obtain a peace, delivered him up. 

I happened to live at fome diftance from the village of 
the Apple, and very feldom faw any of the people. Such 
iis lived nearer had more frequent vifits from them j but 
after this war, and the peace which followed upon it, I 
never faw one of them. My neighbours who lived nearer 
to them faw but a few of them, even a long time after the 
conclufion of the war. The natives of the other villages 
came but very feldom among us ; and indeed, if we could 
have (ione well without them, I could have wifted to have 








been rid of them for ever. But we had neither a flcih nor 
a fifh-market j therefore, without them, we muft have 
taken up with what the poultry-yard and kitchen-garden 
furnifliedj which would have been extremely inconve- 

I one day flopped the Stung Serpent, who was pafling 
without taking notice of any one. He was brother to 
the Great Sun, and Chief of the Warriors of the Natchez. 
I accordingly called to him, and faid, '* We were formerly 
friends, '* are we no longer fo ?" He anfwered, Noco; that 
is, I cannot tell. I replied, " You ufed to come to my 
houfe ; at prefent you pais by. Have you forgot the 
way ; or is my houfe difagreeable to you ? As for me, 
my heart* is always the fame, both towards you and 
all my friends. I am not capable of changing, why 
then are you changed ?" 

He took fome time to anfwer, and feemed to be embar- 
rafled by what I faid to him. He never went to the fort, 
but when fent for by the Commandant, who put me upon 
founding him j in order to difcover whether his people ftill 
retained any grudge. . / 

He at length broke filence, and told me, ** he was 

•* afliamed to have been fo long without feeing me ; but 

*' I imagined, faid he, that you were difpleafed at our 

♦* nation ; becaufe among all the French who were in 

*« the war, you w^re the only one that fell upon us.'* 

You are in the wrong," faid I, " to think fo, M. de 

Biainville being our War-chief, we are bound to obey 

** him ; in like manner as you, though a Sun, areoblfged 

«* to kill, orcaufe to be killed, whomfoever your brother, 

*« the Great Sun, orders to be put to death. Many other 

'* Frenchmen, bcfides me, fought an opportunity to attack 

** your countrymen, in obedience to the orders of M. de 

" Biainville ; and feveral other Frenchmen fell upon the 

«' neareft hut, one of whom was killed by the firft fliot 

ff which the Natchez fired," 

: • ■ ' . He 




He then faid : " I did not approve, as you know, the 
•« war our people made upon the French to avenge the 
*« death of their relation, feeing I made them carry the 
<« pipe ef peace to the French. This you well know, 
«« as you firft fmoked in the pipe yourfelf. Have the 
<« French two hearts, a good one to-day, and to-morrow 
«* * a bad one ? As for my brother and me, we have but 
«* one heart and one word. Tell me then, if thou art, as 
*« thou fayeft, my true friend, what thou thinkeft of all 
*« this, and (hut thy mouth to every thing elfe. We 
« know not what to think of the French, who, after 
«' having begun the war, granted a peace, and offered it 
•< of themfelves j and then at the time we were quiet, 
** believing ourfelves to be at peace, people come to kill 
*< us, without faying a word. 

" Why," continued he, with an air of difpleafurc, 
<« did the French come into our country ? We did not go 
<* to feek them : they afked for land of us, becaufe their 
** country was too little for all the men that were in it. 
*« We told them they might take land where they pleafed, 
*' there was enough for them and for us j that it was 
" good the fame fun Ihould enlighten us both, and that 
<* we w6u1d wallc as friends in the fame path ; and that 
«< we would give them of our provifions, aflBft them to 
" build, and to labour in their fields. We have done fo ; 
" is not this true ? What occafion then had we for 
** Frenchmen ? Before they came, did we not live better 
<* than we do, feeing we deprive ourfelves of a part of 
" our cornj our game, and fifti, to give a part to them ? 
<' In what refpedt, then, had we occafion for them ? Was 
** it for their guns ? The bows and arrows which we ufed, 
** were fufficient to make us live well. Was it for their 
** white, blue, and red blankets ? We can do well enough 
'* with buffalo (kins, which are warmer ; our women 
*' wrought feather-blankets for the winter, and mulberry- 
** mantles for the fummer ; which indeed were not fo 
'( beautiful ; but our 'women were more laborious and 

" lefg 


O F L O U 1 S I A N A. 45 

«< lefs vain than they are now. In fine, before the 
•* arrival of the French, we lived like men who can be 
•' fatisfied with what they have j whereas at this day we 
<< are like Haves, who are not fufFered to do as they 
«« pleafe." • >, 

To this unexpefled difcourfe I know not what anfw^r 
another would have made ; but I frankly own, that if at 
my firft addrefs he feemed to be confufed, I really was fo 
in my turn. «* My heart," faid I ta him, *' better un- 
<' derftands thy reafons Chan my ears, though they are full 
« of them ; and though I have a tongue to anfwer, my 
** ears have not heard the reafons of M. de Biainville, to 
« tell them thee : but I know it was necefTary to have the 
•< head he demanded, in order to a peace. When our 
<* Chiefs command us, we never require the reafons : I 
" can fay nothing elfe to thee. But to (hew you that 
** I am always your real friend, I have here a beautiful' 
** pipe of peace^ which I wanted to carry to my own 
" country. I know you have ordered all your warriors 
<< to kill fome white eagles, in order to makeone, becaufe 
** you have occafion for it. I give it you without any 
<< other defign than to fhew you that I reckon nothing 
^^ dear to4ne, when I want to do you a pleafure." 

I went to look for it, and 1 gave it him, telling him, 
that it was without deftgn\ that is, according to them, 
from no interefled motive. The natives put as great a 
value on 2ipipe of peace as on a gun. Mine was adorned 
with tinfel and filver wire : fo that in their eftimation my 
pipe was worth two guns. He appeared to be extremely 
well pleafed with it ; put it up haftily in his cafe, fqueezed 
my hand with a fmile, and called me his true friend. 

The winter was now drawing to a clofe, and in a little 
time the natives were to bring us bear-oil to truck. I 
hoped that by his means I fhould have of the beft pre- 
ferably to any other ; which was the only compenfation 
I expet^ed for my pipe. But I was agreeably difap- 


46 T H E H I S t O R V 

pointed. , He font mc a deei-1<in of bcar-oil, To very larffe 
that a ftout man could hardly carry it, and the bearer told 
me, that he fcnt it tome as to his true friend, xvithout r/rf-. * 
ftgn. This dccr-fkin contained thirty-one pots of the mea- 
fureof the country, orfixty-two pints Paris mcafure. 

Three days after, the Great Sun, his brother, fent me 
another deer-(kin of the fame oil, to the quantity of forty 
pints. The commoncft fort fold this year at twenty fols 
a pint, and I was fure mine was not of the worft kind. 

For fome days a fifiula lacrymalis had come into my left 
eye, which difcharged an humour, when prcfled, that 
portended danger. I (hewed it to M. St. Hilairc, an able 
iurgcon, who had praftifcd for about twelve years in the 
Hotel Dieu at Paris. , '» 

He told me it was neccflliry to ufe the fire for it j and 
that, notwithftanding this operation, my fight would re- 
main as good as ever, only my eye would be blood-fliot : 
and that if I did not fpeedily fet about the operation, the 
bone of the nofc would become carious. 

Thcfe rcafons gave me much uncafinefs, as having both 
to fear and to fuffer at the fame time : however, after 1 
had refolved to undergo the operation, the Grand Sun and 
his brother came one morning very early, with a man 
loaded with game, as a prefent for me. 

The Great Sun obfcrved I had a fwelling in my eye, 
and afked me what was the matter with it. I (hewed it 
him, and told him, that in order to cure it, I muft have 
fire put to it; but that I had fome difficulty to comply, as 
I dreaded the confequences of Cuch an operation. With- 
out replying, or in the Icaft apprizing me, he ordered the 
man who brought the game to go in queft of his phyfician, 
and tell him, he waited for hint at my houfe. The mef- 
ienger and phyfician made fuch difpatch, that this laft 
came in an hour after. The Great Sun ordered him to 
lopk at my eye, and endeavour to cure me : after examin- 


ingit, the phyficlan faid, he would undertake to cure mc 
with ftmples and common water. I confcntcd to this with 
fo much the greater picafure and rcadincfs, as by this treat- 
ment I ran no manner of ri(que. 

That very evening the phyfician came with his fimples, 
all pounded together, and making but a fmgle ball, which 
he put with the water in a deep bafon, he made me bend 
my head into it, fo as the eye affctSlcd flood dipt quite 
open in the water. I continued to do fo for eight or ten 
days, morning and evening} after which, without any- 
other operation, I was perfeftly cured, and never after 
had any return of the diforder. 

It is cafy from this relation to undcrftand what dextrous 
phyficians the natives of Louifiana are. I have fccn 
them perform furprifing cures on Frenchmen j on two 
efpecially, who had put themfclves under the hands of a 
French furgeon fettled at this poft. Both patients were 
about to undergo the grand cure j and after having been 
under the hands of the furgeon for fome time, their heads 
fwelled to fuch a degree, that one of them made his 
efcape, with as much agility as a criminal would from the 
hands of jufticc, when a favourable opportunity offers. 
He applied to a Natchez phyfician, who cured him in 
eight days : his comrade continuing ftill under the French 
furgeon, died under his hands three days after the efcape 
of his companion, whom I faw three years after in a ftate 
of perfeft health. 

In the war which I lately mentioned, the jrrand Chief 
of the Tonicas, our allies, was wounded with a ball, 
which went through his cheek, came out under the jaw, 
again entered hi^ body at the neck, and pierced, through 
to the flioulder-blade, lodging at lafl between the flefh and 
the (kin : the wound had its direction in this manner; 
^ecaufe when he received it, he happened to be in a ftoop- 
ing pofture, as were all his men, in order to fire. The 
French furgeon, under whofc care he was, and who 



drcifed him with great precaution, was art able man, and 
fpared no pains in order to cffi?«^ a cure. Dut the phyfi- 
cians of this Chief, who vifited him every day, afked the 
Frenchman what time the cure would take ? he aiifwered, 
fix weeks at lealt : they returned no anfwer, ^ut went 
directly and made a litter ( fpoke to their Chief, and put 
him on it, carried him off, and treated him in tueir own 
manner, and in eight days effeilcd a complete cure. 

Thcfe are fatSls well known in the colony. The phyft- 
cians of the country have performed many other ^ures, 
which, if they were to be all related, would require a 
whole volume apart ; but I have confined myfelf to the 
three above mentioned, in order to (hew that diforders 
frequently accounted almoft incurable, ai-e, without any 
painful operation, and in a fliort time, cured by phyfi- 
cians, natives of Louifiana. . 

The Weft India Company being Informed that this 
province produces a great many fimplcs, whofe virtues, 
known by the natives, aftbded fo eafy a cure to all forts 
of di(Vempcrs, ordered M. de la Chaife, who was fent from 
France in quality of Diref^or General of this colony, to 
caufe enquiry to be made into the fimples proper for phy- 
ftck and for dying, by means of fome Frenchmen, who 
might perhaps be makers of the fecrets of the natives. 
I was pointed out for this purpofe to M. de la Chaife, 
who was but juft arrived, and who wrote to me, defiring 
my aflidance in this enquiry } which I gave him with 
pleafure, and in which I exerted myfelf to my utmoft, 
becaufe I well knew the Company continually aimed at 
what might be for the benefit of the colony. 

After I thought I had done in that refpe£^, what might 
give fatisfadion to the Company, I tranfplanted in earth, 
put into cane bafkets, above three hundred fimples, with 
their numbers, and a memorial, which gave a detail of 
their virtues, and taught the manner of ufing them. I af« 
terwards underftood ;Sat they were planted in a botanic 
garden made for the purpofe, by order of the Company. 




C H A r. IX. 

KiPnch Setthfintfu "'* P<!/h. The Pof} at Mnbilc. 7he 
Afouths o/' //v MKTifippi. The Situation atirl Dfjityttioft 
cj New Orleans. 

TIIK Settlement at Mohllc was the fttft fciit of the 
colony in this province. It was the refidcnce nf 
the Commnndant General, the Commill'nty General, tho 
Staft-officers, 5£c. As veflcls coiiM not enter the livcr 
Mobile, and there wns a fmall harbour at Klc Dauphine, 
a fcttlemcnt was made fuited to the harbour, with a guard- 
lioufc for its fecurity : fo that thclb two fettlcments may 
be faid to have made but one \ both on account of their 
proximity, .md neccUary connefliou with each other. Ths 
fcttlcment of Mobile, ten leagues, however, from its har- 
bour, lies on the banks of the river of that name ) and IHo 
Dauphine, over ag^ninft the mouth of that river, is four 
leagues from the coafl*. 

Though the fettlemcnt of Mobile be the oKleft, yet it 
is far from being the moft confiderable. Only fame inha- 
bitants remained there, the greateft part of the firft inha- 
bitants having left It, in order to fettle on the river Mifll- 
fippi, ever fincc New Orleans became the capital of the 
colony. That old poft is the ordinary refidcnce of si 
King's Lieutenant, a Regulating CommifTary, and a 
Treafurer. The fort, with four baftions, terraced and 
palifaded, has a garrifon. 

This poft is a check upon the nation of ChotSlaws, and 
cuts off the communication of the Englifh with them ; it 
pr6te(^8the neighbouring nations, and keeps them in our 
alliance} in fine, it fupports our peltry trade, which is 
confiderable with the Cho<^aws and other nations *. 

E The 

• Fort Lewii at Mohite »• built tipon the river that beats the fume 
nome, which falls into the Tea opporue to Dauphine ifland. The fort ii 
»bou| I j «r |6 leagues diftant from that ifland j and is built of biijrlc, for- 



rhr ('.\mr \r:\\\\\\ \\\\\\\\ pi»inin| nut tlu'HnrfttlV of iMn 
|ini^» with \v\\\r\^\ \is \\\v l'hi»<»;uv% rtllM (hrwrti tlir nr- 
tPlt^ty of hmMlHji rt lott H ro»oluihr, \,\ r\\n\ \\\r I'.H- 
j4lil)\ \\\ \\\n\ A\\\\\\\\t'>\\^ \\r\\i oti tht* Hilr nl tlir I hl«!t- 
!rt\v«. I l<:U r»>H U:M ImiIIi tMil\ llot f tl\r \V:U with the 
ChliAJHwn in 17^0. 

NrrtV lhr»<yT» ^tt^^ilr• OrtOiln ttlr fh\!<l! IrHtrlOrot of tht* 
IVui-rt Ojiool:^n t \vlo»h toolirt* only ol ;i f.-w rrto?<ili!Oi% 
\\\\v\% of firti^tpnllih » uhifh \\\v\' |Mr(V'i «o nil tlv ml\:oi 
H^vK thrv toulil trj^p fWiOl io»o»1lr«rr. '\\\ry tt)\\\r\\i 
^\\v\\\\'r\\rn \vi»h rt lVuf)rtl touMtjy lH'i'» ttMil ncvci go to 
NfW OHrrtO* \y\\\ {\>\ UrrrfVtnir!!. 

^'vom »h;i» fHilrn^tht tptitf fo NfW ( >»lr;^n^ In- flu* \viy 
rif |,:\>trSf. t,oni!»^ thiMr i<< »\o |M»fH»t jMrlVot. roHMri 
h% «o*l jufn>rfoyr ihr iMtililiOji^ol t!uM!\plhil, llinrwne 
\\\v oM rtO\f Mrw Milo^i : frHlfMUror-^ vvhlrh htUr iltlrufil 
»4\oMivi'Mi rt« Irtftiofi n» \\\t\\ ilioivtion \v:i!<fliott. 

1'o|M"Ovrnf wiihohlrr rtoil prlfpicuify^ We will go Up 

xW ^^l^l\^^p^ fuMo its ouMoh. 

l^Vn l<:OHV is rtt fhrrMflrtOrr of \\\v Mlrtinmi^ ht -Jq'* 
ilr-^^^vrs^ No\ih I :\tim»|p^ rti\<l ^HfV* ;^«t' i»r i,ooglt«ulf. 
ihi-^ f\vH is hillf on rth iflr^ rtt «m«« of ihr muufh^of thrj 
^<i(Ufippi. Thi^* tf\rh' Hu^ \\\n fi'vrnnrH Irrl Wrt»p» itt 
ihr iiuni\»l» 1 h-Avr firi\ vrlUU of Rve hniulied umrufvr 

li^^o.^ \v\ih t\^«v ^m\(vm\^, ?rt »h^ H^vs««vor VNiiSurt, w-M^ l<ilr m»rt««, « 
t\Nvr\»i< WAV «M |»Uti» 1hf>«» »« A rtM>ji,i»<»(f U ity vvhli iMinArlt* frt> th» 
tu^ofi^ ot the KiitvilVm) which it ivucuUy {netiy tiumrtt)Uf» AHd il(1*| fdt 
the r<Htv»rtS»n>hrtti 

\ w^rt w\vrt» t ««y*t t«N«M fc* fot whut »»*rttrt »hU Hjh wji lutllt^ nt 
%h»\ tT^«Vvi h« \\\t wft ^^f U. t"ttr ^lhh^^«\(^h i» Ik ho l»«|Vt«i ftbm ths t^|»U 
t,'*^ ^1^ ^'rt »i<<^Nvrt ^Sr Hvfv> Vrt <t U f\Mm thr«r« \\\i\ »hi^y wn>rt h«v«rv<»rjr 
«h\)\<ithM W nerp1)^< V l\^v the l^NfiMt l^r ihp lAnUi^t^ t KHif the Ihti ii lb hid» 
fc«\n| Amhirt|h\u V»nrf. thn ^tpv,^v^\^*e» no\hh\ft h«t j»it\e« rtml rtM» »lll« 
fclUtIf ptt\<V, whivh ityiwo there hut vevy 4rtt<il1'e\ei«lv « fmhrtt thert •»* 
Kvw hwt vr\> iVw fft»f^r. 1'he ortlv »rtv*ntAft«« «t' thin j^Urr l», thrtJ \\\% 
t\\n m»H ArtA he»hh«\»<, *n<< »h<n <t erthwU •irAiHctt wlih iha 8|i««l(»Hi 
%h<> •»* tttit U, the wSntei^ is the me<^ rtijveeAbie IV!4lbtt>4i U U miL^ 
xnx* »rttit>ii r^'^'^^y '*♦ IH*we. tt\it ^n l\\mme» the ht'At« fthe esctflU-e ) ««»! 
the ti^hthhiws h«\e «inh<tt(i h^My t«> live «|*rtrt h«t Aft^i which •>« ptt»|f 
(ticrtiit'ul otttht irdAit) Mi ta the iivtt»« i)kH>r«irr| lU l)o« 

, / 

{)V 1 n If I « I A N A. ' ^» 

n<( Wf rt«r »)itf III vvMiiMil nlili- ^lll♦lllf'f^•l In K^!lMf•^, In f|(«« 
liV'l»;«Mllr 111 iMf h, II niiMif til" itiiifjifmnflci hi wlil«-|i f 
hnvf Minlf ti(i|)lyMl iiivrrlC. I IriKuv i( Im hm fnlv fiifittfjTM 
»iHl»'f'|U'Hni IimIIjhV tiif I liiiiii' I hf !i luH, flini |i tuny hrvff 
tiltff urril rlrstilMtr* ttti'l Mint tlir* fvprtirf «» mki |i||«|| ; fm^ 
luy frill 0»t |i|nMiMtlii|» till' rtflvillltilf'f nf tlil^ rftliiliy jm- 
^liip |iifini|itfil iiir tM ttiMJ'r t^f1rf'llMll•( mm tludf prtHl'i, nr 
fnttMiHP"! fit tlir IMliniijipl, tint) (u'ltii^ (ifffti^tlv wfll fir**' 
IjnniiitrtniMtli with tlir iiKiiiiry niitl flu* MMtiiipMf tli»' ImII, 
I »lnH' flrtttr't itirl'll, 1 itltiv In* nlijt* h» itt rfitii(il((li I', tn tlie 
liHMtt JiriipUl III tlir piMvitur, iiMil ^r«|lli^ MiyfrIf tliPtflri 
vlfli litMiMiit^, «t rt litirtll flint t^f, tiiKJ in n itinntier tint to 
licpti irpftitiMti *. 

I liiy, ftitl MhIIU' h ImlU upnti fin Iflfitift \ rt elrriitti- 
flimtr, I liii;i|^liif, liiflhicMt tfi itinki* It undrrlffinti, tli«^ 
♦ lil'i littt h lti»'j!;iiliit I thf H|,Mitf Mild rntfiit of tlilx linall 
llliuiil liitf ti(iiitlttlii^ It to hfotltetwile. 

lit (>MJii|^ up tlif MlltlOppI, Wf iTifft with fmthl»t|5 
h'Mititltrtlilr hfliitf wt" iMiiif to th^ MftfittniiH AM|^lMi«f, 
thr Kiiglilh Kftirh '. hi thnt prift titp tlvrt tfikr<( n inrge 
tmtiprti!!! I To thnt thr futttf' wlinl« which Win ht-foic fMit, 
imn'M niiitirtty Iti thli e'lhow, »»r tenth. Kor this fpnfMti 
it vfnn thtutj^ht pinprt t(» htilld twn hirt* jit thnt pl«ct?< (itie 
tut crtch liile uf tliptlvpt, tM rluM k niiy tittrfiipt-i nf (frwti- 
gfi«. 'I HpIp fotti fltr iiuirp thfin (mIVk ifiit tti <ippo(e the 
Jiiiflii^t* of nn hiittilrpd lull ; «•» Oiips < stii f/M up the fivfr, 
only niif nrtri- jiiioihri, ntiil ctin tieitlict call atithof, uot 
tumtMin finite to htodi* 

It will, prthnp't, hp tluMight fxtMottlitiiiry thnt fhip* 
ciuntot niithoi in ihls iihttT. I hnflwint* the rentier will 

• ?ll»»*ti JRAKltfi* kIki**- tlif ttiMiith (if thr tUttt wr meet wl»h twf» «»ft«f 
|)t(1i!% m Intgr m tlip nilHtHe nt\t hy whielt wc e'tterett t nne \n cullftt ttt» 
Utter Vtd, mid the ntlicf the Fiift Pufi ) eml ihry iihitv Hic, It lintiif hf 
thtu tuft |ii«n« thrtt Mpn iinw pn up nf (town the H«er, they hiving e/ttiiel/ 
defbttett the ititrieitt miiMIr put*. Afimunt, I. 4. 

MMity nthef hiy* ntitl tiverOi tint Itriown in ottr «tilhof«« lying tilort; tht 
hsy of IVIe«lrt», to the w^nwuftt nf the Mifhtlppl. «fc rtefrfiHed fcy Mr, 
CoKVl III hl< Mccoiititof C:ifolliiii, oalletl by the Frerith LoulftiintfiL 


be of my opinion, when I tell him, the bottom Is only 
a foft mud, or ooze, almoft entirely covered with dead 
trees, and this for upwards of an hundred leagues. As 
to putting on (hore, it is equally impofSble and needlefs ' 
to attempt it ; becaufe the place where thefe forts (land, 
is but a neclc of land between the river and the marches : 
now it is impoffible for a {hallop, or canoe, to come near 
to moor a vejiel, in fight of a fort well guarded, or for 
an enemy to throw up a trench in a neck of land fo foft. 
Befides, the fituatlon of the two forts is fuch, that they 
may in a (hort time receive fuccours, both from the inha- 
bitants, who are on the interior edge of the crefcent, 
formed by the river, and from New Orleans, which is ^ 
very near thereto* 

The diftance from this place to the canltal is reckoned 
fix leagues by water, and the courfe nearly circular ; the 
winding, or r^ach, having the figure of aC almoft clofe. 
Both fides of the river are lined with houfes, which afford 
a beautiful profpe£l to the eye ; however, as this voyage 
is tedious by water, it is often performed onhorfe? ick by 

The great difficulties attending the going up the ri, t un- 
der fall, particularly at theEngllfli Reach, for the x ifons 
mentioned, put me upon devlflng a very fimple and heap 
machine, to make veiTels go up with eafe quite to Jew- 
Orleans. Ships are fometimes a month in the iflags 
from Ballfe to the capital ; whereas by my metho they 
would not be eight days, even with a contrary wind ; and 
thus fiiips would go four times quicker than by towing, or 
turning it. This machine might be depoiited at Ballfe, 
and delivered to the vefTel, in order to go up the current, 
and be returned again on its fetting fail. It, is befides pro- 
per to obferve, that this machine would be no detriment 
to the forts, as they would always have it in their power 
to i^6p the veileUof enemies, who might happen to ufe it. 

New Orleans, the capital of the colony, is fituated to 
the Eaft, on the banks bf the Miffifippi, in 30® of North 



Latitude. At my iirfl: arrival in Louiflana, it exifted only 
in name ; for on my landing I underflood M. de Biajn- 
ville, commandant general, was only gone to mark out 
the fpot } whence he returned three days after our arrival at 
Ifle Dauphine. 

He pitched upon this fpot in preference to many others, 
more agreeable and commodious ; but for that time this * 
was a place proper enough : befides, it is not every man 
that can fee fo far as fame others. As the principal fettle- 
ment was then at Mobile, it was proper to have the capi- 
tal fixed at a place from which there could be an eafy com- 
munication with this pod : and thus a better choice could 
not have been made, as the town being on the banks of the 
Miffifippi, veflels, tho* of a thoufand ton, may lay their 
fides clofe to the fhore even at low water ; or at moil, need 
only lay a fmall bridge, with two of their yards, in or- 
der to load or unload, to roll barrels and bales, &c. with-- 
out fatiguing the fhip's crew; This town is only a league 
from St. John's creek, where paflengers take water for 
Mobile, in going to which they pafs Lake St. Loui^, and 
from thence all along the coaft ; a communication which 
was neceiTary at that time. 

I fiiould imagine, that if a town was at this day to be 
built in this province, a rifing ground would be pitched 
upon, to avoid inundations ; befides, the bottom fhould 
be fuffidentiy firm, for bearing grand ftone edifices. 

Such as have been a good way in the country, without 
feeihg ftone, or the leafl pebble, in upwards of a hundred 
leagues extent, will doubtlefs fay, fuch a propofition is 
impoffible, as they never obferved ftone proper for build- 
ing in the parts they travelled over. I might anfwer, and 
tell them, they have eyes, and fee not. I narrowly con- 
fidered the nature of this country, and found quarries in 
it } and if there were any in the colony I ought £0 find 
them, as my condition and profeffion of archited: ihould 
have procured me the knowledge of them. 

E 3 After 


T n E n I S T O R Y 

AfWf g^'ving the f\ti)Atio» of the fapilal, it is pmper I de- 
fcrihethe oider in which it is built. 

The i^t^ccrtf Arms (s in the miJvUe of that part of the 
h>Nvn which faces tlie liver \ in the middle of the ground 
of the place of arms llands the parilh church, called St. 
1 x^iiis^ where the Capuchins officiate* wht^fe houfe is to 
the left of the church. To the right ftaiul the prifon, or 
jail, and the ^uajtl-houfe : hoth fides of the place of arms 
a\T taken up hy two bodies orwws of barracks. This 
place (lands all open to the river, . 

All the (Irccts are laid o\it both in length and breadth 
by the line, and interfe»5l and citift each other at right 
angles. The rti^^ets divide the town into fixty-Hx irtes i 
elex'en Along the river lengthwife, or in front, and fix in 
depth : each of thofe ides is fifty fquare toifes, A!\d each 
again divided into twelve emplacenknts, or compartments^ 
for lodging as manv families. The Intendant*8 houfe 
(lands behind the barracks on the left ^ and the maga- 
»ine, or wai-choufe- general behind the barracks on the 
j-ight, on viewing the town from the river fide. The 
Governor*s houfc (latids in the middle of that part of the 
^)wn, fiK>m vihich \w g-o from the place of arms to the ha- 
bitation of the fefviits, which is near the towni The 
honfc of the Urfulm Nuns is quite at the end of the town, 
to the right 5 as is alfo the hofpital of the fick, of which 
the n\ms hav^e the infpcdion* What I have juft defcribed 
faces the river. 

On the banks of the riN^er runs a caufey, or mole, &% 
well on the fide of the town as on the oppofite fide, {'mm 
the Englifh Reach quite to the town, and about ten 
leagues beyond it ; which makes about fifteen or fixtecn 
leagues cs\\ each fide the river ; and which may be travelled 
in a coach or on horfcback, oti a bottom as finooth as a 

The g;t^atcft part of the houfcs is of brick j the reft 
$n of timber and brick» 



T!ie length ofthecaufeys, 1 juft itientlonntl, tsnifRcietit 
to fhew, thrttoii thefetN^'o fides of the Miflifippi there are 
many habitations ftanding clofe together \ each making a 
caufey to fecure his ground from Imindations, which (all 
not to come every year witn the Cprlng : and at that time, 
if any (hips happen to he in the harbour of New Orleans, 
they Ipcedily fet fail j becaufe the prodigious quantity Of 
dead wood, or trees torn up by the roots, which the river 
brings down, would lodge before the fliip, and break the 
ftottteft cable*. 

At the end of St. fohn's Crctic, on the banks of the 
t/ake vSt. Louis, there is a redoubt, and a guard to defend it. 

From this creek to the town, a part of its banks is In- 
habited by planters j In like manner as are the long banks 
of another creek; the habitations of this lad go under 
the name of Cicntilly. 

After thefe habitations, which are upon the Mifllfippi 
quite beyond the Cannes Brult^es, Burnt Canes, we meet 
none till we come to the Chimas, a petty nation fo called. 
This fettlement is Inronfiderable, tho* one of the oldcft 
next to the capital. It lie* on theeaft of the MilTifippl, 
The Baton Rouge is alfo on the eaft fide of the Mifli- 
fippi, and dillant twenty-fix leagues from New Orleans: 
it was formerly the grant of M. Artaguette d*Iron : it li 
there we fee the famous cyprefs-tree, of which a flilp-car- 
penter offered to make two pettyaugres, one of fixteen, 
the other of fourteen tons. Some one of the firft adveh" 
turers, who landed in this quarter, happened to fay, that 
tree would make a fine Wttlking-ftick j and as cyprefs is a 
red wood, it was afterwards railed le Baton Rouge. Its 
height could ntvcr be me.ifiirc*!, it rifes fo out of fight. 

Two IcagueB higher up than le Baton Rouge, was the 
Grant of M. Paris du Vernal. This fettlement is called 
Bayou-O^oulas, from a nation of that name, which for- 
merly dwelt here. It is on the well: fide of the Miffifippi, 
and twenty-eight leagues from New Orleans, 

1^ 4 At 


Atalttftguo on this fide of Pointt Coup^) arc les Petits 
Ecorei^ (little Cliffs) where was the grant of the Mar*^ 
tjuis de Mezieres. At this grant were a diredor and under- 
dii'c^Jtor \ but the furgeon fbund out the fccret of reniam- 
ing fole mafter. The place is very beautiful, efpecialiy 
behind les Petits Ecores» where we go up by a gentle af- 
cent. Near thefeclifts, a rivulet falls into the Miflifippi, 
into which a fpring difcharges its waters, which lb attradl 
the bufFalo*s^ that they are very often found on its hanks. 
' Tis a pity this ground was dcfcrted ; there was enough of 
it to make a very confiderable grant : a good water-mill 
might be built on the brook I jult mentioned. 

At forty leagues from New Orleans lies la Pointe Cou- 
pfe, fo called, becaufe the Miflifippi made there an elbow 
or winding, and formed the figure of a circle, open only 
about an hundred and odd toifcs, thro* which it made it*v 
felf a fllorter way^ and where all its water runs at prcfcnt, 
This was not the vmxk of nature alone : two travellers, 
coming down the MiHifippi, were forced to (lop fliort at 
this place ; becaufe they obferved at a diilance the furfT, 
or waves, to be very high, the wind beating againil the 
current, and the river being out, fo that they durft not 
venture to proceed. Juft by them pafled a rivulet^ 
caufcd by the inundation, which might be a foot deep, by 
four br five feet broad, more or lefs. One of the travel- 
lers, feeing himfelf without any thing to do, took his fufii 
and followed the courfeof this rivulet, in hopes of killing 
fome game. He had not gone an hundred toifes, before 
• he was put into a very great furprize, on perceiving a great 
' opening, as when one is juft getting out of a thick fo- 
left. He continues to advance, fees a large extent of wa- 
ter, which he takes for a lake j but turning on his left, ho 
efpics les Petits Ecores, juft mentioned, and by experience 
he knew, he muft go ten leagues to get thither : Upon 
this he knew, thefe were the waters of the rivrr. He 
runs to acquaint his companion : this laft wants to be furc 
of it : certain as tlvey are both of it, they refolve, that 

5 it 


it WM neceflliry to cut away the roots, which ftood in tho 
paflage, and to level the more elevated places* They atw 
tempted at lehgth to pafi their pettyaugre thrbugh, by 
pulhing it before them.- They fuceeeded beyond their 
expectation 1 the water which camO on, aided them ns 
much by its weight as by its depth, which was incrcafed 
by the obftacle it met in (its way : and they faw them- 
felves in a (hort tihie in the Miififtppt, ten leagucu lower 
down than they were an hour before ) or than they would 
have been, if they had followed the bed of tho river, as 
they were formerly conftrained to do. 

This little labour of our travellers moved the earth ; 
the roots being cut away in part, proved no longer an ob- 
ftacle to the courfe of the water ) the flope or defcont in 
this fmall paflage was equal to that in the river for the ten 
leagues of the eompafs it took } in fine, nature, though 
feebly aided, performed the reft. The firft time I went 
up the river, its entire body of water paflcd through this 
part ) and though the channel was only made Ax years be^ 
fore, the old bed was almoft filled with the oose, which 
the river had there depofited ; and I have feen trees grow- 
ing there of an a(loni(hing ftze, that one might wonder 
how they ihould come to be fo large in fo (hort a time. 

In this fpot, which Is called la Pointe Couple, thb 
Cut-point, was the Grant of M. de Meufe, at prcfent 
one of the moft confiderable polls of the colony, with a 
fort, a garrifon, and an officer ro command there. The 
river is on each fide lined with inhabitants, who make a 
great deal of tobacco. There an Infpedlor refulcs, who 
examines and receives it, in order to prevent the mer- 
chants being defrauded. The inhabitants of the weft fide 
have high land? behind them, which form a very fine 
country, as I have obferved above. 

Twenty leagues above this Cut-point, and fixty leagues 
from New Orleans, we meet with the Red River. In an 
jfland formed by that xivcr, ftands a PVench poft, with a 
fort, a garrifon, its commandant and officers. I'hc firft 



inhabitants who fettled there, were fome foUliers of that 
poft, difcharged after their time of ferving was expired, 
who fet themfeives to make tobacco in the ifland. But 
the fine fand, carried by the wind upon the leaves of the 
tobacco, made it of a bad quality, which obliged them 
to abandon the ifland and fettle on the continent, where 
they found a good foil, on which they made better to- 
bacco. I'his {>oil is called the Nachiloches, from a nation 
of that name, fettled in the neighbourhood. At this poll 
M, dc St. Denis commanded. 

Several inhabitants of Louifiana, allured thither by the 
hopes of making foon great fortunes, becaufc didant only 
feven leagues from the Spaniards, imagined the abundant 
treafurcs of New Mexico would pour in upon them. But 
in this they happened to be miilakcn ; for the SpaniHi 
poft, called the Adaies, has lefs money in it than the 
pooreft village in Europe \ the Spaniards being ill clad, 
ill fed, and always ready to buy goods of the French on 
firedit : which may be faid in general of all the Spaniards 
of New Mexico, amidft all their mines of gold and filver. 
This we are well informed of by our merchants, who 
have dealt with the Spaniards of this poil, and found 
their habitations and way of living to be very mean, and 
more fo than thofe of the French. 

From the confluence of this Red River, in going up 
the Miflifippi, as we have hitherto done, we find, about 
thirty leagues higher up, the poft of the Natchez. 

Let not the reader be difplcafcd at my faying often, 
tftm-fyf or about fo many leagues : we can afccrtain nothing 
juftly as to the diftances in a country where wc travel 
only by water. Thofe who go up the Miflifippi, having 
more trouble, and taking more time than thofe who go 
down, reckon the route more or lefs long, according to the 
iirae in which they make their voyage ; befidcs, when the 
water is high, it covers palVcs, which often fliorten the 
way a great deal. 


., / 



The NutchcT. arc fituate in about 31? odd minutes of 
north latitude, and 280** of longitude. The fort at this 
poi\ (Unda two hundred feet perpendicular above low- 
water mark. From this fort the point of view extends 
wed of the MifTiftppi quite to the horizon, that is, on the 
fide oppofite to that where the fort ihnds, th )Ugh the weft 
fide be covered with woods j bccaufc the foot of the fort 
(lands much higher than the trees. On the fame fide 
with the fort, the country holds at a pretty equal height, 
and declines only by a gentle and almofl imperceptible 
ilope, inl'cnfibly lofing itfclf froqi one eminciice to an- 

The nation which gave name to this pofl, inhabited this 
very place at a league from the landing-place on the Mif- 
fifippi, and dwelt on the banks of a rivulet, which has ontjr 
a courfc of four or five leagues to that river. All traveller! 
who paired and flopped here, went to pay a vifit to the 
natives, the Natchez. The diilancc of the league they 
went to them is through fo fine and good a country, the 
natives thcmfelves were fo obliging and familiar, and the 
women fo amiable, that all travellers failed not to make 
the grcatcfl encomiums both on the country, and on the 
native inhabitants. 

The juft commendations bellowed upon them drew 
thither inhabitants in fuch numbers, as to determine the 
Company to give orders for building a fort there, as well 
Co fupport the French already fettled, and thofc who 
fhould afterwards come thither, as to be a check on that 
nation. The ganllbn confiflcd only of between thirty 
and forty men, a Captain, a Lieutenant, Under Licutc> 
jiant, and two Serjeants. 

The Company had there a warehoufe for the fupply of 
the inluibitants, who were daily increafing in fpite of all 
the eftoits of one of the principal Superiors, who put 
all imaginable obflaclcs in the way : and notwithftanding 
(he progrefs this fcttlcment made, aud the encomiums 


6o T M E H I S T O R Y 

beftnwtJ ujwn it, and which it delcrvcd, Goi! in his ph). 
Vidnicr guvc it \jp to the mge of its cnemicit in cmler to 
take vengeance of the dm committed there i for without 
•ncnticsntng thofc whoefcapcti the gcnertil maflkcrc, thci-« 
periOxfil of thcn^ upwariU of live hundred. 

Folly leagues hi<;hcr \ip than the Natrhcr, is the river 
Yafou. The Ciiant of M. lo Hlanc, Miniftcr, or Secre- 
tary At War, was fettled there, fom- leagues from the 
Miffifippi, as you go up this little river *. There a fort 
(lands, with a company of men, commanded hy a Cap- 
tain, A Lieutenant, Under-Llcutenant, and two Serjeants. 
This company, together with the fcrvants, were in the 
pay of this Minifter. 

This poft was very ftdvnntageoufly fitunteil, as well for 
the goodnefs of the air as the quality of the foil, like to 
that of the Natchee, as for the landing-place, which 
was very commodious, and for the commerce with the 
natives, if our people but knew how to gain and preferw 
their fricndlhlp. But the neighbourhood of the Chica- 
faws, ever faft friends of the Engli(h> and ever inftigated 
by them to give us uneafmefs, almoll cut off any hopes 
of fuccecding. This pott was on thefc accounts threatned 
with utter ri^in, fooner or later ; as a(!^ually happened in 
t7it, by means of thofe wretched Chicafaws ( who came 
in the night and murdered the people in the fettlementa 
that were made by two fcrjeants out of the fort^ But a 
boy who was fcalfcd by theni was cured* and efcaped 
with life. 

Sixty miles higher up than the YafouB, and at the 
dittance of two hundred leagues from New Orleans, dwell 
the Arkanfas, to the weft of the Miflifippi. At the en- 
trance of the river which goes by the name of that nation, 


* Ite village of tHc IntiUns (Vtfous) is • league frnm thU^f«ttleinent } 
tmi on one tide of it thcrt it « hill* on which they pretend thut the EnglifH 
l<M'm(riy l>.u^ t fort ; accordingly there are ftill Tome tracei of it to be fetl* 

Dumtntf II. 296. 


there js a Cmall fort, wiiiclt ilvfcndii that poH*, which ii 
lh«rt'coiul ut tl)c colony in point uf time. 

It Is A great pity (o pood nnd fine a country Is dif^nnt 
from the Tea upwards of two huiulred leagues. 1 can- 
not omit mentioning, thnt wheat thrives extremely well 
liere» without our being obliged ever to manure the land i 
tind I am fo prepofl'eilcd in its favour, that 1 pcrfuadc my- 
felf 'the beauty of the climate has a great influence on the 
charntSlcr of the inhabitants, who ore at the famu time 
very gentle and very brave. They have ever had an in- 
violable fricndihip for the French^ uninfluenced thereto 
cither by fear or views of intcrcft ; and live with the 
French near them tis brethren ratlicr than as nci[;hbouis. 

In going from the Arkanfns to the Illinois, wc meet 
with the river St. Frnncis, thirty leagues inDrc to the 
north, and on the weft fulc of tlic Miflilippi. There a 
fm;\Il fort has been built hncc my return to France, To 
the £a(l of the Miflifippi, but more to the north, wa alfo 
meet, at about thirty leagues, the river Margot, near the 
ftccp banki of Prud'hommo : there n fort was alfo built, 
called AflUmpCion, for undertaking an expedition againft 
the Chicafaws, who Arc nearly in the fame latitude. 
Thefc two forts, after that expedition, were entirely de-* 
molilfaed by the French, becaufc they were thought to be 
no longer neccflary. It is, however, probable enough, 
that this fort Aflumption would have been a check upon 
the Chicafaws, who are always roving in thofc parts. 
Befides, the fteep banks of Prud'hommc contain iron and 
pit'Coal. On the other hand, the country is very bcijuti- 
ful, and of an excellent quality, abounding with plains 
and meadows, which favour the excurfions of the Chica- 
fawi) and which they will ever continue to make upon us, 
till wc have the addrefs to divert them from their com- 
merce with the Englifli. 

We have no other French fcttlcments to mention in 
Louinana^ but that of the Illinois i in which part of the 




colony wc had the firft fort. At prcfcnt the French fettle- 
mcnt here is on the banks of the Mi/nfippi, near one of th* 
villages of the Illinois •, That poft is commandcvl by one 
of the principal officers i and M. dc Bois-Briant, who Wii» 
lieutenant of the king, has commanded at it. 

Many French inhabitants both from Canada and Europe 
live there at this day t but the Canadians make three- 
fourths at lead. I'he Jefuits have the Cure there, with 
a fine habitation and a mill ^ in digging the foundation of 
which la(V, a quarry of orbicular flat (lones was founc^, 
about two inches in diameter, of the fhape of a buffoon's 
cap, with fix fides, whofc groove was fet with fmall but* 
tons of the fine of the head of a minikin or fmall pin. 
Some of thefe ftones were bigger, (ome fmiillcr; between 
the (loncs which could not be joined, there was no earth 

The Canadians, who are nximerous in Louifiana, arf 
moll of them at the Illinois. I'his climate, doubtlefs, 
agrees bettei with them, bccaufe nearer Canada than any 
other fettlement of the colony. Befides, in coming from 
Canada, they always pafs through this fettlement ; which 
niakes them choofe to continue here. They bring their 
wives with them, or marry the French or India women. 
The ladies even venture to make this long and painful 
voyage from Canada, in order to end their days in a coun- 
try which the Canadians look upon as a terreflrial para- 


* Thcf have, or h«ii formerly, other rettlemcnti hereabouti, at Kaf- 
kaflciet, fort Chartrei, Tamaroas, and on the river Maratneg, on the weft 
lide of the MiHifippi, where they found thofe minea that gave rife to th« 
Mlfllfippi fcheme in 1719. In 1741, when John Howard^ Sallee and otheri, 
were fent from Virginia to view thofe countrien, they were made prifonera 
hy the French { who came from a fettlement they had on an ifland in th« 
MtfTifippt, * little above the Ohio, where they made fait, lead, &c. and 
went from thence to New Orleani, in a fleet of boats and canoei, guarded 
by m large armed fchooner. Rtftrt »f th* GtvtrHmtnt tf Virginia. 

f It ia this that has made the French undergo fo many long and perlloyi 
t^yagca in North-America, upwards of two thoufand miles, agalnft cur- 





C H A P. X. 

Thf Voyages of tht French to thi Miflburif, Canzas, and 
Padoucas. Tht StitUmtnts thty in vain attempted to maka 
in thofe Countries j with a Dejhiption of an extraordinary 

THE Padoucas, who lie weft by northweft of the 
Miflburii, happened at that time to be at war with 
the neighbouring nations, the Canzas, Othoucz, Aiaoucs, 
Olages, Miflburis, and Panimahas, all in amity with the 
French. To conciliate a pence between all thefo nation* 
and the PadoucaS) M. de Bourgmont fent to engage them, 
Hs being our alliesi to accompany him on a journey to the 
PadoucRd) in order to bring about a general pacification, 
and by that means to facilitate the trafficic or truck be- 
tween them and us, and conclude an alliance with the 

For this purpofe M. de Bourgmont fet out on the 3(1 
of July, 1724, from Fort Orleans, which lies near the 
Miflburis, a nation dwelling on the banks of the river of 
that name, in order to join that people, and then to pro- 
ceed to the Canzas, where the general rendezvous of the 
fcveral nations was appointed. 

M. de Bourgmont wns accompanied by an hundred 
Miflburis, commanded by their Grand Chief, and eight 
other Chiefs of war, and by fixty-four Ofages, com- 

rent*, citiraAi, and boiAeroui vvlndi on the lakeii !n order to get to thl* 
Ccttlement of the Illinois, wliich ii nigli to the Forki of the Miflifippi^ the 
ipoft innportint place in all the inland parti of North-Americaf to which 
the French will fooner or later remove from Canada } and there treA an- 
other Montreal, that will be much more dangerous and prejudicial to utp 
than ever the other in Canada was. They will here be in the midft of all 
their old friends and allies, and much more convenient to carry on a tr^« 
with them, to fpirit them up againft the Englini, Hcc. than ever they were 
at Kfontreal. To this fettlement, where they likewife are not without 
good hopes of finding mines, the French wiU for aver be removinf | as iong 
ii any of them are left in Canada. 


mandcci by four Chiefs of war, befidcs a few Frenchmen. 
On the fixth he joined the Grand Chief, fix other Chiefs 
of war, and fcveral Warriors of the Canzas, who prc- 
fented him the Pipe of Peace, and performed the honours 
cuftomary on fuch occafions, to the Miflburis and Ofages. 

On the 7th they pafled through extenfive meadows and 
woods, and arrived on the banks of the river Miflburi, 
over againft the village of the Canzas. 

On the 8th the French croiTed the Miflfouri In a petty- 
augre, the Indians on floats of cane, and the horfes were 
(warn over. They landed within a gun-ikot of the Can- 
who flocked to receive th^m with the Pipe ; their 


Grand Chief, in the name of the nation, afliiring M. d« 
Bourgmont, that all their Warriors would accompany 
him in his journey to the Padoucas, with proteftations of 
friendihip and fidelity, confirmed by fmoking the Pipe. 
The fame alTurances were made him by the other Chiefs, 
who entertained him in their huts, and * rubbed him over 
and hit companions. 

On the 9th M. di Bourgmont difpatched five Miflburis 
to acquaint the Othoues with his arrival at the Caneas. 
They returned on the 10th, and brought word that the 
Othouez promifed to hunt for him and his Warriors, and 
to caufe provifions to be dried for the journey ; that their 
Chief would fet out directly, in order to wait on M. de 
Bourgmont, and carry him the word of the whole nation. 

The Canzas continued to regale the French ; brought 
them alfo great quantities of grapes, of which the French 
made a good wine. 

On the 24th of July, at fix in the morning, this little 
army fet out, conHfling of three hundred Warriors, in- 
cluding the Chiefs of the Canzas, three hundred women, 
about five hundred young people, and at leaft three hun- 
dred dogs. The women carried coiiflderable loads, to the 


* It !s thus thej expreft thdr joy v^ cweOGei, at the fight of a pcrfoa. 
thejr refpeft. 



aftonifliment of the French, unaccuftomed to fuch a fight. 
The young women alio were well loaded for their yevs i 
and the dogs "ere made to trail a part of the baggage, 
and that in the following manner : the back of the dog 
was covered with a fkii., with its pile on, then the dog 
was girthed round, ^nd his biraft*leather put on j and 
taking two pc/lf's of the rhicknefs of one's arm, and 
twelve feet long, t)icy faftcncd their two ends half a foot 
afunder, laying on the Jug's faddle the thong that fadened 
the two poles} and to the poles they alfo faftcncd, behind 
the dog, a ring or hoop, lengthwife, on which they laid 
the load. 

On the 28th and 29th the army crofTed feveral brook* 
and fmall rivers, pafTed through feveral meadows and 
thickets, meeting every where on their way a great deal 
of game. 

On the 30th M, de Bourgmont, finding himfelf very 
ill, was obliged to have a litter made, in order to be car- 
ried back to Fort Orleans till he (hould recover. Before 
his departure he gave orders ^bout two Padouca {laves 
whom he had ranfomed, and was to fend before him to 
that nation, in order to ingratiate himfelf by this a6l of 
generofity. Thefe he caufed to be fent by one Gaillard, 
who was to tell their nation, that M. de Bourgmont, 
being fallen ill on his intended journey to their country, 
was obliged to return home j but that as foon as he got 
well again, he would refume his journey to their country, 
in order to procure a general peace between them and the 
other nations. 

On the evening of the fame day arrived at the camp 
the Grand Chief of the Othouez : who acquainted M. 
de Bourgmont, that a great part of his Warriors- waited 
for him on the road to the Padoucas, and that he came 
to receive his orders ; but was forry to find him ill. 




At length, on the 4th of Augud, M. dc Bourgmont 
fct out from the Canzas . a pcttyaugre, and arrived the 
5th at Fort Orleans. 

On the 6th of September, M» de Bourgmont, who was 
flill at Fort Orleans, was informed of the arrival of the two 
Padouca (laves on the 25th of Auguft at their own nation } 
and that meeting on the way a body of Padouca hunt- 
ers, a day's journey from their village, the Padouca flaves 
made the fignal of their nation, by throwing their mantles 
thrice over their heads : that they fpoke much in com- 
mendation of the generofity of M. de Bourgmont, who 
had ranfomed them : tuld all he had done in order to a 
general pacification : in fine, extolled the French to fuch 
a degree, that their difcourfe, held in prefence of the 
Grand Chief and of the whole nation, diftufed an uni- 
verfal joy ; that Gaillard told them, the flag they fawwas 
the fymbol of Peace, and the word of the Sovereign of 
the Fi'ench : that p 'ittle time the feveral nations would 
come to be like b> ..iren, and have but one heart. 

The Grand Chief of the Padoucas was fo Well aflured 
that the war was now at an end, that he difpatched 
twenty Padoucas with Gaillard to the Canzas, by whom 
they were extremely well received. The Padoucas, on 
their return home, related their good reception among 
the Canzas ; and as a plain and real proof of the pacifi- 
tation meditated by the French, brought with them fifty 
of the Canzas and three of their women ; who, in their 
turn, were received by the Padoucas with all poflible 
marks of friendlhip. 

Though M. de Bourgmont was but jufl: recovering of 
his illnefs ; he, however, prepared for his departure, and 
on the 20th of September adually fct out from Fort Or- 
leans by water, and arrived at the Canzas on the a7th. 

Gaillard arrived on the 2d of Odober at the camp of 
the Canzas, with three Chiefs of war, and three War- 
riors of the Padoucas, who were received by M. de Bourg- 





mont with flag difplayed, and other teftimonics of civility, 
and had prefents made them of fevcral goods, proper for 
their ufe. 

On the 4th of 06lober arrived at the Canzas the Grand 
Chief, and feven other Chiefs of war of the Othouez ; 
and next day) very early, fix Chiefs of war of the 

M. de Bourgmont aflembled all the Chiefs prcfent, and 
fetting them round a large fire made before his tent, rofe 
up, and addrefling himfelf to them, faid, he was come to 
declare to them, in the name of his Sovereign, and of 
the Grand French Chief in the country ♦, that it was 
the will of his Sovereign, they (hould all live in peace 
for the future, like brethren and friends, if they expcdlcd 
to enjoy his love and protection : and fince, fays he, you 
are here all afTembled this day, it is good you conclude a 
peace, and all fmoke in the fame pipe. 

The Chiefs of thefe different nations rofe up to a man^ 
and faid with one.confent^ they were well fatisAed to com- 
ply with his requeft ; and inftantly gave each other their 
pipes of peace. 

After an entertainment prepared for them, the Padoucaa 
fung the fongs, and danced the dances of peace } a kind 
of pantomimes^ reprefenting the innocent pleafures of 

On the 6th of OtSlober, M. de Bourgmont caufed three 
lots of goods to be made out ; one for the Othouez, one 
for the Aiaouez, and one for the Panimahas, which lafl 
arrived in the mean time j and made them all fmoke in the 
fame pipe of peace. 

On the 8th M. de Bourgmont fet out from the Canzas 
with all the baggage, and the flag difplayed, at the hea4 
of the French and fuch Indians as he had pitched on to 
to accompany him, in all forty perfons. 1 he goods in- 

t The Governor of Loulfiana. 

F a 



T U !•: n I 8 T O R Y 

nittlcv! 1*01 piTfetus were \mM on horfes* A« they fct out 
latxr, theytrrtvelleil but five lenguw, liuvlilch theytrofled 
A I'mrtll »iver anJ two bivoks, in a line country, with llt^ 
tie wood. 

The frthie ilAy Gfldlrtiil, Qiienet, nntl two rtnl«ufn«i 
^Tit* dilprttcheil trt rtrqurtint their nation with the ninrrh 
of the KixMtch. '1 hrtt ilny they trivellei! ten lertftuenj 
troflej one \mt ftiu) two brooks. 

The loth they mAile eight lertgues, crwfTd two nuntl 
i>ivers ftrtt! thtre brooks, To their right rtnd left they hml 
0»\rr!\l (inAll bills^ oiv which tu^e conUI obferve {>icces oF 
mck even with the ghnniil. Along the rivers there is 
found rt Hrtte, rtnd in the n\cmlinv!«, n retUllflt nittrblf, 
llanding tMtt nf the earthy oi\e, tmi^ «ni! thi-ce feet j fonic 
|>ieces of ll \ipwAi\b of fix feet in vliameier. 

The nth they prtfled over feverrti brooks « ml rt fninll 
river, rtiul then the river of the Caof.fts, which hntl only 
ihr^e fcti vvAter. Further on, they foutnl feveritl brooks, 
irtuing ft\>m the neighbouring little hills. The river of 
the C'antAs runs ilire«!^lly fi-om weft to call, and falls into 
the Mlrtimri j is very gi^eat in floods, becaufe, accohling 
to the report of the Padoucas, it comes a great way off. 
The Wdoils, which border this river, afHird a retreat to 
t\un\bri-s of b\iff Aloes and other game. On the left were 
fttn grcrtt eminences, with hanging rocks. 

The !>.th of Oi^ober, the journey, as the preceding 
day* was extrcn\oly dlverfified by the variety of obJe»5fs. 
They ctxMU\l eight brook !«, beaUti!\il meadows, covered 
With heixis of elks and buflalocs. To the right the view 
wns unbounded, but to the left fmall hills were fecn at k 
difVance, which f\-om time to time pl-efented the appear* 
ance of imcieni caftles. 

The t^th, on their n\rtrch they faw the meadows cover- 
ed abnod entirely with b\if^'alocs, elks and deer \ Co that 
one could fcarcc dirtinguiOi the dili'erent herds, fo nume* 
4 y rous 







. A 








OP t> O in B 1 A N A. 

fous anil To IntPMtilKeil they werp. TIip rmnp dity ihry 
pntled through n wnml nhrmll twn lr«p;up«« loii|t;, ntul jt 
pi-etty rough arcentj n thing which lermcd pxtrnordliirtry, 
•s till then they only met with little proves, the Inrfrelt of 
which rcurce contained «n huntlrcrl trees, hut ftinif^ht mi 
A cnne j grov«8 too Hntill to afloid a reuent to n qnatter of 
the huffalofes ttiid tilts fcen there. 

The f4th the mnrch wns retnrilrti hy^ttrients antl de-* 
fcents I from which ifl'ticd miiny rprinj^s of nn extreme 
pure wrtter, forniln|); Ibvend hrooks, whole wnter« uniting 
inuke little rivers that fall into the river «)f the Can/tis : 
A\u\ douhtleCs it is this niullittnle r»f hrooks which travcrlte 
and water thele meadowB, cximding n great way out of 
light, that Invite thofe nume'oun herds of huHaltjes. 

The 15th they eroded levcral hrooks and tWo little 
rivers, It is chiefly on the hanks of the waters that we 
find thofe enchanting grove, adorned with grafs under- 
neath, and fo clear «»f underwood, that we may there 
hunt down the flag with eafc. 

The 16th they continued to pafs over a fimilar land* 
fcape, the heauties of which were never cloying. Hc- 
fnlcs the larger game, thefe groves afforded alfo a retreat 
to flocks of turkeys. 

The 17th they made very little way, hecaufe they 
wanted to get into the right road, from which they had 
flrayed the two preceding days, which they at length re- 
covered I and, at a fmall diibnce from their camp, faw an 
encampment of the Tadfuicas, which appeared to have 
been quitted only ahout eight days before. '1 his yielded 
them fo much the more pleafure, as It fliewed the near- 
iiefs of that nation, which made them encamp, after 
having travelled only fix leagues, in order to make fignals 
from that place, by felting fire to the parts of the mea- 
dows which the general fire had fparcd. In a little time 
after the fignal was anfwcrcd in the fame manner > and 

If 3 con- 


confirmed by the arrival of two Frenchmen, who had 
orders given them to make the fignals. 

On the i8th they met a httle river of brackifh water ; 
on the banks of which they found another encampment 
of the Padoucas, which appeared to have been abandoned 
but four days before : at half a league further on, a great 
fmoke was feen to the weft, at no great diftance off, 
which was anfwered by fetting fire to the parts of the 
meadows, untouched by the general fire. 

About half an hour after, the Padoucas were obferved 
coming at full gallop with the flag which Gaillard had 
left them on his firft journey to their country. M. de 
Bourgmont inftantly ordered the French under arms, and 
at the head of his people thrice faluted thefe ftrangers with 
his flag, which they alfo returned thrice, by raifing their 
mantles as many times over their heads. 

After this firft ceremony, M. de Bourgmont made them 
^11 fit down and fmoke in the Pipe of Peace. This adion, 
being thefeal of the peace, difFufed a general joy, accom-' 
panied with loud acclamations. 

The Padoucas, after mounting the French and the Indi- 
ans who accompanied them, on their horfes, fet out for 
their camp : and after a journey of three leagues, arrived 
at their encampment ; but left a diftance of a gun-fhot 
between the two camps. 

The day after their arrival at the Padoucas, M. de 
.Bourgmont caufed the gocdj allotted for this nation to be 
unpacked, and the different fpecies parcelled out, which he 
made them all prefents of *. 

After which M. de Bourgmont Cent for the Grand Chief 
and other Chiefs of the Padoucas, who came to the camp 
to the number of two hundred : and placing himfelf be- 

* Red and h\\ifi Litnburgs, Oiirts, fufifs, fabres, gun-powder, ball, 
n^ufket-flints, gunfcrews, mattocksj hatchets, lookirg-gUfles, Flemiflf 
knives, wood-cutters knives, clafp-knivei, fcifTars, combs, bells, aw|s^ 
needles^ drinking glafles, brafs-wire, boxes, rings. Sec, 


tween them and the goods thus parcelled and laid out 
to view, told them, he was fent by his Sovereign tO' carry 
them the word of peace, this flag, and thefe goods, ^nd 
to exhort them to live as brethren with their neighbours 
the Panimahas, Aiaouez, Othouez, Canzas, Miflburis^ 
Ofages, and Illinois, to traffick and truck freely together, 
and with the French. 

He at the fame time gave the flag to the Grand Chief of 
the Padoucas, who received it with dcmonftrations of 
refpe6l, and told him, I accept this flag, which you pre- 
fent to me on the part of your Sovereign : we rejoice at 
our having peace with all the nations you have mentioned ; 
and promife in the name of our nation never to make war 
on any of your allies; but receive them, when they come 
among us, as our brethren ; as we (hall, in like manner, 
the French, and condudb them, when they want to go to 
the Spaniards, who are but twelve days journey from our 
village, and who truck with us in hor fes, of which they 
have fuch numbers, they know not what to do with them; 
alfo in bad hatchets of a foft iron, and fome knives, whofe 
points they break off, left we fhould ufe them one day 
againft themfelves. You may command all my War- 
riors ; I can furnifh you with upwards of two thoufand. 
In my own, and in the name of my whole nation, 
I entreat you to fend fome Frenchmen to trade with us ; 
we can fupply them with horfes, which we truck wit' the 
Spaniards for bUfFalo-mantles, and with great quar .ties 
of furs. 

Before 1 quit the Padoucas, I (hall give a fummary of 
their manners ; it may not, perhaps, be difagreeable tp 
know in what refpe£ts they diflFer from other Indian 
nations *. 

* The Author (hould llkewife have informed us of the fate of thofe in- 
tended fettlemeats of the French, which Dumont tells us were deftroyed, 
and all the French murdered by the Indians, |>articularly among the Mif- 
i^uris } which is confirmed below in book II. ch. 7. 



• ' 

«nl,S lultivaic nrt p;<"«HS «»^c< livp oMly nn htrntinfj;. Hut 
ihcy Arr nm trt be lonluleirtl m a Wrtiulp»iiip[ urttltus thrt* 
tmploycii Ih lnnuih{^ wiiitrr rtiu! Cmnmrt | frrlhp; tlipy 
hrtvc Irtf^c \ illflp;rs, r(MirHlii\^ nl A prrAt numlw nF trtUlitu* 
Vvhith coillrti»\ vpjy tum)riou« f««\ili'»s ; thrlr jtrr th^ll* 
j>fvmrt!^rht rthtnlcs j fVrt>i\ whirh rt hnmtircl hnntrii^ <pt nut 
at A timp wi^h tholv hoMv^ il^cii- hnws, !\iul -a ^vntnt ftoilt 
of AVhnvf^. 'I'hry go th\»s »\vr> d* \\\wv k\a\^ jrmuicy Tumu 
ht^m^^ whrtT thvy fiiwt ImhIs of l>\»M-y|t>r«^ ihr It ;\!t ol" 
whirh rouHrt^ of A hntuhn^ hrrt<l. 1 i\ry UaA thrii IumIVs 
With their h.i}igA|i,c, irtlts rttii^ ihiMirii^ roiuhk^nl hy A 
mntN m htufthrtik : hy this \\\cAm ihr \\\rM, wtM^n'iS rtiul 
\y»«n}) prnpip ivrtvpl ttnritrnuihnrii Aiul light. Without 
Wirtg ftttigUn^ hy ihc jounuy. Whrh ronir lo thr hutU- 
in^-tj^ot^ they et^crtt^p \\vA\ A ht-ooK, vvhrtp ihrit* Is 
^IWAys WtNOt^ J thr hoifrs thrv tic hy Ohc ol ihiii fvuv (Vet 
With A rtvlrtg M A iVAke ov t^tirti. 

Kr.vt morning ihey eArh of thrui mount a hiMfo, Atuit 
ptt>ctrtl ix) th« rn4 hrul^ with thr m\\x\ At thrii hnitt» 
to the md the huffAhn?* tiiAV TiTut thcmv '^^^ ':<kc to 
flighty whkh they nc\'ri lAil lo ilo, heeAUlV they have ft 
wry t^uiek tVtni. Then the htn\ieiis putlue iheni eltW'e At 
An cA(y \8,Allopi> Atti^ in a cuMcent^ oi' half tin^^ till they 
\\A[\p^ t^tit the iTMtjtue thmtip^h Itttij^ue, nm! eAu »io tio nioie 
ihAn jurt WAlk : thp huntets then dirntount, point a dAit 
ftt i^c cxntiiiity of the (1\otiMei\ An«i kill cAeh tif thetn 
t>nc cow, liimclinn 1 motv : ihvs As I fAJtl Ahove, they 
wvx^v kill the ^V'lOr's. Then they f^Ay them, trtke out the 
rntrnib^ AOvl eut the v nunfr in two 5 the heAtI, feet, AUil 
t^ntr.iilx they lesv-e tv> the w^^l^eR AnJ other t'Arn(vort)us 
AOtmttls : the Ikitv \\\vy Iav on the horfe, auiI on thAt the 
ficfT^> which they cuny home. Two iIavs After thev g,o 
\>ut Ag:Ain i And then they hring home the meAt Aript ffoitt 
the hones ^ the W'xmicn anvi youn^ peiiple ihvfs it in *hf» 
In^dJAn faihion \, whilt the meti trtuvn for fome ilAyjt lfuj-x*r 
to bunt in the fame mAnner. I1\ey cany hon\e iheir dry 


♦.\t tile r\\(\ hf tvlilrli4 Huifr who trHiJillird Iti Hip vllltigf^ 
frt m\ wiMt fhf »ulip»^ tn liiitU IM tlip IlltP HirtMhpr | wdlch 
h{H »t»t»»lr l^ndinht hrtvcllers rtfHHU thl« tiert|ile was ?1 WrtM- 

llt'tjllf), IllUtMM. 

l! tlif)' (bw littlr Of I1M itirtlr, tliry «« little filrttit rthy 
rithtts luv^-r miy »oliir(n» j vvliltli liilt the flprthln^ds litlng 
tltPHi In Hilh, rtlntijj with the hutlcs they ttutk with thnn 
for hiifttilh-titrtfitlfs. 

The tirttioii of thr Pfldtun-jis Is nty niimei-mts, e^tehfl;! 
siltilnl^ twn hmitlml Iragttes^ titnl thry hrtve vlllnges tjfiltir 
clnle tn the Rpftiihth^n of New Mrxlrti. They att rtc- 
qhtilhtrtl With hlvei-, nml tiimle the Ktetuh tJMHerftrttid 
thev MTotkrd 'M the HilueH. 1 he Itihnhltfjhts uf the vll- 
Irtf^rw ttt n (liflftiite Fit»lti the Rjirtuhhls, have ktilves itimle 
nr fit-e-lTotir, f/ifV>rr df pu^) of whith they nifh ttiake 
lintchets J thr ln»gel1 to fell tnhhllhiEt find little ttees with j 
the Icfi, to Any nml cut up the hefttlH they kill. 

Thefe (leople are Fat from being frtvjie;e, iior would It he 
ti difficult Htrtttei- to t lvill/,e them \ a plain proof they have 
hrtd long Intereourle with the Spaulards. I he few d?iy^ 
Ithe Fretich ftjtyed nmotig them, they were hecome very 
fnmlllflf, rtiid would frtht hrtve M. de Bourgmo«t lertve 
fome I'^reiichmeu nmoug them \ efpetlally they 6f the 
vlllt^e at which the pence was corn luded with the other 
tintbm. This vllkge confiftetl of iiu hundred and forty 
huts, cohtnlnliij; nbout eight hundred warrlorji, fifteen 
hundrenl women, m\<\ at Icatt two thoufand thildren, fome 
l*«dnucrts hiiving four wives. When they are in want of 
horfesi they trnin up great dogs to carry their baggage* 

11ie men for the moft part wear breeches and flocking^ 
alt of fl piece, made of drelTed fkins, In the manner of the 
Spaniard! : the women alfo wear petticoats and bodices all 
nf a piece, adorning their waifts with fringes of dreflcd 
Ik ins. 



They are almoft without any European goods among 
them, and have but a faint knowledge of them. They 
knew nothing of fire-arms before the arrival of M. de 
Bourgmont ; were much frighted at them } and on hear- 
ing the report, quaked and bowed their heads. 

They generally go to war on horfeback, and cover their 
horfes with drefled leather, hanging down quite round, 
which fecures them from darts. All we have hitherto re* 
marked is peculiar to this people, befides the other ufagcs 
they have in common with the nations of Louifiana. 

On the 22d of OAobcr, M. de Bourgmont fetout from 
the Padoucas, and travelled only five leagues that day : 
the 23d, and the three following days, he travelled in all 
forty leagues : the 27th, fix leagues : the 28th, eight 
leagues : the 29th, fix leagues ; and the 30th, as piany : 
the 31ft, he travelled only four leagues, and that day ar- 
rived within half a league of the Canz^s. From the 
Padoucas to the Canzas, proceeding always eaft, we may 
now very fafely reckon fixty-five leagues and a half. The 
river of the Canzas is parallel to this route. 

On the I ft of November they a)l arrived on the banks 
of the MifTouri. M. de Bourgmont embarked the 2d on 
a canoe of (kins ; and at lengthy on the 5th of Novem- 
ber, arrived at Fort Orleans. 

I fhall here fubjoin the defcription of one of thefe 
canoes. They choofe for the purpofe branches of a white 
and fupple wood, fuch as poplar } which are to form the 
ribs or curves, i'nd are fattened on the outfide with three 
poles, one at bottom and two on the fides, to form the 
keel i to thefe curves two other ftouter poles are afterwards 
made f^ift, to form the gunnels ; then they tighten thefe 
fides with cords, the length of which is in proportion to 
the intended breadth of the canoe : after which they tie 
faft the ends. When all the timbers are thus difpofed, 
they few on the (kins, which they take care previoufly 
tp foak a confiderable time to render them manageable. 



From the account of this journey, extradlcd and abridged 
from M. de Bourgmont's Journal, we cannot fail to ob- 
ferve the care and attention neceilary to be employed in 
fuch enterprizes ; the prudence and policy requifite to 
manage the natives, and to behave with them in an affable 

If we view thefe nations with an eye to commerce, 
what advantages ihight not be derived from them, as to 
furs ? A commerce not only very lucrative, but capable of 
being carried on without any rifque ; efpecially if we would 
follov/ the plan I am to lay down under the article Com- 

, <i 

The relation of this journey fhews, moreover, that 
Louifiana maintains its good qualities throughout} and 
that the natives of North America derive their origin from 
the fame country, fmce at bottom they all have the fame 
manners and ufages, as alfo the fame manner of fpeaking 
and thinking. 

I, however, except the Natchez, and the people they 
call their brethren, who have preferved feftivals and cere- 
monies, which clearly (hew they have a far nobler origin. 
Beftdes, the richncfs of their language diftinguifhes them 
from all thofc other people that come from Tartary ; 
whofe language, on the contrary, is very barren : but 
if they refemblc the others m certain cuftoms, they were 
conflrained thereto from the ties of a common fociety 
with them, as in their wars, embaflies, and in every thing 
that regards the common interefts of thefe nations. 

Before I put an end to this chapter, I fhall relate an 
extraordinary phenomenon which appeared in LouiHana. 

Towards the end of May 1726, the fun was then con- 
cealed for a whole day by large clouds, but very diftinA 
one from another } they left but little void fpace between, 
to permit the view of the azure (ky, and but in very few 
t>laces : the whole day was very calm ; in the evening 




cfpccinlly thefe clouds were entirely joined ; no fky was to 
be (ccn i but ail the different configurations of the clouds 
were diftinguiihable : I obfervcd they ftood very high 
above the earth. 

The weather being To difpofed, the fun was preparing 
to fet. I faw him in the indant he touched the horizon, 
becaufc there was a little clear fpace between that and the 
clouds. A little after, thcfc clouds turned luminous, or 
reflc6tcd the light : the contour or outlines of mod of them 
fcenicd to be bordered with gold, others but with a faint 
tincture thereof. It would be a very difficult matter to 
dcfcribc all the beauties which thefe different colourings 
prcfcnted to the view : but the whole together formed the 
fincft profpecSl I ever beheld of the kind. 

I had my face turned to the eaft ; and in the littk time 
the fun formed this decoration, he proceeded to hide 
himfclf more and more ; when fufHciently low, fo thn* the 
ihadow of the earth could appear on the convexity of the 
clouds, there was obferved as if a veil, ftretcbed from 
north to fouth, had concealed or removed the light from 
•ff that part of the clouds which extended eaftwards, and 
made them dark, without hindering their being perfedlly 
well diftinguiflicd ; fo that all on the fam^ line were partly 
luminous, partly dark. 

This very year I had a ftrong inclination to quit tho 
poft at the Natchez, where I had continued for eight years. 
I had taken that rcfolution, not' 'ithftanding my attach- 
ment to that fettlement. I fold off mv effefts and went 
down to New Orleans, which I found greatly altered by 
being entirely built. I intended to return to Europe ; but 
M. Perier, the Governor, preifed me fo much, that I ac- 
cepted the infpc£lion of the plantation of the Company j 
which, in a little time after, bccam,e the King's. 





77)i ff^ar with the Chitlmachas. The Conjftirncy of the 
Negroes againji the French. TheW Execution, 

BEFORE my arrival in Louiftana, we happened to be 
at war with the nation of theChitimachas ; owing to 
one of that people, who being gone to dwell in a bye- 
place on the banks of the Miflifippi, had aflaflinatcd M. 
dc St. Come, a Miflionary of that colony ; who, in going 
down the river, imagined he might in fufcty retire into this 
man's hut for a night. M. de Biainvilie charged the 
whole nation with this afTaflination ; and in order to fare 
his own people, caufed them to be attacked by fevcral 
nations in alliance with the French. 

Prowefs is none of the greateft qualities of the Indians, 
much lefs of the Chitimachas. They were therefore 
worfted, and the lofs of their braved warriors conjflraincd 
them ta fi4e for peace. This the Governor granted, on 
condition that they brought him the head of the afTaflin ; 
which they accordingly did, and concluded a peace by the 
ceremony of the Calumet, hereafter defcribed. 

At the time the fuccours were exped^ed from France, in 
order to deftroy the Natchez, the negroes formed a defign 
to rid themfelves of all the French at once, and to fettle 
in their room, by making themfelves mailers of the capital, 
and of all the property of the French. It was difcovercd 
in the following manner. 

A female negroe receiving a violent blow from a Fr«nch 
foldier for refufing to obey him, faid in her paffion, that 
the French fhould not long infult negroes. Some 
Frenchmen overhearing thefe threats, brought her before 
the Governor, who fent her to prifon. The Judge Cri- 
minal not being able to draw any thing out of her, I told 
the Governor, who feemed to pay no great regard to her 
threats, that I was of opinion, that a man in liquor, and 

a woman 



a womin in paflion, generally fpcalc truth. It is there- 
fore highly probable, faiJ I, that there is fome truth in 
yrhat (he (aid : and if fo, there mud be fome confpiracy 
ready to break out, which cannot be formed without many 
negroes of the King's plantation being accomplices there- 
in : and if there are any, I take upon me, faid I, to find 
them out, and arreft them, if necclTary, without any dif- 
order or tumult. 

The Governor and the whole Court approved of my 
reafons : I went that very evening to the camp of the 
negroes, and from hut to hut, till I faw a light. In this 
hut I heard them talking together of their fcheme. One 
of them was my firft commander and my confidant, which 
furprized me greatly ; his name was Samba. 

1 fpeedily retired for fear of being difcovered ; and in 
two days after, eight negroes, who were at the head of 
the confpiracy, were feparately arretted, unknown to each 
other, and clapt in irons without the lead tumult. 

The day after, they were put to the torture of burning 
matches i which, though feveral times repeated, could 
not bring them to make any confeflion. In the mean time 
I lean it that Samba had in his own country been at*the 
head of the revolt by which the French loft Fort Arguin ; 
and when it was recovered again by iVl. Pcrier de Sal vert, 
one of the principal articles of the peace was, that this 
negro (hould be condemned to flavery in America : that 
Samba, on his palTage, had laid a fcheme to murder the 
crew, in order to become mafter of the (hip ; but that be- 
ing difcovered, he was put in irons, in which he conti- 
tinued till he landed in Louifiana. 

I drew up a memorial of all this ; which was read before 
Samba by the Judge Criminal ; who, threatening him 
again with the torture, told him, he had ever been a fedi- 
tious fellow : upon which Samba dire<Slly owned all the 
circumftances of the confpiracy ; and the reft being con- 



fronted with him, confeflcd alfo : after which, the eight 
negroes were condemned to be broke alive on the wheel, 
and the woman to be hanged before their eyes } which was 
accordingly done, and prevented the confpiracy from tak* 
ing cflPedl. 


Tbi If^ar of thi Natchez. Majfacre of the French in 1 719. 
Extirpation of the Nakhtx in 1730. 

IN the beginning of the month of December 1729, we 
heard at New Orleans, with the moft afFedting grief, 
of the maflacre of the French at tht poll of the Natchez, 
occafioned by the imprudent conduct o^ the Commandant, 
I (hall trace that whole affair from its rife. 

The Sieur de Chopart had been Commandant of the 
poft of the Natchez, from which he was removed on ac- 
count of fome a<Els of injuflicc. M. Pcrier, Command- 
ant General, but lately arrived, fuffered himfelf tobepre- 
podefled in his favour, on his telling him, that he had 
commanded that poft with applaufe: and thus he ob- 
tained the command from M. Perier, who was unac- 
quainted with his character. 

This new Commandant, on taking pofleflion of his poft, 
projefted the forming one of the moft eminent fcttlements 
of the whole colony. For this purpofe he examined all the 
grounds unoccupied by the French, but could not find 
any thing that came up to the grandeur of his views. 
Nothing but the village of the White Apple, a fquare 
league at leaft in extent, could give him fatisfadlion ; 
where he immediately refolved to fettle. This ground 
was dift^nt from the fort about two leagues. Conceited 
with the beauty of his project, the Commandant fent for 
the Sun of that village to come to the fort. 



The Commandant, upon his arrival at the fort, told 
him, without further ceremony, that he mull look out 
for another ground to build his village on, as he himfelf 
refolved, as foon as poflible, to build on the village of the 
Apple; that he muft diredly clear the huts, and retire 
fomewhere elfe. The better to cover his dcfign, he gave 
out, that it was necclTary for the French to fettle on 
the banks of the rivulet, where ftood the Great Village, 
and the abode of the Grand Sun. The Commandant, 
doubtlefs, fuppofcd that he was fpcaking to a flave, whom 
we may command in a tone of abfolutc authority. But 
he knew not that the natives of Louifiana are fuch enemies 
to a ftate of flavery, that they prefer death itfelf thereto j 
above all, the Suns, accuftomed to govern dclpolically, 
have dill a greater avcrfion to it. 

The Sun of the Apple thought, that if he was talked 
to in a reafonable manner, he might liltcn to him : in this 
he had been right, had he to deal with a reafonable per- 
fon. He therefore made anfwer, that his anccltors had 
lived in that village for as many years as there were hairs in 
his double cue j and therefore it was good they (Ixould con- 
tinue there ftill. 

Scarce had the interpreter explained this anfwer to the 
Commandant, but he fell into a pL.<iion, and threatned 
the Sun, if he did not quit his village in a few days, he ' 
might repent it. The Sun replied, when the French 
came to a(k us for lands to fettle on, they told us there 
was land enough ftill unoccupied, which they might take |^ 
the fame fun would enlighten them all, and all would walk 
in the fame path. He wanted to proceed farther in juftifi- 
cation of what he alleged ; but the Commandant, whor 
was in a paflion, told him, he was refolved to be obeyed^ 
without any further reply. The Sun, without difcovering 
any emotion or paflion, withdrew ; only faying, he was 
going to aflemble the old men of his village, to hold a 
councti on this affair. 





lie a<!!liially aflembled them : and in this council it was 
l^rolved to reprefent to the Commandant, that the corn 
of all the people of their village was already (hot a little 
out of the earth, and that all the hens were laying their 
egg« ; that if they quitted their village at prcfcnt, the 
chickens and corn would be loft both to the French and 
to themfelves } as the French were not numerous enough 
to weed all the corn they had Town in their fields. 

This refolution taken, they fent to propofe it to the 
Commandant, who rejeded it with a menace to chaflife 
them if they did not obey in a very fhort time, which he 

The Sun reported this anfwer to his council, who de- 
bated the queftion, which wis knotty. But the policy of 
the old men was, that they {hould propofe to the Com- 
mandant, to be allowed to (lay in their village till harveft, 
and till they had time to dry their corn, and (hake out the 
grain ; on condition each hut of the village (hould pay 
him in fo many moons (months,) which they agreed on, 
a ba(ket of corn and a fowl ; that this Commandant ap- 
peared to be a man highly felf-lnterefted j and that this pro« 
pofition would be a means of gaining time, till they (hould 
take proper meafures to withdraw themfelves from the 
tyranny of the French. 

The Sun returned to the Commandant, and propofed to 
pay him the tribute I juft mentioned,' if he waited till the 
firft colds, (winter }) that then the corn would be ga- 
thered in, and dry enough to (hake out the grain ; that 
thus they Would not be expofed to lofe their corn, and die 
of hunger t^that the Commandant himfelf would find his 
account in it ; and that as foon as any corn was (haketi 
out, they (hould bring him fome. 

The avidity of the Commandant made him accept the 
propofition with joy, and blinded him with regard to the 
confequences of his tyranny. He, however, pretended 
that he agreed to the oiFer out of favour, to do a pleafure 

G to 

It' THE ttlStORY 

to a nation fo beloved, and who had ever been good friertdfl 
of the French. 1 he Sun appeared highly fatisfied to 
have obtained a delay fufficieitt for taking the precaution* 
necediiry to the fecuiity of the nation i for he was by no 
means the dupe of the feigned benevolence of tht Com- 

The Sun» upon his return, caufed th« council to b< 
aflembled \ told the old men, that the French Command- 
ant had act)Uiefced in the oflers which he had made himi 
aiid granted the term of time they demanded. He then 
kid before them, that it was neceffary wifely to avail 
themfdvea of this time, in order to withdraw themfelvea 
from the propofed payment and tyrannic domination of 
the French, who grew dangerous in proportion as they 
multiplied. 1 hat the Natchez ought to r.member the 
war made upon them, in violation of the pc^itce concluded 
between thei^^ ; that this war having been made upon their 
village alone, they ought to coufiuti of the furcll mean» 
to take a jud: and bloody vengeance : that this enterprize 
being of the utmoft confcquence, it called for much fc- 
crocy, (or folid mcafurcs, and for much policy ; that thus 
it WAS proper to cajole the Fi^.Jch Chief more than ever : 
that this A^'air required fome days to rcfled on, before they 
came to a rcfoluiion therein, and before it (hould be pro- 
pofed tx> the Grand Sun and his council : that at prcfent 
they had only to retire j and in a few days he would aiTcm- 
ble them again, that they might then determine the part 
they vrcvt to a6t. 

In Hve or fix days hie brought together the old men, 
who in that interval were confulting with each other : 
which wai the reafon that all the fufFrages were unanimous 
in the fame and only means of obtaining the end they pro- 
pofed to themfelvea, which was the entire dcftrudion of 
the French in this province. 

The Sun, feeing them all aflembled, faid : «« You 

** have had time to refledl on the propofition I made you ; 

.a And 


* \ 

pro- , 
m of 


you J 

F L O I 8 I A K A. •! 

*« And lo t Imagine ydu will foon fet fbrth the beft means 
«« how to get rid of your bad neighbours without hfl/>atd.** 
The Sun having done fpeaking, the oldeft rofe up, fa- 
luted his Chief afttr his manner, and faid to him : 

*« Wc have a long time been fenfible that the nelgh- 
•« bourhood of the French Is a greater prejudice than 
«« benefit to us : we, who are old men, fee this ; the 
«« young Ibe It not. The wares of the French yield 
" pleafure to the youth j but In tffed^, to what purpofe is 
«« all this, but to debauch the young women, and taint 
«« the blood of the nation, and make them vain and idlef 
•• The youhg men are in the fame cafe ; and the married 
•« muft work themfelves to death to maintain their fami- 
" lies, and pleafe their children. Before the French 
•• came amongft us, we were men, content with what 
«« we h^d, and that was l\!fficlent : we wallcpd with bold* 
•• nefs every road, becaufe we were then our own mafters : 
•« but now we go groping, afraid of meeting thorns, we 
•"^ walk like flaves, which we fliall foon be, fince the 
w French already treat us ai If we were furh, When 
«« they are fufflclently ftrong, they will no longer dlf- 
*« fenible. For the leaft fault of our young people, 
•• they will tie them to a poft, and whip them as they 
«* do their black flaves, Have they not already done fo 
** to one of our young men j and is not death preferablfl 
«* to flavery V* 

Here he paufed a while, and af^er taking breath, pro- 
tecdcd thus : 

«« What wait we for f Shall we fuffVr the French to 
** multiply, till we are no longer in a condition to oppofo 
** their eftbrti ? What will the other nations fay of us, 
•• who pafs for the moft ingenious of all the Red-men ? 
•« They will then fay, we have Icfs undcribnding than 
•• other people. Why then wait we any longer ? Let u« 
•* fct ourfelvcs at liberty, and fhow we are really men, 
** who call be fatisftcd with what we have. From 

G a •• thii 




*' this very day let us begin to fct about it, order cuf 
•« women to get provifions ready, without telling them 
" the reafon ; go and carry the Pipe of Peace to all the 
** nations of this country 5 make them fenfible, that the 
*^ French being Wronger in our neighbourhood than clfe- 
« where,' make us, more than others, feel that they want 
*' to enflave us; and when become fufficiently ftrong^ 
** will in like manner treat all the nations of the coun- 
try J that it is their intereft to prevent fo great a mis- 
fortune; and for this purpofe they have only to join us, 
*< and cut off the French to a man, in one day and one 
'* hour ; and the time to be that on which the term pre- 
" fixed and obtained of the French Commandant, to 
*< carry him the contribution agreed on, is expired ; the 
** hour to be the quarter of the day (nine in the morn« 
** Ing ;) and then feveral warriors to go and carry him the 
*^ corn, as the beginning of their feveral payments, alfo 
<< carry with them their arms, as if going out to hunt : 
'< and that to every Frenchman in a French hQufe, 
<< there fhall be two or three Natchez ; to afk to borrow 
** arms and ammunition for a general hunting-match, on 
« account of a great feai^, and to promife to bring them 
** meat ; the report of the firing at the Commandant's, 
*' to be the fignal to fall at once upon, and kill the 
** French : that then we fhall be able to prevent thofe 
«* who may come from the old French village, (New 
** Orleans) by the great water (Miffifippi) ever to fettle 
«« here." 

He added, that after apprlfing the other nations of the 
neceiHty of taking that violent fbp, a bundle of rods, in 
number equal to that they fhould refervc for themfelves, 
ihould be left with each nation, expreflive of the number 
of days that were to precede that on which they were to 
flrike the blow at one and the fame time. And to avoid 
miftakes, and to be exa£i: in pulling out a rod every day» 
and brewing and throwing it away, it was neceffary to 
give this in charge to a perfon of prudence. Here he 





ceafed and fat down : they all approved his pDunfel, an4 
were ito a man of hi) mind* ' 

The proje£): was in like manner approved of by the 
Sun of the Apple : the bufmefs was to bring over the 
Grand Sun, with the other petty Suns, to their opinion ; 
becaufe all the Princes being agreed as to that pointy the 
pation would all to a mai> implicitly obey. They how- 
ever took the precaution to forbid apprifing the wometi 
thereof, not excepting the female Suns, (PrincelFes) or 
giving them the leaft fufpicion of their defigns againft the 

The Sun of the Apple was a man of good abilities ; 
by which means he eafily brought over the Grand Sun to 
favour his fcheme, he being a .young man of no experi- 
ence in the world, ^nd having no great correfpondence 
with the French : he was the more eafily gained over, as 
all the Suns were agreed, that the Svin of the Apple was 
a man of folidity and penetration { who haying repaired 
to the Sovereign of the nation, apprifed him of the necefv 
fity of taking that ftep, as in time himfelf would be forced 
to quit his own village ; ajfo of the wifdom of the mea- 
fures concerted, fuch as even afpertained fuccefs; and of 
the danger to which his youth was ^xpofed with neigh- 
bours fo enterprifing ; above all, with the prefent French 
Commandant, of whom the inhabitants, and even the 
foldifr$ complained : that as lung as the Grand Sun, his 
father, and his uncle, the Stung Serpent, lived, the Com- 
mandant of the fort durft never undertake any thing to 
their detriment ; becaufe the Grand Chief of the French, 
who refides at their great village (New Orleans,) had a love 
for them : but that he, the Grand Sun, being unknown 
to the French, and but a youth, would be defpifed. In 
fine, that the only means to preferve his authority, was to 
fid himfelf of the French, by the method, and with ths 
precautions projected by the old men. 





The reAiIt of thii converfatioo Was, that on tht day 
following, when the Suns fhould in the morning cortie to 
falute the Grund Sun, he was to order them to repair to 
the Sun of the Apple, without taking ttotice of it to any 
one. This was accordingly executed, and the feducing 
abilities of the Sun of the Apple drew all the Suns into, 
his fcheme. In confequence of which they formed a 
council of Suns and aged Nobles, who all approved of 
the defign : and then thefe aged Nobles were nominated 
heads of embalfics to be fent to the feveral nations ) had a 
guard of Warriors to accompany them, and on pain ot 
death, were diicharged from mentioning it to any one 
whatever. This refolution taken, they fet out fev^rally 
«t the fame time, unknown to the French. 

Notwithdanding the pi^fuund fecrecy ob(erved by th^ 
Natchee, the council held by the Suns and aged Nobles 
gave the people uneafinefs, unable as they were to pene- 
trate into the matter. The fetpale Suns (Princefles) had| 
ilone in this nation a right to demand why they were 
V;ept in the dark in this affair. The young Grand female 
Sun was a Princefs fcarce eighteen : and none but th«^ 
Stung Arm, a woman of great wit, and t)o lefs fenfible 
Of it, could be offended that nothing was difclofed to her* 
In eife£^, (he teftiJBed her difpleafure at th|s referve with 
rcfpedl to hcrfelf, to her fon ; who replied, that the feve- 
ral deputations were made, in order to renew their good 
intelligence with the other nations, to whom they had not 
of a long time font an cmbafTy, and who might imagine 
thcmfelvcs (lighted by fuch a neglc6V. This feigned ex- 
cufc fcemed to appeafe the Princefs, but not quite to rid 
her of all her uneafinefs j which, on the contrary, was 
heightened, when, on the return of the embaffies, (he 
faw the Suns alTemble in fccret council together with the 
deputies, to learn what reception they met with j whe;eai 
fu-dinarily they aflembled in public. 

At this the female Sun was filled with rage, which 
would have openly broke out, had not her prudence fet 



bmrnds to it. Happy it was for the French, (he iiHAgined 
herfelf neglet^ed : tor I am perriiaded the colony owes iti 
prefcrvntion to the vexation of this woman rather than to 
any remains of aft'edlion flie entertained for the French, at 
lh« was now far advanced in years, and her gallant dead 
fome time. 

In order to get to the bottom of the fecret, (he pre* 
vailed on her Ton to accompany her on a vifit to a relation,' 
that lay flck at the village of the Meal } and leading him 
the longeft way about, and moft retired, took occafion to 
reproach him with the fccrccy he and the other Suns ob* 
fervcd with regard to her, infifting with him on her right 
as a mother, and her privilege as aPrincffs: adding, thai 
though all the world, and herfelf ton, had told* hrrn he 
^as the fon of a Frenchmaii, yet her own blood was much 
dearer to her than that of ((rangers i that he needed not 
apprehend (he would ever betray him to the French, againft 
vrhom, (he faid, yv>it arc plotting. , 

Her fon, ftung with thcfe reproaches, told her, it wal 
unufunl to reveal what the old men of the council had 
once rcfolved upon ; alledging, he himfolf, as being 
Grand Sun, ought to fet a good example in this refpedt : 
that the affair was cc ncealed from the Piinccfs his con- 
fort as well as fror|) her ; and that though he was the fon 
of a Frenchman, this gave no millruft of him to the other 
Suns, But fteinpj, fay* he, you have gueflbd the whole 
fifFair, I need not iiitbrm you farther ; you know as much 
as I do mylclf, ofily hold your tongue. 

She was ip no pain, (he replied, to know againft whom 
he had taken his precautions : but ns it was agaiiiil the 
French, this was the very thing that made her apprehen- 
five he had not taken his meafures aright in order to fur* 
prize them j as they were a people of great penetration, 
though their Commandant had none: that they were 
brave, and could bring over by their prefents, all the Wir- 

G 4 riois 


riort of the other nAtioni | and had rerourcesi which tht 
KcJ-mcii wci^ without. 

Her Ton tnid her dxc had nothing to apprehend a» t« 
the meafurc!! taken : that all the nations had heard and 
approved their proje*^^ and promifhl to fall upon th« 
French in ti\eir neighhourhotnil, on the fame day with th« 
Natcher : that the Cha^Uws took upon them to de{|ro/ 
all the French lower down and along the Mifliftppii up at 
far ai the I'onicas $ to which la(^ people^ he faidt wc did 
not lend, as they and the Oumas are too much wedded tq 
the French \ and that ft was hetter to involve hoth thefii 
nations in tl^e fame general dclhudiion with the Frencht 
He at laft toM her, the bundle of tx)ds lay in the templei 
on the fUt timber. 

The Stung Arm being inft>rm^ of the whole dcfign, 
pretended to approve of it, and leaving her fon at eafe, 
|\encef<vwartJ was only folicitous h»w fl« might defeat 
this barbaro\»s dcfigii: the time was prefltng, and th« 
ttmt prefixed for the execution was almoft expired* 

This woman, unable to bear to fee the French cut ofF 
to a man in one day by the confpiracy of the nativesi 
fought how to favc the greateft pa»'t of them : for thi» 
purpofc (he bethought herfclf of acquainting fome younj^ 
xv^men therewith, who loved the French, enjoining them 
never to tell from whom they had their tnlbrmation. 

She hcrfelf dcfired a foldier (he met, to go and tell the 
Commandant, that the Natchct had loft their fenfes, and 
to defire him to be upon his guard : that he need only 
make the fmalleft repairs poflible on the fort, In prcfencc 
of fome of them, in onlcr to (hew his mi(truft \ when ill 
their rcfohitions and bad defigns would vani(h and fall to 
the ground. 

The foldier faithfully performed his commiflton : but the 
C::vnmandant, far from giving credit to the information, 
or availing himfelf thereof j or diving into, and inform- 

OF I> QUI St AN A. i^ 

Ing hlmMf of tht f^roundi of i^ ere«ted tKt foldlfr ti « 
GowartI tnd a viii»nary, taufed him tn be tiapt In iiiNiB» 
nnd fi|idi h« Would ncv^r take nity Itep towtidi rppnlring 
the Tort, or putting hiitileir uit his guard, as the Natchez 
would then imagine he was a man of no refuiution, and 
WON ftruek with a mere pantck. 

The Stung Arm fearing a difeovvryi notwitti(tandi|ig 
her utmo(|; precai^tion) and the fecrecy (he enjoinedi re* 
paired to the temple, and pulled Come roda out of the fatal 
bundle : her defign was to halten or forward the terttf 
prefixed, to the end that fuch Frenchmen ai efcBpe4 
ihj^ mallacre, might apprise their countrymen, manjf 
of whom had informed the Commandant) who clap( 
(even of them in ironsi treating them ai cowards on th«( 

The female Sun, feeing the term approaching, and 
many of thofe punifhcd, whom (he had charged to Me» 
quaint the Governor, relblved to fpcak to the Under* 
Lieutenant i but to no better purpofe, the Commandant 
paying no greater regard to him than to the common 
(bidiers. '^l 

Kotwithftanding all thefc informations, the Command'* 
ant went out the night before vj.i a patty of pieafure, with 
fome other Frenchmen, to the grand village of the Kat* 
(Che«t without returning to the fort till break of day | 
whefc he was no fooi)cr come, but he had prefTmg advicO 
|o be upon his guard. ^ 

The Commandant, ftlll fluftered with his kft night's 
debauch, added imprudence to his neglect of thefe lad 
advices t and ordered his interpreter Inftantly to repair to 
the grand village, and demand of the Grand Sun, whe« 
ther he intended, at the head of his Warriors, to coma 
and kill the French, and to bring him word diredtly. 
!|l'he Grand Sun, though but a young man, knew how 
fo diflcmble, and fpoke in fuch a manner to the inter- 
' ^ prcter, 


^ifttr* M t(i givt Aill (kliifaAlon to the Commafid* 
•iit« who v«lu«d himftir en hit contempt of formev 
•dvictt : K« then re|;»tired to hii houfei AtUAte below the 

The Nntcheg hncl too well taken their meafurei to ho 
difappoiiuetl in the fuccefR theretif. The fatal moment 
waa At Uft come. The Natches fet otit on the Eve of 
8t. Atiilrrw, 1719, taking care to bring with them one 
of tlte lower fort, armed with a wooden hatchet, in or-r 
der to knock down the Commandant * : they had fo 
lligh a contempt for him, that no Warrior would deign 
to kill him. The hnufea of the French filled with enc- 
mies, the fort in like manner with the natirei, who 
entered in at the gate and breaches, deprived the foldieri, 
without oiKccrsi, or even a ferjeant at their head, of the 
means of fclf-defcnce* In the mean time the Grand Sun 
arrived, with fome VVarriora loaded with corn, in appcAr- 
•nce as the firll payment of the contribution) when 
ieveral ihot were fired. As this firing waa the fignul, 
(everal (hot were heard at the fame inltant. Then at 
length the Commandant faw, but too late, his folly : 
he ran into his gai^en, whither he was purAied and 
killed. This maHacre was executed tytry where at the 
iame time. Of about fevcn hundred pcrfons, but ffw 
cfcaped to carry the dreadful news to the capital 1 ot\ 
receiving which the Governor and Council were fenfibly 
affcdled, and orders were difpatchcd every where to put 
people on their guard. 

The other Indians were difplcafcd at the condudl of 

the Natchc«, imagining they had forwarded the term 

agreed on, in order to make them ridiculous, and 

propofcd to take vengeance the firft opportunity, not 

knowing the true caufe of the precipitation of the 



• Other* fny h« WM (hot t but atlthtr tcctuMt can U ifttrtaloeJ, at n» 
PnncKman f rcfent tfcapcd. 


ft AAer they hid cleared the fort, warohpufe, and othef 
houfei, the Natchc« fet them til on fire, nut leaving t^ 
fingle building itanding. 

The Yatous, who happened to be at that very time on 
•n vmbafly to the NatchcK, were prevailed on to dcflruy 
the pod of the Yntoui | wliich they failed not to eflc^ 
fome daya after, muking themfelvrs madcrs of the fort« 
under colour of paying a viAt, as ufual, and knocking all 
the garrii'on on tito head. 

M. Pericr, Governor of Loulflana, wai then taking 
the proper ftcps to be avenged : he frnt M. le>Sueur to tht 
Chadtaws, to engage them on our iido ngainft the Nat- 
chez ( In which he Succeeded without any difficulty. Th« 
renfoii of their rcadinefs to enter into thin dcflgn wai not 
then underftood, it being unknown that they were con- 
cerned in the plot of the NatchcK to destroy all the French^ 
and that it wet only to be avenged of thu Natchez, who 
had taken the ilart of them, and not given them a fulH* 
cient fhare of the booty. 

M. dc Loubois, king'a lieutenant, wai nominated to 
be at the head of this eicpedition : he went up the river 
with a flnall army, nnd arrived at the Tonicas. The 
Chadlaws at length arrived in the month of February near 
the Natches, to the number of fiftcuii or fixtcen hundred 
men, with M. le 8ueur at their head) whither M. de 
Xoubois came the March following. 

The army encamped near the ruins of the old French 
fettlemcnt ; nnd after rcfling five days there, they marched 
to the enemy's fort, which was a league from thence. 

After opening the trenches and firing for fcvcral duyt 
upon the fort without any great ci)'c6t, the French at lafl; 
made their approach fo near as to frighten the enemy, who 
fent to offer to rcleufe all the French women atid children, 
on the condition of obtaining a laAing peace, and of be- 
ing fuifered to live peaceably on their ground, without 
being driven from thtncc, or molcdcd for the future. 

M. de 


T«K MlS1M>r<Y 

lrmi«« M t^^n* rtl'i^ H*vr «p thip l»'«t»H« h, wim Wftr i» lti» 

FitHvIm rt«u^ II ihrv •mr*«l lo ilrlliny thw loir l»v llix\ 
1Wi>rtO>l vSun ttarpttetl thrle tomliilonn* puwlilifil K\\t 
}f\n\\\\ \ix\\'C\i\\ \\\K\\\\\\ phM«ili», \\v \kw\\\k\ \\v\\\\r\ riUrf 
\\w I'vMt wiih »l\«» l^tiul»» not lUrtVi ihfi> iiii>it(iiiir!i »n 
tm«i ) whici^ \vrt< rtt:cr|>tt<l \sy ilvr ij^nvnul 4 who Tcni lh« 
tllli^ ht »ievrlw $\\ lht» lirtxrw, 

Thf NrtivhfR* highly \s\vMh\ Xw \\Ayf> ^M\m\ »lnir, 
AVtiM ihcmlrh tM ol the lollowihit tti|Ahi« rtiul wnu out 
ol" ibt H><t* vlti> *^<' *• wivrs Aiu) ihihiivn, lomlnl with 
Ihdv l>««i|^tHi« «ml (hr i'lrnch pUimlri, l(?ii\ in|j[ nothing 
^ut the cduiHMi Aiul \)a\\ behiiul. 

M» M !,tM»M« \v«!i llnirk with m«tt»i»t>tfMt m thli 
rft*«i|V(», rt«v< o«ly thm«nht t^l iTMifttilti|j tt> thi» Uiullon- 
X\wr% in *Mtlfi t« imlKl * R»t^t thr«r; hut ftiCl It wtt< 
iiwp«»rt^vy ft* \Th^>vev thr l^'tfneh o«t of th« h«tt»d« of th» 
ChAv^*WN«* who Inhrtnl on m vt\y hl^h tdiKom. *rh« 
iMAth^r w^rt« aMnphMniUtl hy tnrnus ol titt gJinul •hltf t>r 
the 'V<>iMcA«» who iMx'x AllrtI m\ ihfin Uy mtrpt whttt M» 
d<» I.ouhois wrt« vontli-rtlnril to oftt»i ihcm, to rrttiilV their 
juvAiuT^ \vhi\h th«^v rtcnMtlihuly rtnvptnl, uml p«vt» u|i 
the Firnch Ibvrx^ on ^^^■on\i^e of b«>ing prthi m limn m 
|>otRble : Init they kepi 4' Teturlty n ytnin^ PhMU hnirtn 
*m^ Tonxe neg^w lUves whom they woulU ttever |>4tt wlll\, 
i\\\ jvAvwent w»«R n\rtvle. 

M» Je T,on\nM» j^uve «»\!ei» to h\iiM n tenure- fort, ftti 
ferKi^Me t\> a OxKcAtloj there he lcl\ M. vhi Cieurti wit^ 
An hnnxlttsi a\\\\ tNX-enty n^eit In j,\rtnl!on, wi«h tannon 
itn«J Ammunition i aWvt whi»h he wentOowu tho Mirtiliphl 
to New Oilertus. The ChAd{tws> Toniciis oiul otl\t?v 
t\V\t.^^ \Ti\\\\\\\\ hon\e. 

AlVcv the KAK'he^ h«\l ahrtuvional l1\e fvut, U Wrts vle- 
wuxlilhe^U auvl n« piles, ov rtakes, h\m\». As the Natthr* 
^reftdeJ ^th the ven|eAnce of the I'jvivch, w\\\\ the info- 


O r f. Ut A I A N A. 91 

Inlliiit orHirtplh^ Im tHMli^ltl. 

A rtu^rl lliMH rtOt't, rt »«niiftil»'rrtm«« prtify nf tlif Nnftfir^ 
rUHlitl thr l*lp»» nf IVm** fit lHi« (}himl i^hlnf iff th« 
1\»i«Un«i, Mhtl»«r |mh»«m<'»* nf (•rini liidtiiii » |i»««mi wirh Him 
Aiul till fhr Kmttlt. t he (MiiHf IHtf Ht M. M^rln <<f 
khmv liN iilrrtnit^** * li»a »Ui» Nrth*hf#i lit Hii* mriifi flmi 
ndklttitntftt iht* 't'ohlrtiti, li»>^ttti(lM|t with tliHr (4rMh(l 
Chivfi MHil n^w ttf them tlbnii^tl thli Irtfitcliriy. 

M. IViln, CotMrnHtulrthl Clrnhfnl, irfrtlhun rMMfif ft?r- 
V)( r, iir^tr(*>i*(t im imtHHo* whrrfliy (ii (IIUMVcf Itt Wtttit 
l>rtH Hif Ntttthpt hml trtkpn fpfunfl. And i\hn mntiy •ti*- 
i|iiliipM \w wrt*i btlil, fhi^v hiitl piiHiely (|iiit(rt| tht* Km(I 
llilt* ttf (h» Mintlipitl* ttulitutfl>( Hi nv*»l«l Ht« troiiltlMliMiitf 
iiiul tltiM|ti*rntiN vilitN of (lit* C'ltMi^liiwii i mimI lit nrilor (ci li<t 
iMuiv fHMrmOt»(l Irum llir !• ifiirli, li«tl Hfflii'il to the W«ftt 
itt tht* JVtKlilippi, iirni (Itt* Hllvt^r Crt^rk, uluiyt flxt/ 
Irnghru rioitt (itr* iiumiiIi hI tlin RhI Hivcfi 

M'hHIs mlvh «•« wptf tPi-tnln j Itut ihii Cnifliimmlwnf 
Ot'hrmI iittf (liinkih^; lilintrlr lit it rotielUinii flt to Htlnik 
fh^ni withniit rurintiiN, hud itti|dl(*(i foi- thnt (^urpolc to 
the Coui't I Mild (\KctMiri w^ii m-curdliigly (i»itl hiitfi 

In thrincitn (Inirthf Compttiiyi who hnd bcrn npprifttfd 
tit th« luhiortuno iit (he Poll mI the Nrttthr/., tiiul the 
lnlt«ii they Imd riilUiiunt liy the wmi, gnvr up (lint Colony 
to thp Killer, wlih ih«* prlvilp(^»'!» miiH'xfd ihrrpto. Th* 
Cnmpnity wt the litinp tiinw cptird to tlit? KIm|4 mII flint 
brlongt^d to thfin In thnr fJo'ony, im tortrrllrn, wrtillny, 
Amnuinition, wturluHi(K«i, tind pliintdilotiii, with the M- 
pm9 hrlon^inp; (hriTto, In i'oiirr()iirhc«i of which, h(i 
Mnjpfty (Vnt one of hin fliips, rominHndrd hy M. <)• 
iFoi'iiiu, who hmiight with him M. dcHtilnionr, CVimnnU- 
ftiry-Grnpriil of tht> Murines, nnd Inlpitdtor of LoiiinMtii, 
in nrdrr to t(ik« poltbnioii of thttt Culuny in the King's 

1 wm 


tHfe in STORY 

I was continued in the inrpe£lion of this plahtatioity 
now become the King's in t730» as before. 

M. Perier, who till then had been Commandant General 
i>f Louiliana for the Weft India Company, was now made 
Governor for the King i and had the fatisfa^lion to fee 
his brother arrive, in one of the King's (hips, commanded 
hf M. Perier de Salvert, with the fuecours he demanded, 
which were an hundred and fifty foldiers of the marine* 
This Officer had the title of Lieutenant General of the 
Colony conferred upon himi 

The Meflrs. Perier fet out with their army irl very 
fkvourable weather ; and arrived at laft, without obftruc- 
tion, near to the retreat of the Natchez. 1 o get to that 
place, they went \ip the Red River, then the Black River, 
«nd from thence up the Silver Creelc, which communicates 
with a fmall Lake at no great diftance from the fort, 
^hich the. Natchez had built, in order to maintain their 
ground againft the French* 

The Natchez, ftruck with terror at the fight of a 
Vigilant enemy, (hut themfelves up in their fort. Defpair 
aflumed the place of prudence, and they were at their 
wits end, on feeing the trenches gain ground on the fort : 
they equip themfelves like warriors, and ftain their 
bodies with- different colours, in order to make their laft 
efforts by a fally, which refembledatranfportofragemore 
than the calmnefs of valour, to the terror, at firft, of the 

The reception they met from our men, taught them, 
however, to keep themfelves (hut up in their fort; and 
though the trench was almoft finifhcd, our Generals were 
impatient to have the mortars put in a condition to play 
on the place. At laft they are fet in battery ; when thi^ 
third bomb happened to fall in the middle of the fort, the 
ufual place of refidence of the women and children, they 
fet up a horrible fcreaming ; and the men, feized with 


dF tdtlStANA. ^ 

grief at the cries of their wives and children, made the 
fignal to capitulate. 

The NatcheBy after demanding to capitulate, ftarted 
difficulties. Which occafioned meflages to and fro till night« 
which they waited to avail themfelves of, demanding till 
next day to fettle the articles of capitulation. The night 
Was granted them, but being narrowly watched on the 
fide next the gate, they could not execute the fame projftA 
of efcape, as in the war with M. de Loubois. However^ 
they attempted it, by taking advantage of the obfcurity of 
the night, and of the apparent ilillnefs of the French t 
but they Were difcovered in time, the greateft part being 
conftrained to retire into the fort. Some of them onljf 
happened to efcape, who joined thoTe that w«re out a 
hunting, and all together retired to the Chicafaws. Th« 
reft furrendered at difcretion, among whom was the Grand 
Sun, and the feqiale Suns, with feveral warriors, man/ 
women, young people, and children. 

The French army re-embarked, and carried the Natchez 
IS flaves to New Orleans, where they were put in prifon ) 
but afterwards, to avoid an infe£^ion, the women and 
children were difpofcd of in the King's plantation, and 
elfewhere; among thefe women was the female Sun, called 
the Stung Arm, who then told me all (he had done, in 
order to fave the French. 

Some time after, thefe flaves were embarked for St. 
Domingo, in order to root out that nation in the Colony; 
which was the only method of effeiSiing it; as the few that 
eicaped had not a tenth of the women heceflary to re« 
cruit the nation. And thus that nation, the moft con- 
fpicuous in the Colony, and moft ufeful to the French, 
was deftroyedk 

'»*«»( > «A#i« 




Thi War 'mth the Chicafiws., i:he firji Exp^dliion by iU 
river Mobile. The fecond by the Miffifippi* The Wa^ 
tvitb the Chadkaws terminated by the prudence £f M. do 

THE War with the Chicafaws was owing to their 
having received and adopted the Natchez : though 
in this refpefl they a<^ed only according to an inviolable 
ufage.and facred cuftom, eftablifhed among all the nations 
of North America ) that when a nation, weakened by 
war, retires for ihelter to another, who are willing to 
adopt them, and is purfued thither by their enemies, this 
is in efFed to declare war againft the nation adopting. 

But M. de Biainville, whether difpleafed with this z€t 
of hofpitality, or loAng fight of this unalterable law, con- 
ilantly prevailing among thofe nations, fent word to the 
Chicafaws, to give up the Natchez. In anfwer ta his 
demand they alledged, that the Natchez having demanded 
to be incorporated with them, were accordingly received 
and adopted; fo as now tq conftitute but one nation, or 
people, under the name of Chicafaws, that of Natchez 
being entirely aboli(hed. Befides, added they, bad Biain- 
ville received our enemies, fhould we go to demand them? 
or, if we did, would they be given up ? 

Notwithftanding this anfwer, M. de Biainville made 
warlike preparations againft the Chicafaws, fent off* Cap- 
tain le Blanc, with fix armed boats under his command ; 
one laden with gun-powder, the reft with goods, the 
whole allotted for the war againft the Chicafaws j the Cap- 
tain at the fame time carrying orders to M. d'Artaguette, 
Commandant of thePoft of the Illinois, to prepare to fet out 
at the head of all the troops, inhabitants and Indians, he 
could march from the Illinois, in order to be at the Chi- 
cafaws the loth of May following, as the Governor him- 

felf was to be there at the fame time. 



The Chicaiawd, apprized of the warlike preparations 
of the French, refolved to guard the Mifliflppi, imagining 
they would be attacked on that fide. In vain they at- 
tempted to furprize M. le Blanc's convoy, which got fafe 
to the Arkanfas, where the gun-powder was left, for 
reafons no one can furmife. 

From thence he had no crofs accident to the Illinois, at 
which place he delivered the orders the Governor had dif-. 
patched for M. d'Artaguette } who finding a boat laden 
with gun-powder, defigned for his poft, and for the fer- 
Tice of the war intended againft the Chicafaws, left at the 
Arkanfas, fent ofF the fame day a boat to fetch it up ; 
which on its return was taken by a party of Chicafaws; 
who killed all but M. du Tiflenet, junior, and one Rofalie, 
whom they made flaves. 

In the mean time, M. de Biainville went by Tea to Fort 
Mobile, where the Grand Chief of the Cha£laws waited 
for him, in confequence of his engaging to join his War- 
riours with ours, in order to make war upon the Chica- 
faws, in confideration of a certain quantity of goods, part 
to be paid down dlre£lly, the reft at a certain time prefixed. 
The Governor, aftet this, returned to New Orleans, there 
to wait the opening of the campaign. 

M. de Biainville, on his return, made preparations 
againft his own departure, and that of the army, coiififting 
of regular troops, fome inhabitants and free negroes, and 
fome flaves, all which fet out from New Orleans for Mobile; 
where, on the loth of March, 1736, the army, together 
with the Cha£l:aws, was afTembled ; and where they refted 
till the 2d of April, when they began their march, thofe from 
New Orleans taking their route by the river Mobile, in 
thirty large boats and as many pettyaugres ; the Indians by 
land, marching along the eaft bank of that river; and making 
but fhort marches, they arrived at Tombecbec only the 
20th of Apr;l, inhere M. de Biainville caufed a fort to be 
built : here he gave the Cha£laws the reft of the goods due 

H ^o 


to thsm, and did not (et out from thence till the 4thr of Maf . 
All this time was taken up with a Council of War, held 
on four foldiersy French aMdSwifs, who had iaid a fcheme 
to kill the Commandant and garrifon^ to carry off M. du 
Tiilenet and Rofalie, who had happily made their efcape 
from the Chicafaws, and taken; refuge in the fort, and to 
put them again into' the hands of the enemy, in order. to 
be better received by them, and! to al&ft, and fhew them 
how to ftikl^e a proper defence agaihft the French, and frotii 
thence td go over to the Englifh of Carolina. 

From the 4th of May, on: which the army Tet out from 
Tombecbec, they took twenty day9 to come to the land- 
ing-place. After landing* they built a very extenfive in- 
clofare ofpalifadoes, with a (bed, as a cover for the goods 
and ammunition, then the army pafled the night. On 
the 25th powder and ball were, given out to the foidiers» 
and ihh^bitants, the fick with fdme raw foldiers being 
left to guard this old fort of fort. 

From this place to the fort of the Chicafaws aie feven 
leagues : this day they mtarched five leagues and a h^lf in 
two columns and in file, acrof^ w9ods. On the wings 
inarched theCha&aws, to the number of twelve hundred 
at leafty commanded by their Grand Chief. In the 
evening they encamped in a meadow, furrounded with 
wood. . 

On the 26th of May they marched to the enemy's fort, 
acroTs thin woods ; and with water up>to the waifl, pailed 
over a rivulet, which traverfra. a fmall wood ; on coning 
out of which, they entered a. fine plain: in this plain 
fiood the fort of the Chici^ws, with a village defended 
by it. This fort is fituated on an eminence, withan eafy 
afcent; around it flood feveral huts, and at a greater dif- 
tance towards the bottom, other hutsj which appeared to 
have beef) put in a ilate of defence: quite clofe to the 
fort ran a little brook, which watered a part of the 




The Chaftaws no fooner efpled the enemy's fort, than 
itliey rent the air with their'death-crles, and inftantly flew 
to the fort: but their ardour flagged at a carabin-fhot 
from the place. The French marched in good order, and 
got beyond a fmall wood, which they left in their rear, 
within cannon^fhot of the enemy's fort, where an Engliih 
Hag was feen flying. At the fame time four Englishmen, 
coming from the huts, were feen to go up the afcent, and 
enter the fort, where their flag was fet up. 

Upon this, it was-imagined, they would be fummoned 
to quit the enemy's fort» and to furrender, as would in 
like manner the Chicafaw^ : but nothing of this was once 
propofed. The General gave orders to the Majors to form 
large detachments of each of their corps, in order to go and 
take the enemy's fort, Thefe orders were in part executed : 
three large detachments were made ; namely, one of gre- 
nadiers, one of foldiers, and another of militia, or train-> 
bands ; who, to the number of twelve hundred men, ad- 
.vanc^d with ardour towards the enemy's fort, crying out 
aloud (everal times, Vive le Rot, as if already mailers of 
the place ; which, doubtlefs, they imagined to carry 
fword in hand ; for in the whole army there was not a 
iUigU iron tool to remove the earth, and form the at- 
tacks. . 

The refl: of the army marched in battle-array, ten men 
deep }■ mounted the eminence whereon the fort flood, and 
being come there, fet fire to fome huts, with wild-fire 
thrown at the ends of darts j but the fmc^e ilifled the 
arm)r. ; 

The regular troops marched in front, and the militia, 
©r tfain-bandt, in rear, according to rule. Thefe train- 
bands made a quarter turn to right and left, with intent 
togoanid inveft the place. But M. de Jufan, Aid-Major 
of the troops, ftopt ihort their ardor, and fent them to 
their proper poft, referving for his own corps the glory of 
carrying the place, which continued to make a briflc de-^ 

H 2 fence. 



fiance, fiitnvilitt remAitied At the qu«rteri of refelVei 
where he obferved what would be the ifTue of the Attack) 
thtn which none could be more difAdvuntAgeouit 

Both the reguUrs and iiihAbitAius, or tratn-baticti, gAve 
Ihf^Ances of the greateft valuur i but w4iat could they do» 
open And ex(H)ft^ as thty were, againd a fort, whof« 
(lAkes oir wooden pofts were a fAihom in cortipAfs, And 
their joinings AgAin lined with other po(b, almoft as big t 
From this fort, which was well gAnifoned, liTued a (hower 
of balls ) which would have mowed down at WtkH hAlf the 
AflailAnts, if direifted by men who knew how to fire. Th« 
enemy were under cover from All the attacks of the French, 
A»\d could have defended themfelvcs by their loop-holes* 
Bcfides, they formed a gallery of flat paliifadoed quit* 
round, covered with earth, which fcrcened It from thts 
effe6ls of grenadoes. In this manner the troops lavifhcd 
their ammunition Againft the wooden pofts, or ftAkes, of 
the enemy*s fort, without any other cft'eil: thAn hAving 
thirty-two men killed. And almoft fevcnty Wounded | 
which Irtft were carried to the body of refervej from 
whence the General, feeing the bad fucccfs of the AttAck* 
ordered to beat the i-etreat, and font a krge detachment to 
favour it. It was now five in the evening, And the AttAck 
had been begun at half An hour after one. The troops 
rejoined the body of the army, without being Able to 
CArry off their dead, which >vcre left on the field of bAttlei 
expofed to the rage of the enemy. 

After taking fomc refrefliment, they dire^Iy fortified 
themfelvcs, by felling trees, in order to pafs the night 
fecure from the infults of the enemy^ by being cArefuUy 
on their guard. Next day it was obferved the enemy 
had availed themfelvcs of that night to demolish fomt 
huts, where the French, during the .nttack, had put 
themfelvcs utuiei vcv&r, in order from thence to bAtter 


or LOUISIANA. lot 

Ott the a7th, the day after th« attack, the army began 
Its march, and lay nt a league From th« enemy. The day 
following, at a league From the landing- plnce, whither 
they arrived next day, the French embarked for Fort 
Mobile, and From thence for the Capital, fVom which each 
returned to his own I.-me. 

A little time after, a ferjeant of the garrifnn of the 
Illinois arrived at New Orleans, who reported, that) in 
confequence of the Genernrs orders, M. d'Artaguetttf 
had taken his menfures (o well, that on the 9th of May 
he arrived with his men near the Chicafaws, fent out 
fcouts to difcover the arrival of the French army) which 
he continued to do till the 20th : that the Indians in al- 
liance hearing no accounts of the French, wanted either 
to return home, or to attack thn Chicafaws ) which lafl: 
M. d'Artaguette refolved upon, on the 21ft, with pretty 
good fuccefs atfirft, having forced the enemy to quit their 
village and fort : that he then attacked another village 
with the fame fuccefs ( but that purfuing the runaways, 
M. d'Artaguette had received two wounds, which the 
Indians finding, refolved to abandon that Commandant^ 
with forty^fix foldiers and two ferjeants, who defended 
their Commandant all that day, but wert at lafl; obliged 
t4 furrender 1 that they were well ufed by the enemy, who 
uoderftanding that the French were In their country, pre- 
vailed on M. d'Artaguette to write to the General t but 
that this deputation having had no fuccefs, and learning 
ttiat the French were retired, and defpairing of sny ran* 
fpm for thsir Haves, put them to death by a flow fire. 
The ferjeant added, he had the happinefs to fall into 
the hands of a good maftcr, who favoured hii nfifai^e to 

M. de Biainville, deflrous (0 take vengeance of the 
Chicafaws, wrote to France for fuccours, which the 
Court fent, ordering ulfo the Colony of Canada to fend 
f^iccours. In the mean time M. de Biainville fent ofl* a 

H 3 larjre 


large detachment for the river St. Franci«> in otdcr'to 
build a fort there, called alfo St. Francis. 

The fquadron which brought the fuccours from France 
being arrived, they fet out, by going up the Mil&fippi, 
for the fort that had been juft built. This army cbnfifled 
of Marines, of the troops of the Colony, of feveral In- 
habitantS) many Negroes, and fome Indians, our allies ; 
and being aflembled in this place, took water again, and 
ftill proceeded up the Mifliflppi to a little river called 
Margot) near the Cliffs called Prud'homme, and there the 
whole army landed. They encamped on a Hne plain, at 
the foot of a hill, about fifteen leagues from the enemy ; 
fortified thcmfelves by way of precaution, and built in the 
fort a houfe for the Commandant, fome cazerns, and a 
Warehoufe for tht goods. This fort was called Aflump- 
tionj from the day on which they landed. 

They had waggons and fledges made, and the roads 
cleared for tranfporting cannon, ammunition, and other 
ijeccfTiiries for forming a regular fiege. There and then 
it was the fuccours from Canada arrived, confiiling of 
French, Iroquois, Hurons, Epifingles, Algonquins, 'and 
other nations : nnd foon after arrived the new Commandant 
of the Illinois, with the garrifon, inhabitants, and neigh- 
bouring Indians, all that he could bring together, with a 
great number of horfcs. 

This formidable army, confifting of fo many different 
nations, the grcatefl ever ften, land perhaps that ever will 
be feen, in thoTe parts^ remained in this camp without 
undertaking any thing, from the month of Auguft iyy)% 
to the Mfirch following. Provifions, which at firft were 
in great plenty, came at laft to be fo fcarce, that they were 
obliged to eat the horfes which were to draw the ai-tillery, 
ammunition, and provifions ; afterwards ficknefs raged in 
the arnriy. M. de Biainville, who hitherto had attempted 
nothing againd the Chicafaws, rcfolved to have recourfe 
to mild methpds. He tberefoj-e detached, about the 15th 



«fM^rch, the company of Cadets, with their Captain, 
M.^ de Celoron, their Lieutenant, M; de Su Laurent^ 
^and the Indians, who came with them from Canada^ 
againft the Chicafaws, with orders to offer peace to them 
iin his name, if they (lied for it. 

What the General had forefeen, failed not to happen* 
As Toon as the Chicafaws faw the French, followed by 
the Indians of Canada, they doubted not in the leaft, bui. 
the reft of that numerous army would foon follow ; and 
they no fooner faw them approach, but they made fignals 
of peace, and came out of their fort in the moft humble 
manner, expofing themfelves to all the confoquences that 
might enfue, in order to obtaifi peace. They folcmnly 
protefted that they ai^ually were, and would continue to 
be inviolable friends of the French ; that it was the £ng- 
lifh, who prevailed upon them to z&. in this manner; but 
that they had fallen outavith them on this account, and 
at that very time had two of that nation, whom they nhade 
flaves ; and that the Firench might go and fee whether 
they fpoke truth. 

M. de St. Laurent aflced to go, and accordingly ^ent 
with a young flave : but he might have bad reafon to have 
lepented it, had not the men been more prudent than the 
Avomen, who demanded the head of the Frenchman : but 
<the men, af:er confulting together, were refolved to fay; 
hiho, in order to obtain peace of the Frepch, on giving 
up the two £ngli(hmen. The women rifle Scarce any 
thing near fo much as the men; thefe 1 aft are either flain 
in battle, or put to death by their enemies ; whereas the 
women at worft are b^t Haves ; ahd they all perfe£l;Iy well 
^now, that the Indian women are far better oft* when flave<s 
to the F;:ench, than if married at home. M. de St. 
Laurent, highly pleafed with this difcovery, promifed 
them peace in the name of M. de Biainville, and of all the 
French: after thefe afTurances, they went all in a body 
out of the fort, to prefent the Pipe to M. de Celbron, who 
accepted it, and repeated the fame promife. 

H4 In 


In a flew days tfter, he Ctt out with a great company of 
IChicafawit deputed to carry the Pipe to the French Gene- 
ral» and deliver up the two EngliAimen. When ihey 
came before M. de Biainville, they M\ proftrate at hia 
feeti and mado him the Tame protcftations of Hdelity and 
friendfhip, as they had already made to M. de Ccloron \ 
threw the blame on the Englifli } faid they were entirely 
fallen out with them, and had taken thefe two, and put 
then> in his hands, as enemies. They protefted, in the 
moft folemn manner, they would for ever be friends of the 
French and of their friends, and enemies of their enemies ) 
in fine, that they would make war on the Englifli, if it 
was thought proper, in order to ibew that they renounced 
them as traitors. 

Thus ended the war with the Chicafaws, about the be- 
ginning of April, 1740. M. de Biainville difmiiTed thor 
auxiliaries, afbr making them prefents i razed the Fort 
AiTumption, thought to be no longer neceflary, and em- 
barked with his whole army t and in pafTing down^ caufcd 
the Fort St. Francis to be demoliflied, as it was now be- 
come ufelefs i and he repaired to the Capital, ^fter an ab* 
fei>ce of mo^? than ten months* 

Some years after, we had difputes with a part of the 
Cha^taws, who followed the intcrefts of theRed-Shpe, a 
Prince of that nation, who, in the firft expedition againft 
the Chicafaws, had fome difputes with the French. This 
Indian, more infolent than any one of his nation, took a 
pretext to breakout, and commit fcvcral hoftilities againft 
the French. M. de Vaudreuil, then Governor of Loui« 
iiana, being apprized of this, and of the occafion thereof, 
ilri£lly forbad the French to frequent that nation, and to 
truck with them any arms or ammunition, in order to put 
a ftop to that diforder in a (hort time, and without draw- 
ing the fword. 

M. de Vaudreuil, afkcr taking thefe precautions, fent 
to demand of the Grand Chief of the whole nation, whe- 


fher, like the Red-Shoe, he was airo difpleafcd with the 
French. He made anfwer, he wii their friend : but that 
the Red-Shoe wa« a young man, without underftanding. 
Having returned this anfwer, they fent him a prefent : 
but he was greatly furprized to find neither arms, pow- 
der, nor ball in this prefent, at n time when they were 
friends as before. This manner of proceeding, joined to 
the prohibition made of trucking with them arms or am- 
munition, heightened their furprize, and put them on 
having an explication on this head with the Governor; 
who made anfwer. That neither arms nor ammunition 
would be trucked with them, as long as the Red-Shoe had 
no more underftanding ( that they would not fail, as be- 
ing brethren, to (hare a good part of the ammunition and 
arms with the Warriors of the Red-Shoe. This anfwer 
put them on rernonftrating to the Village that infulted us| 
tpld them, if they did not inftantly make peace with the 
French, they would themfelves make war upon them. 
This thrcatning declaration made them fue for peace with 
the Frenchi who were not in a condition to maintain a 
war againft a nation (o numerous. And thus the prudent 
policy of M. de Vaudreuil put a ftop to this war, without 
either expence or the lofs of a man. 





Ji^fU^lmi an what givts OccaJUns to JVars in Louifiana. Tht 
Means ofawiSng IPars in that ProviitN^ as alfo thi Manner 
mf earning off with Advanto^t and UttU Expence in thtm, 

THE experience I have had in the art of war, from 
fome compaigns I made in a regiment of dragoons 
till the peace of 17 13, my application to the iludy of the 
wars of the Greeks, Romans, ai>d other ancient peopk, 
and the wars I have feen carried on with the Indians of 
Louiiidna, during the time I refidcd in that Province, 
gave mc occafion to make feveral refledions on what could 
give rife tx> a war with tlie Indians, on the rheans of avoid- 
ing fuch a war, and on fuch methods as may be employed, 
in order eitlier to make or miintain a war to advantage 
againft them, when conftrained thereto. 

In the fpace of fixteen years that I refided in Louifiana, 
I remarked, that the wars, and even the bare difputes we 
have had with the Indians of this Colony, never had any 
Other origin, but our too familiar intercourfe with them. 

In order to prove this, let us confider the evils produced 
by this familiarity. In the firft place, it makes them 
gradually drop that reQpe<Sl:, which they naturally entertain 
for our nation. 

In the fecond place, the French traffickers, or traders, 
are generally young people without experience, who, in 
order to gain the good-will of thefe people, afford them 
lights, or inftrudlion, prejudicial to our intereft. Thefe 
young merchants are not, it is true, fenfible of thefe con- 
fequences : but again, thefe people never lofe fight of 
what can be of any utility to them, and the detriment 
thence accruing is not lefs great, nor leTs real. 

In tlie third place, this familiarity gives occafion to 
vices, whence dangerous diftempers entlie, and corruption 


of blood, which is naturally highly pure in thit colony, 
Thefe perfons, who frequently refort to the Indiani, ima- 
gined themfelves authorized to give a loofe to their vices* 
from the practice of thefe laft, which is to give young 
women to their guefts upon their arrival ; a pradice that 
greatly injures their health* and proves a detriment to theij^ 

In the fourth place, this reforting to the Indians puts 
thefe laft under a cunftraint, as being fond of folitude ; 
and this conftraint is dill more heightened, if the French 
iettlement is near them } which procures them too fre- 
quent vifits, that give them fo much more uneafinefs, as 
they care not on any account that people (hould fee or 
know any of their affairs. And what fatal examples 
have we not of the dangers the fettlements which are too 
near the Indians incur. Let but the maflacre of the 
French be recoUefled, and it will be evident that this 
proximity is extremely detrimental to the French. 

In the fifth and laft placej commerce, which is the 
principal allurement that draws us to this new world, in- 
ftead of flourifhing, is, on the contrary, endangered by 
the too familiar refort to the Indians of North America* 
The proof of this is very fimple. 

All who refort to countries beyond fea, know by expe- 
rience, that when there is but one fliip in the harbour, the 
Captain fells his cargo at what price he pleafes : and then 
we hear it faid, fuch a fhip gained two, three, and fome- 
iimcs as high as four hundred per cent. Should another 
fhip happen to arrive in that harbour, the profit abates at 
leaft one half; but (hould three arrive, or even four fuc- 
ceflively, the goods then are, fo to fpcak, thrown at the 
head of the buyer : fo that in this cafe a merchant hai 
often great difficulty to recover his very expences of fit- 
ting out. I fhould therefore be led to believe, that it 
would be for the intcreft of commerce, if the Indians 
were left to come to fetch what merchandize they wanted, 




who hiving none but us in their neighbourhood, would 
come for it, without the French running any ri(k in their 
commerce, much lefs in their lives. 

For this purpofe, let us fuppofe a nation of Indians on 
the banks of fomc river or rivulet, which is always the 
cafe, as as all men whatever have at ail times occafion for 
water. This being fuppofed, I look out for a fpot proper 
to build a fmall terras-fort on, with fraifel or ftakes, 
and pallif^does. In this fort I would build two fmall 
places for lodgings, of no great height ; one to lodge 
the officers, the other the foldiers : this fort to have an 
advanced work, a half-moon, or the like, according to 
the importance of the poft. The paiTage to be through 
this advanced work to the fort, and no Indian allowed to 
enter on any pretence whatever ; not even to receive the 
Pipe of Peace there, but only in the advanced work;^he 
g9te of the fort to be kept (liut day and night againft all 
but tlie French. At the gate of the advanced work ^ 
fentinel to be pofled, and that gate to be opened and (hut 
«n each pciTon appearing before it. By thefe precautions 
we might be fare never to be furprifed, either by avgwed 
enemies, or by treachery. In the advanced work a fmall 
building to be made for the merchants, who (hould come 
thither to traffick or truck with the neighbouring Indians } 
of which laft only three or four to be admitted at a time, 
all to have the merchandize at the fame price, and no one 
to be favoured above another. No foldier or inhabitant 
to go to the villages of the neighbouring Indians, under 
fcvere penalties. By this condu£l difputes would be avoid- 
ed, as they only arife from too great a familiarity with 
them. Thefe forts to be never nearer the villages than 
five leagues, or more diftant than feven or eight. The 
Indians would make nothing of fuch a jaunt} it would be 
only a walk for them, and their want of goods wotild 
eafily draw them, and in a little time they would become 
habituated to it. The merchants to pay a falary to an 


OF L O U I S I A K A. to^ 

interpreter, who might be fome orphan, brought up verjr 
young among thcfe people. 

This f6rt, thus diftant a (hort journey, might be buile 
without obftru(5iion, or giving any umbrage to the Indians ; 
as they might be told it was built in order to be at hand 
to truck their furs, and at the fame time to give them no 
manner of uneafinefs. One atlvantage would be, befldet 
thac of commerce, which would be carried on there, that 
thcfe forts would prevent the Engliih from having any 
communication with the Indians, as thefe laft would find 
a great facility for their truck, and in forts fo near them, 
every thing they could want. 

The examples of the furprize of the forts of the Nat- 
chez, the Yazoux, and the Miflburis, (hew but too 
plainly the fatal confcquences of negligence in the fervice, 
and of a mifplaccd condefccnfion in favour of the foldiers, 
by fufFering them to build huts near the fort, and to lie in 
them. None (hould be allowed to lie out of the fort, not 
even the Officers. The Commandant of the Natchez, and 
the other Officers, and even the Serjeants, were killed in 
their houfes without the fort. I (hould not be againft the 
foldiers planting little fields of tobacco, potatoes, and 
other plants, too low to conceal a man : on the contrary, 
thefe employments would incline them to become fettlers ; 
but I would never allow them houfes out of the fort. By 
this means a fort becomes impregnable againfl the moft 
numerous nation ; becauic they never will attack, (hould 
they have ever (o much cajufe, as long as they (ce people 
on their guard. 

Should it be objected that thefe forts would coft a great 
' deal : I anfwer, that though there was to be a for: for 
■each nation, which is not the cafe, it wouKI not cofl near 
fo mudi as from time to time it takrs to iupport wars, 
which in this country are very expenfive, on account of 
the long Journeys, and of tranfporting all the implements 
of war, hitherto made ul'e of. Befidcs, wc have a great 

ut THfc IM8TORY 

^i of iheli; rbtis ulreikily built, fb timt wf ohiy WAhl the 
Advuticvt) Vh^rkn I rtMti twt> tirw fi>t-t« mow would ftllffe* to 
com)>le«t this defigh, mill prtvent the (Vduduleht tnM* 
mctx:c of the fcnglltli thiilcri* 

Aft to the mftimet- or tArtytl^( oti ihewtt* iti Louiftitni, 
AS w*i hiikiitrto iKm«4 it is Vffy expennvr, highly rii» 
tiguii\g« iiifl the ride lUwAyi it^^^t ( hectiul'e you mutl Arft 
ttiinl\)ortthe(ititmuuition tx) ihv Uttdin^ plAc« i fVoth th«hee 
tirAV«l IHr mtitiy leAgucs ^ theu 'AtA^ the at-tillety tthnt^^ by 
MiAin lx)it^^ At\t) ciitty the Attimunitioh on meit^ii OioultU 
tti% A thiug thAt hArAitb Aitd weniteuR the tt-oops very 
iwuch. MottHwev, thoiT is A gtt^At lieal of H(k in Hinlting 
WAt in this n\rtnn^r: you have the appvoAchen of a fott to 
t1^Ak«» which cAnnot ht done without loft of lives : And 
tt\ou!d you mAk« a hitAch, how nirtny hiAve men Me loft» 
betxM^ yttu tm Foix^e meit who (ight like delperrtdoee, be- 
tAUre they phifeir deAth ItJ Itiiveiy* 

t fAy^ Ihould you mAke a bi^Ach \ bccnure tn aII the 
time i \tMtA in this Province, I never (Hw nor heArd thAt 
the tAntton which were htouf);ht ttgAinl^ the tndiAn fbrt«| 
ever mAde a hivAch for a Angle mAn to pAls : (t ii there* 
fdvt ^uite ureleis to he At thAt extience. And to hArAfii the 
troops to brin^ Aitill*iiy^ which cAn be of no minner of 

ThAt c*tinon can m«ke no bpe«ch in tndiiin forts mAy 
Appear (lr;\tigt : but nvn tjiore ftrange thAn true j ni wiM 
AppeAr^ if we conddcr thAt the wooden ports or rtAkes 
which furround thcie ti)rt«, Are too big ft)r a bullet of the 
f\7.e of thofe uled in ihe(e wArs, to cut them down, though 
it were eve!\ to hit their middle. If the bullet gives more 
tnvards the evigt; of the tree, it glides ort. And ttrikes the 
next to it J (hould the ball i\ii exadly between twoportt» 
it opens them» And n^eets the port of the lining, which 
rt\^p^ It rt\t>it : Another b«ll may rtrikc the lAmc tree, At 
the other joining, th<;n it doles the little Aperture the 
%iCi\ti had tuAdc. 


or LOU ill AN A. itf 

W«l« t It) uhdirtike Aith i W»r« I wmk\ Mifg ofit^ « 
ttw MkM nltirsf ( rritild fittily mi((iit||« (Item i t\wf W«li44 
imt AahiI me lb miiclt in prtlt^tttsi nor (:(mf\ime Co mmmIi 
Ammunitiuit Anil inuviiidmi : n ^roit litviiig thi« i ii^4 
Winging no bdnnnn with m«i 1 /huuld ttlfn (hve eiep<rMc«94, 
1 woiili! hrtve noti" \n\t piMtable urms i nnd thtiii my Uoopi 
Wonhl not be hatnlUd* Thr touwtry every Where fur- 
nifhes wliffiewiihiil to mnkb inoveAWIo intrenehm«n(<) m\i 
rttiprcKchf?"!* without o|»»»nin{i; the ground : ahil I Kirniilil 
flutter r«tvlclf to iniry the foit in two tlrty« time. Thtte 
t ftn|i : Oit^ remitter htts no txtvd of this tletuili ttm- { to 
■i«ke it |iiiblict 

,.^. .^ ..1^ ,. -. ..: ^^^.ti^aan^iyaMf .IH-M 

-«>- »^.,.,«-..^..f j^^ 

C H A W XV. 

rcnntcotti WiJ^w *y Surprhi h ihf frenth. tiiUtim Iff 
ihf BpAtiiardsi Agdin tttaktn bjf tin i^entli^ and dt-* 

BEtfORK 1 go any farther, t think It necefl-iry f» 
relate what hoppened with refljeiH to thd Kort nf 
Penfacwlrt In VirghilH** This fort helongn to the iSpaui* 
ftrdp, unit fervcfl for an Kntrepot, or hwrhonr for the Spa- 
«l(h galleons to put lnto» in their pitflnge from La Vern 
Crujj to iCurope* 

Tnwrtrdu the hef),inning of the year 17 ft), the Com* 
ittanthmt O^neral having nnderfloml hy the laf^ Oilpi 
which airiveil, that w?<r was ileclaredl httwrpti France and 
Jspnin, rcfolved to take the polt of renfiiLola from th« 
Bpaniardsj which Uands on the conti>ien», about fiftctn 
lengutB from Ule Dauphine, is dcfcnilcd by a llact ado fort 
the entrance of the road : over ngainff it (land?) a fnrtin, 
or fmall fort, on the weft point of thn I(le St. Kofe \ 
whiuhi tin that fule, dcfnids the entrance yf the road : 
this fort hag only a guard-huufu tu defend it« 


* 1 ht aulhpr mud meiti Carolina* 

Ill TH£ HI8T0RV 

ik The Cohimand«nt Gtncral, perAiidiBd it wdutd be (ih- 
poffibte to bedegt the place ih fbrnii wanted to take it hf 
furpriaei confiding In the ardor of the French, and fe-' 
curity of the Spaniahli^ who were m yet ignorant of ouf 
being at war with them in Europe. With that view he 
ftifemhled the few troops he hud, witit feveral Canadian 
and Fitnch planters, newly arrived, who went ai voliin- 
feeri. M. de Chateauguie r, the Commandant'i hrother, 
■nd KingN Lieutenant, comnikandcd under him ^ and next 
htm, M. de Richebourg, Captain. Afkr arming this 
body of men, and getting the ncceflitry fupplies of am- 
munition and provifions, he emhAikcd with his fmall 
army, and by the favour of a profpcrous wind, arrived in 
ft Ihort time at his place of dcftinatlcn. The French 
anchored near the fortin, made theii dcfccnt undilcovcred, 
feifted on the guard-houfc, and clapt the foldiers in irons i 
which was done in lefs than half an hour. Some French 
foldiers were dKlered to put on the cloaths of the Span!* 
ards, in order to facilitate the furptifing tl>c enemy. The 
thing fuccccdetl to their wifli. Oi\ tlie morrow at day- 
t>reak, they pcrccivcil the boat which carried lh«* detach- 
ment fum Pcnfrtcola, in order to relieve the guaid of the 
fortin \ on which the Spnnifh march was caiifed to be 
beat up ) atui the French in difguife receiving them, and 
clapping thrm in ir<>ns, put on their cloaths ) and flep- 
ping into the fantc biMit^ ftirpiifcd the (rntinel, the guard'*' 
lioiife, and at laft the garrifon, to the very Ciovernor him- 
Iclf, who was taken in bed \ fo that they k\\ were made 
prifonci-s wiihout any blood-flitd. 

The Commandant General, apprchcnfivc of the fcarcity 
of provifions, fliippevl off the prifoncrs, cfiorted by fome 
foldiers, commanded by M. dc Richebourg, in order to 
land them at the Havunnn : ho left his brother at Penfa^ 
cola, to commaiul there, with a ganlfon of lixty men. 
As foon as the French vcflcl had anchored at the Ha- 
vanna, M. dc Richebourg went un (here, to acquaint the 



Bfmnifli CJovernor with hii comminion i who rectlved 
him with pulitetieiii, nnd ti a teftimony of hin grititude, 
made him and his ofHcen prifoiteri, put tho (Mditrn In 
irons and in prifon, whare they lay for fomt time, ex- 
pofed to hunger and the infultii of. the Spaniards, which 
determined many of them to enter Into the fcrvlce of 
Spain, In ortter to ef'cape the extreme mifery under which 
they groaned. > 

Some of tho French, nowty enlifted in the Spani(h 
troops, informed the (ilovernor of the Havnnna, that thf 
French gar ri Ion left at Penfacola was very wealc : he^ 
in his turn, rclblved to carry that fort by way of reprlAtl. 
For that purpofc he oauflsd a Si^aniOi vefl'«l, with that 
which tlie French had brought to the Havanna, to be 
armed. The Spanifti veflel ftationed itfelf behind the tile 
^t. Rofc, and the French velTel caitic before the fort with 
French colours. The fentinel enquired, who commanded 
the vefTelf Ttiey anfwcred, M. de Richcbourg. This 
velDi), after anchoring, took down her French, and hoifled 
Spanlfli colours, firing three guns : at which fignal, 
ogrced on by the Spaniards, the Spanlfh velTel Joined the 
fird I then they fummoned the French to furrender. M. 
dt Chateauguiere rcjcfled the propofition, fired upon the 
Spaniards, and they continued cannonading each othci' 
till night. ^ 

On tho following day tho cannonading was continued 
till noon, when the Spaniards ceafcd firing, in order to 
fummon the Commandant anew to furrender the furt : he 
(lemandcd four day<«, and was allowed two. During 
that time, he fent to afk fuccours of his brother, who 
WM in no condition to fend him any. 

The term being expired, the attack was renewed^ the 
Commandant bravely defending himfelf till night; which 
two thirds of the garrifon availed themfclves of, to aban- 
don their Governor, who, having only twenty men left» 

I faw 


faw hirtlfelf uhable to make any longer reAftance, deffltntfe^ 
to capitulate, and was allowed all the honours of war ; 
But in going out of the plac^, he and all his men were 
made pHibners. This iiifr^6lton of the capitulation was 
occafionedby the fliame the Spaniards conceived, of being 
cohftrained to capitulate in this ihdnhtr with tiventy meh 

As foon as the Governor of the Havanna was apprifed 
of the furrender of the fort, vainly imagining he had over- 
tJiroWn half his enemies at leaft, he caufed great rejoicings 
to be made in the ifland, as if he had gained a decHivc 
vi^lory, or carried a citadd of importance. He alfo fent 
tiflT feveral vefTels to victual and refrefli his warciors, who, 
according to him, muft have been greatly fatigued in fnch 
an a^ion as I have juti dei€i<ibed. 

The new Governor of Peqfacbla cauled thefoi^ifica- 
tidns to be repaired itid ev^n augmented ; fent afterwards 
the veilVl, named the Great Devil, armed with fix pieces 
of cannon, to take Dauphin Ifland, or at leaft to ftrike 
terror iilto it. The veffel St. Philip, which lay in the 
road, entered a gut or narrow place, and there mooring 
acrofs, brought all her guiis to. bear oh the ehemy ; and 
made the Great Devil fenilble, that Saints reflft all the 
efforts of Hell. 

This (hip, by her pofition, fervcd for a citadel to the 
whole ifland, which had neither fortifications nor intren^ih- 
ments, nor any other fort of defence, Cxceptlhg a^liat- 
tery of cannon at the eaft pqint, with fome inhabitants^ 
IHrho guarded the coaft, and prevented a defcent. The Great 
Devif, finding (he made no progrefs, was conftp»ined» 
by way .of relaxation, to gO and pillage on the continent 
the habitation of the Sieut: Mvragouine, which was aban- 
doned. In the mean time arrived from Penfacola, a Kttle 
devil, a pink, to the affiftance of the G^reat Disvil. As 
foon as they joined, they began ufrefii to caanoxiade the 
ifland, which made a vigorous defence. 

, In 


Tn the time that thefe two veflels attempted in vain to 
take the ifland, a fquadron ojf five {hips came in fight, 
four of them with Spanifh colours, and the leaft carrying 
French hoifted to the top of the ilafT, as if taken hy thQ 
four others. In this the French were e(|ually deceived 
With the Spaniards : the former, however, knew the fmali 
veflel, which was the pink, the Mary, commanded hy 
the brilive M. lapy. The Spaniards, convinced by thefe 
ap{>earances, that fuccours were fent them, deputed 
tWo officers in a fhallop on board the commodore : but 
they were no fooner on board, than they were made pri* 

They were in efteO: three French men of war, whh two 
Ihips of the Company, commanded by M. Champmelin. 
Thefe fliips brought upwards of eight hundred men, ancl 
thirty officers, as well fuperior as fubaltern, all of them 
6ld and faithful fervants of the King, in order to remiain 
in Louifiana. The Spaniards, finding their error, fled to 
Penfacola, to carry the news of this fuccour being arriveci 
for the French. 

The fquadron anchored before the ifland, hoifted French 
colours, and fired a falvo, which was anfWered by the 
place. The St. Philip was drawn out and made to join 
the fquadron : a new embarkation of troops was madcf 
and the Mary left before Ifle Dauphine. 

On September the 7th, finding the wind fkvofurable, 
the fquadroh fet fail for Penfacola : by the way, the troops 
that vriere to make the attack on the continent, were 
landed near Rio Perdido ; after which the fliips, pre- 
ceded by a boat, whibh fbewed the way, entered the har- 
bour, and anchored, ^nd laid their broad fides, in fpit6 
of feveral difcharges of cannon from the fort, which is 
upon the Ifle of St. Rofe. The (hips had no fooner laid 
their broad-fides, but the canonnade begiinonboth fides. 
Our fiiips had two forts to batter, and feven fail of (hips 

I 2 that 



that lay ja the harbour. 8ut the great land fort iued 
bnfy one gun on our array, in which the Spanlfh Gover- 
nor, having <:>brenred upwardi of three hundred Indiana, 
comnuuided bj M. de St. Denis, whofe bravery was uni- 
verlally acknowledged, was Ilruck with fuch a panick, 
from iJie fear of falling into their hands, that he ftruck, 
and Surrendered the place. 

The fight continued for about two hours longer : but 
the heavy metal of our Commodore making great cxe« 
cution, the Spaniards cried out feveral times oa board 
their ihips, to flrike j but fear prevented their executing 
thefe orders : none but a French prilbncr durft do it for 
them. 1 hey quitted their fhips, leaving matches behind, 
which would have foon fet than on fire. The French 
prifoners between decks, no lonn;er hearijig the leaft nolle, 
furmifed a flight, came on deck, difcovercd the ilratagem 
of the Spaniards, removed the matches, and thus hjndeifed 
the veflels from taking fire, acquainting the Commodore 
therewith. The little fort held oiit but an hour longer, 
after which it furrendered for want of gunpowder. 7'he 
Commandant came himfelf to put his fword in the 
hands of M. Champmelin, who embraced him, returned 
him his fword, and told him, he knew how to difUnguifti 
between a brave officer, and one who was not. He 
made his own fhip his place of confinement, whereas the 
Commandant of the great fort was made the Uughing- 
ftock of the French. 

> AH the Spaniards on board the fhips, and thofis of the 
two forts were made prifoners of war : but the French 
deferters, to the number of forty, were made to cafl lots ; 
half of them were hanged at the yard-arms, the reft con- 
demned to be galley-Haves to the Company for ten years 
in the coui;Ltry. 

M. Champmelin caufed the two forts to be demolifhed, 
prcferving only three or four houfes, with a warehoufe. 

' .Thefe 


Thefe houfeft were to lodge the officer, and the few fo>U 
diers that were left there^ and one to be a gvard-hottfe. 
The reft of the planters were tranfported tolfle DavphuBe^ 
and M. Champmelin fiet fail for France *• 

The hiffory of Pto&cola i* the more neceflary^ aa It is 
fo near our iettlements» that the Spaniards hear o»r gvns^ 
when we give them notice by that fignal of otir defign to 
come and trade with them. 

• At tbc peter that kon fuccMdctf btlwcts Ttuut mi tfiim, Fkii*. 
cola yiM icftvcd lo tbc Uft, 

I 3 


V ■^'' 

t ml 

m I I 







L O U I S I A liJ A. 

i m ii t 


■ ..r-'sr?'"' 

B O O K II. 
Qf ihi Country^ ^ni its Pro4u8s. 




Ceogt^hical i^ifcripilon 4f LouifiaAa. //; CBmiti, 

LOUISIANA 18 that paitt of Nortlk America, 
wKkh is bounded on the fouth b]r tht Gulf of 
Mexico; on the ^aft by Garolrhfa^ an £ngli(h 
colony, and by a part of Oanada ; on the weft by New 
Mexico ; and on the north, in part by Canada ; in part 
it extends, without any aiSgnable bounds, to the Terre 
lacognitte, adjoining to Hudfon's Bay f . Its breadth it 
about two hundred leagues f, extending between the Spa* 

* By th(R chtfter granted by Loui« XIV. to M. Crozat, Louifitna extendi 
pnly ** from tKe edge of tl^e f«* at far as the IlUnoiif" Vrfaich n not abort 
half the extent afligned by our author. 

■f According to the beft maps and accounts extantj the diftance from tht 
MUBfip^ to the mountain* of New Mexico is about nine hundred miles, 
and£roB)>th&Miirtfippi to the Atlantic Ocean about fix hundred| reckop* 
iflf^Xfy i»Uc* to a <i<|t<«> *oi in »■ firaight line. 

I 4 nifli 


nifli and Englifli rettlementi ; its length undetermined, at 
being al(ogeth«r unknown. However, the fource of tht^' 
Miffifippi will afford us fome light on this head. 

The climate of Louifiana varies in proportion as it ex« 
tends northward : all that can be faid of it in general is, 
t|^at its fo«(fh6rn p||rts are not fo fcdrching as tholb of 
Aflrica in the fame latitude ; and that the northern parts 
are colder than the correfponding parts of Europe. New 
Orleans, which lies in lat. 30*^, as do the more northerljr 
coafts of Barbary and Egypt, enjoys the fame temperaturei 
of climate as I^uigi^oc. Two degrees hieher up, at 
the Natchez, where I redded tor eight yeara, th« climate 
is far more mild than at New Orleans, the country lying 
higher L. and. at the Illinois, which is between 45?. and 
46^, the fummer is in no refpe6t hotter than at Rochelle ; 
but we find the frofts harder, and a more plentiful fall of 
fnow. This xlifFjerence of climate fi;om that ^of Africa 
and Eurdpe, I afcribe to two caufes : the nrft is, the 
pumber of woQd^, which, though fcattered up and down» 
cover the face of this country : the fecond, the great 
number of rivers. The former prevent the fun from 
wariT^ing the earth i and the latter diffufe a ereat degree 
of humidity : not to mention the continuity of this coun* 
try with tbofe to the nprthward ; from which it follow^» 
that thq winds blowing from that quarter arc much colder 
than if they traverfed the fea in their couri'e. For it is 
well known that the air is never fo hpt, and i^eyer fo cold 
at fca, as on land. 

f* We ought not therefore to be furprized, if in thefouth» 
em part of Louifiana, a north wind obliges people in 
fummer to be warmer cloathed ; or if in winter a fouth 
wind admits of a lighter drefs ; a,s naturally oviring, at the 
one time to the drynefs of the wind, at the other, to the 
proximity of the Equator. 

Few days pafs in Louifiana without feeing the fun* 
The rain pours down there in fudden heavy (bowers, 

'■ ■' ■' ■ ■■ ' whicH 


which do not laft long, but difappear in half an hour^ 
perhaps. The dews are very plentiful, advantaf»eoufljr 
fupplying the place of rain. 

We m;iy therefore well imagine that the air is perfe^llf 
good there; the blood is pure; the people are healthy j 
fubjeA to few difeafes in the vigour of life, :^nd without 
decrepitude in old age, which they carry to a far greater 
length than in France. People live to a long and agree- 
able old age in I^ouifiana, if they are but fober and tem- 

This country 19 extremely well watered, but much 
more fo in feme places than in others. The Miiliflppi 
divides this colony from north to fouth into two parts 
almoil equal. The firft difcoverers of this river by the 
way of Canada, called it Colbert, in honour of that 
sreat Minifter. By fome of the favages of the north it 
|s called ly^eadl-Chaflipi, which literally denotes. The 
Ancient Father of Rivers, of ^yhich the French have, by 
corruption, formed Miflifippi. Other Indians, efpeci- 
ally thofe lower down the river, call it Balbancha ; and at 
iaft the French have given it the name of St. Louis. 

' Several travellers have in vain attempted to go up to its 
fource ; which, however, is well known, whatever fom« 
authors, miAnformed, may alledge to the contrary. We 
bc?re fubjoin the accounts that may be moil depended 

M> de Charleville, a Canadian, and a relation of M. 
de Biainville, Commandant General of this colony, told 
me, that at the time of the fettlement of the French, 
curiofity alone had led him to go up this river to its fources ; 
that for this end he fitted out a canoe, made of the bark 
of the birch-tree, 'in order to be more portable in cafe of 
need. And that having thus fet out with two Canadians 
smd two Indians, with goods, ammunition, and provi- 
fions, he went up the river three hundred leagues to the 
iiortb, above the Illinois: that there he found the Fall, 
^' > <;alled 


CHlle4 3t* Antony's. This fall is a flat rock, which tra- 
verfes the river, and gives it only between eight or ten 
feet fall. He caufed his canoe and efk£U to be carried 
over that place ; and that embarking afterwards above the 
fall, he condnued going up the river an hundred leagues 
more to the north, where he met the Sioux, a people in- 
habiting that country', at fome diftar^ce from the Miifi* 
fippi ; fome fay» on each fide of it. 

The Sioux, little accuftpmed to fee Europeans, wers 
furprized at feeing him, and afked whither he was going.; 
He told them, up the Miffifippi to its fource. They 
anfwered, that the country whither he was going was 
very bad, and where he would have great difHcuIty to 
find game for fubfiflence ; that it was a great way oiF, 
reckoned as far from the fource to the fall, as from this 
lafl to the fea. According to this information, thePvliin* 
fippi muft meafure from its fource to its mouth between 
fifteen and ftxteen hundred leagues, as they reckon eight 
hundred lea'^ues from St. Antony's Fall to the fea. This 
conjeAure - the more provable, as that far to the north, 
feveral rivers of a pretty long courfe fall into the Mii^- 
fippi } and that even above St. Antony's Fall, we find in 
this river between thirty and thirty five fathom water, 
and a breadth in proportion ; which can never be from a 
iburce at no great diilance ofF. I may add, tMt all tha 
Indians, informed by thofe nearer the fource, are of tho 
fame opinion. 

Though M. de Charleville did not fee the fource of 
the Miififippi^ he, however, learned, that a great many* 
livers empty their waters into it : that even above St. 
Antony's Fall, he faw rivers on each fide of the MiiR-t 
fippi, having a courfii of upwards of an hundred leagues. 

It is proper to obferve, that in going down the river 
from St. Antony's Fall, the right hand is the weft, tho 
left the eaft. The firft river we meet from the fall, 
and fome leagues lower down, is the river St. Peter, 


$ <? 

OF L0UI3IANA. 113 

which qon^es from the weft : lower down to the caft, i« 
the river St. Croix, both of them tolerable large rivers. 
We meet feveral others ftill lefs, the names of which are 
of no confequence. Afterwards w^ meet with the river 
Moingona, which comes from the weft, about two hiin« 
dred and fifty leagues below the fall, and upwards of an^ 
hundred and fifty leagues in length. This river is fome- 
what brackifli. From that river to the Illinoisi, feveral 
rivulets or brooks, both to the right and left, fall into the 
Miffifippi. The river of the Illinois comes from the eaft, 
and takes its rife on the frontiers of Canada | its length 
is two hundred leagues, * 

The river MiflTouri comes from a fource about eight 
hundred leagues diftant ; and running from north-weft to 
fouth-eaft^ discharges itfelf into the Miffifippi, about four 
or five leagues below the river of the Illinois. This river 
receives feveral others, in particular the river of the Can- 
zas, which runs above an hundred and fifty leagues. 
From the rivers of the Illinois and the Miffouri to the 
fea are reckoned five hundred leagues^ and three hundred 
to St. Antony's Fall : from the MifTouri to the Wabache, 
or Ohio, an hundred leagues. • By this laft river is the 
paflfage from Louiiiana to Canada. This vojrage is per- 
formed from New Orleans by going ap the Miffifippi to 
the Wabache ^ which they go up in the fame manner 
quite to the river of the Miamis } in which they proceed 
as far as the Carry ing> pi ace; from which there are two 
leagues to a little riyer which falls into Lake Eric. Here 
Ih^y change their v^ffels ; they come in pettyaugres, and 
go down the river St. Laurence to Quebec in birch canoes. 
On the river St. Laurence are feveral carrying-places, on 
account of its many falls or catara^ls. 

Thofe who have performed this voyage, have told me they 

reckoned eighteen hundred leagues from New Orleans to 

Quebec ♦. Though the Wabache is confidered in Loui- 

fiana, as the moft confiderable of the rivers which come 

* It U not above nine hundred leagues* 



Irom Cs^hads, and whrcb» uniting in one bed, form the 
fiycr commonly called by that name, yet all the Canadiart 
travellers a0ure me» that tlae river called Ohio, and which. 
lalls into the Wabache» comes a much longer way than 
this tail ; which fhould be % reafon for giving it the nam^ 
Ohio j but cu(!om has prevailed in this refptdl *. : 

From the Wabache, and on the (ame fide, to Man- 
chac^.wc fee but very few rivers, and thohvvery fmall 
eaes, which fall into the Miffifippi, though there are 
jieariy three bu^drcd ^nd fifty leagues from the: Wabacbe 
to Manchac f. This will, doubtlefs, appejMT ibmething 
extraordinary to thofe unacquainted with the country^ , 

The reafon, that may be affigned for it, appears quite 
natural and ftriking. li} all that part of Louiflana,. 
which is to the eaft of the MiiBftppi, the lands are fo high 
in the neighbourhop^ of the rivec, that in many places 
the rain-water runs off from the banl^s of the Mi0ifippi» 
and d.iicharges itfelf into rivers, which fall eitber diredUy 
kito the fea, or into lakes. Another very probable reafon 
is, that from the Wabache to the fea, no rain falls but 
in fudden gufts ; whicl^ defe<Sl is compenfatfd by the 
abundant dews, fo that the plants lofc nothing by that 
means. The Wabache has a courfe of three hundred 
leagues, and the Ol^io has its foyrce a hundred leagues 
ftiil farther off. 

In continuing to go down the Mifliilppi, from the 
Wabache to the river of the Arksinfas, we pbferve but 
few rivers, and thofe pretty mall. Themoft confiderable 
is that of St. Francis, which is diftant thirty and odd 
leagues from that of the A?kanfas. It is on this river 
of St. Francis, that the hunters of New Orleans go every 
winter to make fait provifions^ tallow, and bears oil^ for 
the fupply of the capital. 


- * But not among the Eogli/h } we call It tht Ohl». 

•^ That IB, from the mouth of the Ohio to the river IbetviUe, which 
ether accouotsmake but two hundred acd fifty leagues. 


The river of the Arkanfas, which is thirty-five leagues 
lower down, anu two hundred leagues from New Or- 
leans, is fo denominated from the Indians of that name, 
who dwell on its banks, a little above its confluence with 
the Mifliilppi. It runs three hundred leagues, and its 
fource is in the fame latitude with Santa-Fe, in New 
Mexico, in the mountains of which it rifes. It runs up 
a little to the north for a hundred leagues, by forming a 
flat elbow, or winding, and returns from thence to the 
fouth-eaft, quite to the Miffillppi. It has a catara£t, or 
fall, about the middle of its^ courfe. Some call it the 
White River, becaufe in its courfe it receives a river of 
that name. The Great Cut-point is about forty leagues 
below the river of the Arkanlas : this was a long circuit 
which the Miffifippi formerly took, and which it has 
abridged, by making its way through this point of land* 

Below this river, flill going towards the fca, we ob- 
ferve fcarce any thing but brooks or rivulets, except the 
river of the Yafous, fixty leagues lower down. This 
river runs but about fifty leagues, and will hardly admit 
of a boat for a great way : it has taken its name from the 
nation of the Yafous, and fome others dwelling on its 
banks. Twenty-eight leagues below the river of the 
Yafous, is a great cliff of a reddifh free- ft on e : over- 
againfl this cliff are the great and little whirlpools. 

From this little river, we meet but with very fmall 
ones, till we come to the Red River, called at firft the 
jyiarne, becaufe nearly as big as that river, which falls 
into the Seine. The Nachitoches dwell on its banks, 
and it v/i-.a diftinguifhed by the name of that nation j but 
its cor.iTion name, and which it ftill bears, is that of the 
Red River. It takes its rife in New Mexico, forms an 
elbow to the north, in the fame manner as the river of 
the Arkanfas, falls down afterwards towards the Miffifippi, 
running fouth eafl. They generally allow it a courfe of 
two hundred leagues. At about ten leagues from its con- 


fluence It receives the Black River, or thb river of the 
Wachitas, which takes its rife pretty liear that of the 
Arkatifas. This rivulet, or fource, fohns, as i^ fai8, di 
fork pretty neitf its rife, one fcrm of #1iich falls into tHt 
klver of the Arkanfas ; the largeft fdrih^ th^ Black River. 
Tvirenty leagues below the Red River is the Little Cut* 
j^nt, and a league below that point are the little elifFs. 

From the Red River to the Tea we obferve nothing 
but fome ftnall brooks : but on the call ilde, twenty-five 
leagues above New Orleans, we find a channel, which is 
dry at low water. The inundations of the Mifliflppi form- 
ed this channel (which is called Manchac) below fome 
high lands, which terminate near that place. It difcharges 
itfelf into the lake Maurepas, and from thence into 
that of St. Louis, of which I gave an account before. 

The channel runs eafi fouth-eaft : formerly there 
was a paiTage through it ; but at prefent it is fo choaked 
Qp with dead wood, that it begins to have no water ^, 
but at the place where it receives the river Amite, which 
is pretty large, and which runs feventy leagues in a very 
fine country. 

A very fmall river falls into the lake Maurepas, to the 
eaft of Manchac. In proceeding eaftward, we may pafs 
from this lake into that of St. Louis, by a river formed 
by the waters of the Amite. In going to the north 
of this kke, we meet to the eaft the little rivet Tandgi- 
pao. From thence proceeding always eaft, we come to 
the river Quefoncle, which is long and beautiful, and 
comes from the Cl.adtaws. Proceeding in the farte route, 
we meet th^ river Caftin-Bayouc : we may afterwardss 
<juit the lake by the channel, which borders the fame 
country, and proceeding eaftward we meet with Pearl 
River which falls into this channel. 


• Manchac is almoft dry for three quarters of the year: but during the 

Inundation, the waters of the river have a vent through it into the lake* 
Ponchattrain and St. Louis. Dumoni, tl. 297. 

This ii the river IberviilCi which is to be the boundary of the Britiih 


Farther up the coaft, which lies from weft to eaft, we' 
meet St. Louis's Bay, into which a littit; river of that 
name dtfcharges itfelf : farther on, we meet the river of 
the Pafka-Ogoulas : and at length we arrive at the Bay 
of Mobile, which runs upwards of thirty leagues into 
the country, where it receives the river pf the fame name, 
which run9 fpr about a hundred and fifty leagues from 
north to fouth. All the rivers I have juft mentioned, and 
which fall not into the MiiHiippi, do in like manner run 
from north to fouth. 

Difcripthn of the Lower Loutiiana, a}^ the Mouth of the 


I Return to Manchac, where I quitted the Mlfljfippi, 
At a little diftance from Manchac we meet the river 
of the Plaqumines ; it lies to the weft, and is rather a 
creek than a river. Thcen or four leagues lower down is 
the Fork, which is a channel running to tlie weft of the 
MifTifippi, through which a part of the inundations of 
that river run off. Thefe waters pafs through feveral 
lakes, and from thence to the fea, by Afcen^ion Bay. As 
to the other rivers to the weft of this bay, their names 
are unknown. 

The waters which fall into thofe lakes confift not only 
of fuch as pafs through this channel, but alfo of thofe 
that come out of the Miflifippi, when overflowing its 
banks on each fide : for, of all the water which comes 
out of the Midifippi over Its banks, not a drop ever re- 
turns into its bed } but this la only to be underftood of 
the low lands, that i$, between fifty and flxty leagues 
from the fea eaftward, and upwards of a hundred leagues 

It will, doubtlefs, feem ftrange, that a river whick 
overflows its banks, fhouid never after recover its waters 
again, either in whole or in part j and this will appear ii^ 



THi tllSTOkV 

much the more Angular, as every where elf^ it happens 
otherwife in the like circumftances. 

It appeared no lefs ftrange to myfelf } and I have on all 
occafions endeavoured to the utmoft, to find out what 
could produce an tfft&y which really appeared to me very 
extraordinary, and, I imagine, not Without fuccefs. 

From ManchaC down to the Afa, it is probable, and 
even in fome degree certain, that all the lands there> 
abouts are brought down and accumulated by means Of 
the ooze which the Miflidppi carries along with it in iti 
annual inundations; which begin in the month of 
March, by the melting of the fnow to the north, and 
laft for about three months. Thofc oozy or muddy lands 
eafily produce herbs and reeds ; and when the Miififippt 
happens to overflow the following year, thefe heibs and 
reeds intercept a part of this ooze, fo that thofc at a 
diftancc from the river cannot retain fo large a quantity of 
It, fince thofe that grow next the river have ftopt the 
greateft oart ; and by a neceflary confequence, the others 
farther ot;, and in proportion as they are diftant from the 
Miflifippi, can retain a much lefs quantity of the mud. 
In this manlier the land rifing higher along the river, in 
proccfs of timv^ the banks of the Miflifippi became higher 
than the lands atout it. In like manner alfo thefe neigh- 
bouring lakes on each fide of the river are remains of the 
fea, which are not yet 511cd up. Other rivers have firm 
banks, formed by the hand^ of Nature, a land of the 
fame nature with the continent, and always adhering 
thereto : thefe forts of banks, inflead of augmenting, do 
djiily diminifh, either by finking, or tumbling down into 
the bed of the river. The banks of the MifTifippi, on 
the contrary, increafe, and cannot diminifh in the low and 
a^.juiulated lands j becaufe the ooze, alone depofited on 
its banks, increafe them 5 which, befides, Is the reafoii 
that the Miffifippi becomes narrower, ih place of wafhing 
away the earth, and enlarging its bed, as all other known 


OF LOtJiSlANA. 129 

Hvei^s do. If we confider thefe fa<Sls, therefore, wco'U^hc 
no longer to be AirpriKcdnhat tht waters of the Miflifippi, 
when once they have left their bed, can ncvci? return thi* 
thcr again*. .- •■■i... . ■/. ,..-, 'h iTiov/i,*^ n-* 

'In order to ptove 'thib'augi^cntatlon of'landV, I (hall 
relatis #hat, happened' neai| lS'6w Orleans ! One t>f the in- 
hvbhiint^ t^^fed a well td be fiinlc at a little di^l'ance from 
the'Miifidpfrt, in order tor procure a clearer water. Ac 
twenty fcef deep there was Ibund a tree laid ftat, three feet 
in dii^metey : the height of thb earth was therefore augmented 
twenty feet fince the fall* or')6Aging of that tree, as well 
by the accumulated 'Aiud^*^ x»'hy the* rotting 6f the leases, 
which fall every winter, and which the Miflrtfippi carries 
down invaft quantities; In effef^, it fweeps do#n a great 
deal of mud^ becaufe it runs ' for twelve hui¥dred leagues 
at leaft acpofs a country wkkh is nothing clfe but earth, 
which the depth of the river fuilicicntly ptoveir. It car- 
ries down vaft quantities of Jeayes, canes and. (rees, upon 
its waters, the (>readth of wfhich is always alcove half d 
IcagMO, and fomet|me^ a leaguie and a quarte/. Its banks 
arc .covered with inuclv wood, (pmetimes for the^breadth 
of a league on each fffle, from its foorc^. to. its mouth« 
There .is nothing therefore more, eafy to ^bfe conceived, 
than that this river carries down with its wat/ers a pro4igi> 
ous quantity of Qoze» leaves, canes and tr^cs, which it 
continually tears up by the. foots, and tl^at the (ear throw- 
ing ba^lfi again all thefe things, they ihould necelTarily 
produce the lands in queftion, andwhtcharefenfibly in- 
creating* At the entrance of the pafs or channel to the 
fcHith-eaflr, there v s built a;fn:jall fort, ftiU caJlcd Balifc. 
This fort was bull! fii; a little ifland, without .t;he mouth 
of the river. In 1734 it ftood on the fame (pot, and I 
have been told that at.prefcnt it is half a. league within 
the riv^r : the land therefore hath in twenty years gained 
this fpace on the fea. Let' i& now rcfume th? fequel of 
the J3i?ogr:\phical Deicription of Louifiana. ^ • 

4. ' I • k k» 




Tbe eoaft it beundai td the weft ^7 St. fiefnard'i Bayt 
vheie M. de la Sidk landdd ; into this bay a fmali river 
falls, and there are (omt otheBs which difcharge thttr 
waters between this bay and Afcenfion bay ;, the j^tntcfS 
fitldom fiwqueat that coaft. On the eaft the coaft is 
bounded by Rio Perdtdo, which the French corruptiedly 
call aux ^erdrix; Rio Pqrdido Agnifying 1^^ Biver^ 
aptly Co called by the Spaoiafds^ becauie it bfei itfelf 

under ground, and after waf^Sv^P^^^ .^V^*** ^ *^* 
charges itfelf mto the fea» ^ Uiidtc to fhe *£aft of Mobile» 
on which the firft French ft^tqw Settled. 

From the Fork down <9 the fe»» ^eie i» no river ( not 
it it ppflible Cfaere ihould be an^y* after what I have «e* 
lafied : om the oontrafy, w« fiad at a finoU diftance from 
the Fork* another channel to (he eaft^ called the Aayoue 
of le Siicar : it is fuU of a> (bftoose or mud, and conunu- 
nicatet wii,t)& the lakes which lie to the eaft/ 

On coming nearer to the fea^ we meet^ at about eight 
leagues fvottk the (irincitMtl^iMoeKh of the MiMppi, the 
firft Pafs ; -aiid « league lower down, the Otter Pa<«k 
Thcfe two pafles or channdt are only for pettyaugres. 
From this plutie there is r6 land fit to tread 01^, it being 
all a quiigmfre down to the Tea. There alfo we find a 
point) Whith pflfrts the mouths of the Mtffifippi : fhttt to 
the right is called the SoUth-Paft, or Channel ; the weft 
point of which runs two leagues fkrther into the ka, than 
the point of the South-iUift I'ais, which is to the feflt «(f 
that of the South Pats. At fiHI veiTek entt«d by the 
South .«aft PiftTs) but before we ^& down to it, we find to 
the ^ifc the Eaft-Paf», whitih is that by which ftitps enter 
at prefent. 

At each of thefe three jf^alles dr Channels iHicre is a 
Bar, as in all other rivers : thefe bars are three c^uartcrs 
of a league broad, with only eight or ;nih6 feet water: 
but there is a channel through this l^a'r, wfiich^^ing 
often fubjea to thift, ihc cbSfe'rig pilcil ife 0br%etf-to be 

^^ always 

or LOUISIANA. rjt 

&lw«ys Tonnding, in order to be fure Ksf the pafs: this 
thaiwiel ist at lo^r water, between feventeen and eighteen 
feet deep •. 

This description may fuffice to fhew that the h\\\ng in 
with the land from Tea is bad ; the land fcarce appears 
two leagues oif } which doubtlej^ made the Spaniards call 
Che Miffifippi Rio Efcondido, the Hid River. This river 
!s generally muddy, owing to the waters of the MiUburl % 
for before this junction the water of the Milfifippi is very 
dear. I muft not omit mentioning that no fhip can 
either enter or continue In the river when the waters ar« 
high) on account of the prodigious numbers of trees» 
and vaft quantities of dead wood, which it Carries down» 
and which, together with the canes, leaves, mud, and 
fand, which the fea throws back upon the coaft, are con- 
tinually augmenting the land, and make it project into 
the Gulf of Mexico, like the bill of a bird. 

I (hould be naturally led to divide LouiHana into the 
Higher and Lower, on account of the great difl^erence 
between the two principal parts of this vaft country. 
The Higher I would call that part in which we find ftone, 
which we firft meet with between the river of the Natche* 
and that of the Yafous, between which is a cliff of a 
fine free ftone ; and I would terminate that part at Man- 
chac, where the high lands end. I would extend tho 
Lower Louifiana from thence down to the fea. Tho 
bottom of the lands on the hills is a red clay, and fo 
compad, as might afford a folid foundation for any build- 
ing whatever. This clay is covered by a light earth, 
which is atmoft black, and very fertile. The grafs grows 
there knee deep ; and in the bottoms, which feparate 
thefe fmall eminences, it is higher than the talleft man. 
Towards the end of September both are fucceffively fct 
on fire ; and in eight or ten days young grafs iboots up 

* I fliall tnal:e no mention of the iflands, which are frequent In the 
MiOifippi, as being, properly fpeaking) nothing but little iiles, produce^ 
bjf rHlhc4feM| though the foil be nothing but « fand bottom. 

K 2 half 


half a foot high. One will eaftly judge, that in fucHl 
paftures herds of all creatures fatten extraordinarily. 
The flat country is watery, and appears to have been 
formed by every thing that comes down to the Tea. Khali 
add, that pretty near the Nachitoches, we find banks of 
miifcle-fliells, fuch as thofe of which Cockle-Ifland is 
formed. The neighbouring nation affirms, that accord- 
ing to their old tradition, the Tea formerly came up to 
thU place. Thei women of this nation go and gather 
thqfe (hells, and make a powder of them, which they 
mix with the earth, of which they make their pottery, or 
e'arthen ware. However, 1 would not advife the ufe of 
thefe fliells indifi^crently for this purpofe, becaufe they are 
naturally apt to crack in the fire : I have therefore reafon 
to think, that thofe found at the Nachitorhes have ac- 
quired their good quality only by the difcharge of their 
falts, from continuing for fo many ages out of the lea. 

If we may give credit to the tradition of thefe people, 
and if we would, reafon on the fads I have advanced, wc 
(hall be naturally led to believe, and indeed every thing in 
this country, fliews it, that the Lower Louifiana is a 
country gained on the fea, whofe bottom is a cryftal fand, 
white as fnow, fine as flour, and fuch as is found both to 
^e eaft and weft of the Miilifippi ; and we may expe6)t, 
that in future ages the fea and river may fprm another 
land like that of the Lower Louifiana. The ^ort Balife 
fliews that a century is fufficient to extend Louifia;i,a two 
leagues towards the fea. 

' : L . • . 

'iM «i'rfoir^>r' 


^ . - ■ ■ • 

. .■■.:;. 


•J ilrmt • ' 

5>j ...■...■ - 

■ • ^<im-}U'^ 

J,.'; ac-'.rv.-4, . 

1 ' t 

Ik . • 

.... ^ 


•i*. .f 

H^hl Ot 

C H A P. II. 


Tbi Author's Joumty in Louifiana, /r^m /^ Natchea H 
the River St. YtixiQit^ andihe Qountry of the Chiciir 


I I u •. 

EVER Atice my arrival inLouifuna, I made it my buH- 
nefs to get information in whatever was new ther'cii^ 
and to make difcoveries of fuch things as might be fer- 
viceable to fociety. I therefore refolved to take a jour- 
ney through the couhtry. And after leavmg my plan- 
tation to the care of my friends and neighbours, I pre- 
pared for a journey into thV interior parts of the province^ 
in order to learn the nature of the foil, its various pro- 
du£(ions, and to make difcoveries not inentioned by 
others. ^ .1' . , 

I wanted to, travel both fpr my own inftru^tioil, and 
for the benefit of the publick : but at the fame i\mt^ 
defired to be alone, without any of my own countrymeti 
with me} who, as they neither haye patience, nor are 
made for fatigue, would be ever teazing^inp. to return 
^gaioi and not readily take up eithicr with tt^e fare or 
accommodations, to be met with on fuch a joufney. I 
therefore pitched upon ten Indians, who were itidefatigar* 
ble, robuft, and tradable, and fufficiently IkilUd in hunt- 
ing, a qualification neceiTary on fuch journeys. I ex- 
plained to them my whole defign } told them, we fhould 
avoid pafling through any inhiabited countries, and would 
■ ' take our journeys through fuch as were unknown and 
'Uninhabited ; becaufe I travelled in order to difcover what 
no one before could inform me about. This explication 
^pleafed them ; and on their part they promifed, I ibo^d 
•have no reafon to be diflatisfied with them. But they ob- 
je£led, they were under apprehenfions of lofing themfclvcs 
in counttles they did not knbw. To remove thef^appro- 
'henfidhV,' 1 Ihewed theqi a mariner's comptfs, which r<;- 
^^^■^^^V^'-^^^-. K3 "• "moved 












1.0 t^m 

= lllim 

1.25 1 1.4 II 1.6 

1= 111= 11=^ 





WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

(716) •72-4503 



mnved all their difiiQulties, after I had explained to them 
the manner of ufing it, ii» order to avoid loAng our 

We kt out in th^ month of Septembery which is the 
lieft feafoA df the year for beginning a journey in this 
country : in the firft place, becaufe, during the fummer, 
the grafs is top high for travelling ; whereas in the month 
of September, the meadows, the grais of which is %htn 
dry, are (kt on Hre, and the ground becomes finooth^ and 
eajy to walk on : ^nd henc^ it is, that at this time, 
clouds of fraoke are feen for feveral days together to ex- 
tend over a long track of country} fometimes to the ex- ^ 
tent of between twenty and thirty leagues in length, by 
two dr three leagues in breadth, more or leis, according 
as the wind fets, and is higher or lower. In the fecond 
place, this feafon is the moft commodious for travelling 
over thofe countries j becaufe, by means of the rain, 
which ordinarily falls affcer the grais is burnt, the game 
fpread themielves all over the meadows, and delight to/ 
feed on the ttew grafs j which is the reafon why travel 
lers mor« ei^ily find proviftons at this time than at any 
CAlher. What beitdes facilitates thefe excurf^ons 'it\ 
Autuikiilj or in the beginning of Winter, is, that all 
vrorks in the fields are then at an end, or at lej^ft the huriy 
^f the in is over. 

For the firft days of our journey the game was pretty 
rare, becaufe they fhun the neighbourhood of men; if 
you except the deer, which are fpread all over the country, 
their nature being to roam indi^erently up and down; 
fo th^t at firft we were obliged to put up with this fare. 
We often met with flights of partridges, which the natives , 
cannot leill, becaii^ they cannot iboot flyings I killed 
^me for a change, , The fecond day I had a turkey- hen 
brought to regale me. The difcoverer, who killed it, tol4 
me, there were a grea^t many In the fame pla<^ bi^t that 
he could do hothing without a dog. X have often heard 
of a tUfkey-tlSace^ but never had an opportunity of. being 

I ^ \ 


at one: I went with him and took my dog ;dongwfth me. 
On coming to the fpot, we (bon deicried the hens, which 
jzn off with fuch fpeed, that the fwifteft Indian would 
loie his labour in attempting to outrun^ them. My dog 
ibon came up with them» which made them take to their 
wing«, and perch on the next trees } as long a^ they arf 
|)ot purfued in this manner, they only run, and are foon 
out of fight. I came near their (Jace of retreat, killed 
the largeft, a fecond, and my^ difcoverer a third, Wc 
might have killed the whole flock \ for, while they fee 
any men, they never (juit the tree they have once perched 
6n» Shooting fcares them not, as they only look at 
the bird that drops, and fet up a timorous cry, as he 

Before I proceed, it is proper to iay a word concern- 
ing my difcoverers, or fcouts. I had always three of 
them out, one ^-head, and one on each hand of me ; 
commonly diftant a league from me, and as much from 
each other. Their conditio]) of fcouts prevented not 
their carrying each his bed, and provifions for thirty-fix 
hours upon occafion. Though thofe near my own^ per- 
fon were more loaded, I however fent them out, ibme- 
times one, fometimes another, either to a neighbouring 
niountain or valley ; fo that I had three or four at lead, 
both on my right and left, who went out to make dif- 
coveries i fmall diftance off*. I did thus, in order to 
have nothing to reproach myfelf with, in point of vigi- 
lance, Ance I had begun to take the trouble of making 

The next bufmefs was, to make ourfelv^s mutually 
underftood, notwithftanding our diftance: we agreed, 
therefore, on certain fignab, which are abfolutdy ne- 
ceflfary on fuch occafioiMi, Every day, at nine in the 
morning, at noon, and ftt three in tiie afternoon, we 
made a fmoke. This fignal was the hour marked for 
mafcitrg a (hort halt, in order to know, whether the fcouts 
followtd each other, and whether they were nearly at 

K 4 the 


the diftanc^ i^greed on. Thefe Onokes were made at the 
hours I mentioned, which are the divifions of the da/ 
according to the Indians. They divide their day' into 
four equal parts i the firft cdntains the half of the morn- 
ing ; the fecond is at noon } the thii-d conhprizes the 
half of the afternoon ; and the fourth, the other half of 
the afternoon to the evening. It was according to thii 
ufage our fi^nals were mutually made, by which wc re- 
gulated our courfe, and places of rendezvous. 

Wc marched for fomc days without finding any thing 
which could either engage my attention, or faiisfy my 
curioftty. True it is, thi^ was fufHciently made up in 
another refpc£l j as we travelled over a charming counr 
try, which might juftly furnifti our painters of the fineft 
imagination with genuine notions of landfkips. Mint, I 
own, was highly delighted with the fight of fine plams, 
diverfified with very cxtenfivc and highly delightftil mica's- 
dows. The plains were intermixed vvith thickets, planted 
by the hand of Nature her felf J and intcrfperfed with hills, 
runing off in gentle declivities, and with vttUcys, thick 
fet, and adorned with woods, which ferve for a retreat to 
the moft timorous animals, as the thickets fcrecn the'buf- 
falocs from the abundant dews of the country. 

I longed much to kill a buflalo with my Qvv'O hand ) 
I therefore told my people my intention to^ Icill one of 
the firfl herd wc (hould meet ; nor did a day pafs, if\ which 
we did not fee feveral herds i the leaft of which ex- 
cecded a hundred and thirty or a hundred and fifty it) 
number, , . 

«. , ' '■■, ' •'■ . .. . 

Next morning we.efpied a herd of upwards of two 
hundred. The wind ftood as I cpujd have wished, being 
in our faces, and blowing from the herd ; which is 9, 
great advantage in this chace ; becaufe when the wind 
blows from you towards the buiFalocs, they con^e to fccnt 
you, and run away, before you can come wjtbin gun- 
(hot of themj whereas, wheu the wiad blows frQmtht^m 

.; ' ' on 


on the hunters, they do not fly till they cait dldin^ttifli 
you by fight : and then, what greatly favours yoai* coniitig 
very near to them is, that the curled hair, which fallt 
down between their horns upon their eyes, it fobufliyi at 
greatly tp con fufe their fight. In this manner I ^ame 
within full gunofliot of them, pitched upon pne oft^c 
fattcfl, ihot him at the extremity of the lhpulder,'ap4 
brought him down ftone-dead. The natives, Vi^ho ftood 
looking on, were ready to fiie, had I happened to ^ound 
him but (lightly ; for in that cafe, thcfe animals are aj^itp 
turn upon the hunter, who thus wounds them. ..Ijs^ 

Upon feeing the buffalo drop down dead, ai^d the^ teft 
taking to flight, the natives told' m^ with a frnile: ««Y^ii 
^* kill the males, do you intend to make tallow?" I anfu 
fwered, I did it on purpofe, to (hew them the manrter bf 
making him g<^od meat, thoUgh a male. I caufed hts 
belly to be opened quite wai^m^ the 'entrails to be takeii 
out diredtly, the bunch, tongue, and chines to be rut 
out; one of the chines to be laid on the ooalt^ of 
which I, made them all tafte; and; they all agreed the 
meat was juicy, and of an exquifite flavour. 

' I theri tbok occafion to renKiriflriite to them, thSA if, 
inftead of kiHing the cows, as was always theii- ^tiilbm, 
they killed the bulls, the difierehce in point of pfbfic 
would be- vii-y coftfiderabld : as, f6r inftance^ a gortd 
commerce with 'the French in tallow, vvitl^ which 
the bulls abound; bull's flefli is far more delicate akKl 
tender than cow's- ) a thir<i advantage is, the fell mg -of 
the fkins at a b^her rate, as being much better ; in fine, 
this kind of gaii^e, fo advantageous to the country, 
would thereby, efcape being quite- deflroyed ; whereas, 
by killing the. c<>watJthe. breed Pf thefe animals is greatly 

• * ^^A ^ ^ \ 

I'ij J 


'! itfe, '••>;;) ,f»'»!i'; ;iii >'ti rJii</ '^t-t 

1 made a fdup, that was of an exquifite iflavbvr, but 
ipmewhat fat, of the broth boiled from the marrow^bones 



#lthit l^uffUo, the M of the broth ferving to make mais- 
;§nMl» calM Sagamityi which to my tade furpafled the 
%§fk difti in France : th^ buoch on the bi««k would have 
^racfd the t«ble of a prince. , , 

In lh« foutt I held, I kept more on the fides of the 
llUlt than on the plains, Above fomc of thcfe Adeit 
tt declivities, I found, in Tome places, little eminenceSi^ 
Whkh !ay peeled, or hare, and difclolcd a 6rm and com^ 
ftftA clay, or pure matrix, and of the fpecies of that of 
Mpis Calaminaris. The intelligent in Mineralogy under- 
hand what i would be at. I'he little grafs, whick^ grow& 
there, was obfcrved to droop, at alfo thrcp or four mis- 
0l»pen trees, no bigger than onc^ leg ( one of which X 
Caufcd lo be CMt down i when, to my aftoniihment,. I faw 
it WM upvmrds of Axty years ftanding. The neigk^- 
beurtng country was fertile, in proportion to its di(^ 
tance froQi this fpdt. Ktar that place w^ faw gc^me of 
every kind, and in plenty^ and never towards the 

We crofTed the MiiRfippI fcvcral timet upon Cajetfx,^ 
(rafts, or floati, made of feveral bundles of canet, laid 
•cioft each other } a kind of extemporaneous pontoon,) 
in Older to take a view of mountains which had raifcd 
my curiofity. I obferved, that both Adcs of the river had 
their feveral advantages ( but that the Weft fide is better 
watered i appeared alfo to be more fruitful both in minerals, 
and in what relates to agriculture i for which laft it feems 
much more adapted than the £aft fide. 

Notwithdanding our precaution to make flgnats, one 
>ef my fcouts happened one day to ftray, becuufc the wea- 
>ther was foggy i (o that he did not return at night to our 
hut I at which I was very uneafy, and could not fleep j as 
he was not returned, though the ftgnals cf call had been 
re)|>(:;ated till night clofed. About nine the next morn- 
ing he caft up, telKng us he had been in purfuit of a 
drove of deer, which were led by one that was altogether 

white : 


white: but that not being able to come up with tkem, 
he picked tip, on the Adc of ■ hill, ibmt Anall lh«rp 
ftenei, of which he brought a famplc* 

Ihcfe ftoncs I received with pleaAire, betaufb I had 
not yet (ben any in all this country, only a hard red free- 
itone in a cliff on the Miffifippi. After carefulhr examin.. 
ing thoftf which my difcovercr brought me, I found thty 
were a gypfum. 1 took home feme pieces, and on my ' 
return examined them more attentively ( found them to 
be very clear, tranfparcnt, and friable i when calcined, they 
turned extremely white, nnd with them I mad^fome fa^i- 
tious marble, This gave me hopes that this country, 
producing Plafter of Paris, might, befides, hatre ftonei Ibr 

1 wanted to fee the^ fpot myfelf*. we iot out about 
noon, and travelled for about three leaguea btfoit we 
came to it. I examined the fpot, which to me appeared 

to be a large quarry of Plafter, 

As to the white deer above mentioned, I learned from 
the Indians, that Tome fuch were to be met with, though 
but rarely, and that only in countries not frequented by 
the hunters. \ 

The wind being fct in for rain,, we,refolved to put our- 
felves under ihcUer. The place where the bad weather 
overtook us was very fit to fe( up at. On going out to 
hunt, we difcovered at five hundred paces ofi^ In the de- 
file, or narrow pafs, a brook of a very clear water, a very 
commodious watering-place for the buffaloes, which were 
in great numbers all around us. 

My companions foon raifed a cabin, well-fecured to 
the North. As we refolved to continue there for eight 
days at Icaft, they made it fo cloA: a« to keep out the cold : 
in the night, I felt nothing of the feverity of the North 
wind, though t lay but lightly covered. My bed con- 
fifled of a bear's ^in, and two robes or coats of buffalo; 
the bear fkin, with the flefh fide undcrmoft> being laid on 



Isaiitt,. and ^hcpile uppermoft by way of draw* bed; one 
of the buffalo coatsi folded double by way of feather- bod i 
one half of the othec under meferved for amatrafa, and the 
Othef ovj^r me for a cpvcrlet : three canes, or troughs, bent 
ta f JTeipicircIe, one s^t'the head, another in the middle, 

.an4,Ml'^'^^*^ '^* ^'^^^r fupportcd a cloth which formed my 

. tfftejr a/gid curtains, and fccurcd mc from the injuries of 
tbea^ir^ and the flings of gnats and mofkitto's. My In- 

.ndians had their ordinary hunting and travelling beds, 
whicl^.^onfift olr a deer iicin and a buffalo coat, which they 
always carry with thcn^, wly^n they cxpet^t to lie out of 
tbfiif, villages, We fcftc^ nine days, and regaled our- 

,ieIy58,;,'wi.tK choice rbuffal^, turkey, partridge, phcj^- 
fants, &c. 

jjoTM.difcovery I.hjkd mtdq of the plafter, put mc to 

lookxout; during our (lay, in:all the places round about, 

foe •iquiy JeagUes. I was at I all tired of beating about 

fuch fine plains, without dt^covoring the leaft thing, and 

.l^^^d rf folved toga fi^r to the North, when at the noon- 

,Cjgn«^l| th(^ tcout a-hea^l .lyaited to fliew me a (hining and 

,Aar|j..rtpne^ of ,the Iq^^gth and A?cof one's thurph, and 

as fquare as a joiner could have made a piece of Ayood pf 

the fame bignefs. I imagined it might b^ rock- cryflal ; 

'to'>)i''iiiflf&V^f thereof, ^to<iik a large mMfquet fi?nt in my 

fett: li'aii^, prefentirig its head, or thick end, 6n which 

' t/ft?ut1t with one of the ed'^es of the cryftal, and drew 

^liiiucffi'i^bre fire- than Avith the fined ftecl: and notwith- 

^^fthhfiing tKe m;any ftrpk^s I gave, the piece of cryftal 

'was liot in the leaft fci-atched or ftreaked, '^ ' • 

J examined thefe ftones^ and found pieces of diflRjrent 

^ ijn:^itudes,' feme fquare, others with fix-jfaces, even and 

"fmooth likfe mirrors, highly trhfparent. Without any veiris 

or fpots. Some of thefe. pieces jutted oiit of the earth, 

like ends tof beam$, tWo feet and upwards in length ; 

c^ili3rijIJ cGnriderabIe;i»irtibcr8, fforti fcveii to;iine inches; 


•bove all, thofe with fix panes or faces. There wis a* 
great number of a middling' and fmallor fort : my people 
wanted to carry fome with them ; hiit I difTuaded Vhcm* 
My reafon was, I apprehended fome Fk'etichmaki niight 
by prefents prevail on them to difeoVer the plate. •'"«■»"" 

For my part, I carefully obfcrved the latitude, '.iilid'lol'- 
lowed, on fetting out, a particuhr point of the ^dm- 
pafs, to come to a river which I knew. I took that 
route, under pretence of going to a certain nati6n to pro* 
cure dry provifions, which we were in want of, and which 
are of great help on a journey. 

We arrived, after fcven days march, at that i\2ii6ii^%f 
whom we were well received. My hunters brought in 
daily many duck and teal. I agreed with the natives of 
the place for a large pettyaugre of black walnut, to go 
down their river, and afterwards to go up the Miflifippi. ' 

I had a ftrong inclination to go up ilill higher north, 
in order to difcovcr mines. We embarked, arid the 
eleventh day of our palTagc I caufed the pettyaugre to be 
unladen of every thing, and concealed in the water, 
which was then low. 1 loaded feven men with the things 
we had. ... <\:r.\r^, : 

Matters thus ordered, we fet out according to the In- 
tention I had to go to the northward. 1 obferved every 
day, with new plcafure, the more we advanced to that 
quarter, the more beautiful and fertile the country was, 
abounding in game of every kind: ihe herds of deer are 
numerous j at every turn we mieet v S them j and not a 
day pafled without feeing herds ot ialoes, (bmetimcs 
five or Ax, of upwards of an hundred m a drove. ' 

jl In fuch journeys as thefe we ;dways take VH>, our night's 
lodging near wood and water, where we put up, in good 
time: then at fun-fct, when every, thing in nature Is 
|iu(hed, we were charmed with the enchanting warbling of 
dijffcrent birds ; fo that one would, be it^lined to fay, they 
-,t refer ved 


rtfervftl ttsi« favovrtble aomcot for die melody itttd htr^ 
nionyof their fimg, toeelcbrate^ uadiilurbcd Uki at their 
ca^ thf bcACfiiB of ihf Ccfaipr. On th« Othes hand, vrtf 
arc diiliifbed in the nighti by die hideous noife of th« 
numberlefs waCer-fbwU ihat are to bo icM oa the Miffi' 
fippi, and evety river or lake near it, Tuch as cranes, 
flamingo'ii wild geefe, herons^ faw-billst ducks, &c. 

As we proceeded furthfr north, we bef nn to fee flocks 
of fwans room through the air, mount out of fight, and 
proclaim their paflfage by their piercing ihrill cries. We 
for fome davs followed the courfe of a river, at the head 
of which vft found, in a very retired place, a beaver- 

We iet up our hiit within reach of this recreat, or vil-^ 
]«ge of beavers, but at fuch a diftance, as that they could 
not obferve our fire. I put my people on their guard, 
againft making any noife, or firing their pieces, for fear 
of fearing thofe animals ; and thought it even ncccf- 
fary to forbid them to cut any wood, the better to con- 
ceil ourfelves. 

After tdking all thefe precautions, w^ {"ofe and were <Mi 
foot againfl the time of moonfhine, pofted ourfelves in ar 
place as diflant from the huts of the beavers, as from the 
caufey or bank, which dammed up the waters of the place 
where they were. I took my fuAl and pouch, according, 
to my cuftom of never travelling without them. But 
each Indian was only to take with him a little hatchet^ 
which all travellers in this country carry with them, t 
took the oldeil of my retinue, after having pointed out to . 
the others the place of ambufh, and the manner^ in whick 
the branches of trees we had cut were to be fet to cover 
tis. I then went towards the middle of the d^m, with 
my old man, who had his hatchet, and ordered him fofdj^ 
to make a gtitttr or trench, a foot wide, which he begaii 
on the outfide of the caufey or dam, croffing ft quite to 
the water. This he did by removing the earth with hai 



hah^s. As foon as the gutter vtras finiihcd, and tht water 
ran into it, We fpeedily, and without any noife, retira4 
to oar pUce oT ambufti, in order to obTenre tbt bctiAvioMC 
of the beavers in repairing this breach. 

A little after we were got behind our fcreen of b6tiglit| 
we heard the water of the gutter begin to make a noifh t 
and a moment after, a beaver came out of his httt audi 
plunged into the water. W« cxwld osily know this by 
the iwife, but we faw him at once ii^oa the bank or dMB« 
and diftindlly perceived that he took a furvcy of the gttMtr« 
after which he inftantly gave with all his force four blows 
with his tail ; and had fcaroe firuck the fourth, but aU 
the beavers threw themfelves pdl-^mell into the water, and 
came upon the dam : when they were all come thither, 
one of them muttered and mumbled to the reft (who all 
ftood very attentive) I know not what orders, but which 
Ibey doubtlefs underflood well, becaufe they inflantly de- 
parted, and went out on the banks of the pond, one party 
one way ; another, another way. Thofo next us were 
between us and the dam, and we at the proper dil^ance 
not to be feen, and to obferve them. Some of them 
made mortar, others carried it on their tails, which ferved 
for fledges. I obferved they put themfelves two and two, 
fide by fide, the one with his head to the other's taU, and 
thus mutually loaded each other, and trailed the mortar, 
which was pretty ftifF, quite to the dam, where others 
remained to take it, put it into the gutter, and rammed it 
with blows of their tails. 

The noile which the water made before by itt £lll» 
Kbon ceafed, and the breach was cloied in a ihort time : 
upon which one of the beavers ftruck two great bkiw$ 
with his tail, and inftantly they all took to the wat«r 
without any noife, and difappeared. We retireld, iftordef 
to take a little reft in our hut, where ws sematncd till 
da^ $ but as foon as it appeared, I longed much to fatisfy 
my puriofity about thefe creatures* ; ^^^^ 


Ihf^tl Hffr^^h^ j^hriVtulv ? wf thr-M »Mml»« hnllV »«»un»)i^h wlth- 

ih« hettvrrp. n\>iVivni frmit m Inwri, j^rtvr fhtni much mm- 

Mttse ptrtly i\«civ ii) us iit t^t>trt tr>pxaittihn what pitlN. 
\ A« t «ptnthphr^f<< ^Hnt >\\\\^\\ tht* tv.upr wjii h»H k\W 

h mt^n tt> VIII only h«f^ the movp nrtttnwiy tn r?r»mlHR 
It » r%ri*llv i<^ th'''"'* HprtVrM wrtr bl tl\r nH'.y Itlnt^^ wlilth 

il\r\- hAVlhf^ IVvH-rtI tlmr«» !ip|Mt^.iclu'\l If^ nml hHiHietf 
<kgAiu \\\^ A H^y. ! irty \\\ rt^MlMifh In ihf hnhnh^ M i\\^. 

t th^tt a<mrt< At h\rt\. Hut \\\c\V rnut- Mnws To Wfrll rti uf Itj 
WAi'Kj mr Jmlirp it VHi^ thr Hghrtl tiF trtll f\M^ ttll tH(» frff, Jiifl 
ft* tht ^\lght Wtbtt^. Thl^ nlln Hi:\tle H\e Ihltik Iw HU'ght 
^^t llAf ySvVvlVrl" <rtf tlW N\n>yVv jtiul I till! t^Ht rhrtolV tr» 3ta 
j\^^'«» thr 4¥(Sv\l^l(r V^r \)H\>rH bt rt mt^mlipf whrt rtppt-turil 

i\^!^t\^^1 tt^wgMN^ m\ \\\t )^x^\[\Mm he might bhly hfe H <*Hm* 
wt^n labmuT^. My llit^t m!\»lp thrm rill m\\\W tb ^hpfe 
rt^Mws^ with pv^rv l\>ml th*h rt htlmlml bl«w» bf the 
Mi^ el" t^clt i ivpiTctpr ro\iM hrtvc tlom*. As Ibbrt rti I httil 
ItOM this lN#rtV^\\ t rAH<»\i my rbmp^Mlrtmi \ tmH fiwdlhg 
thvwattf ^\\\ «bt Vun bff quick eiUiU^h, t tAUttid th« 
Ijfrwth tx^ be wiiWrtttli rtrttJ I cxamihetl the dcdk • 

, 1 ti!^^\tld tKefe HtfAVSpM ffih^% thini l<5i:i thrtli the hmwrt 
y^ tt>mtMb« l^r^ but thfir make Hie i'^me > hAVlh| \\\^ 
ftimc herttlj fame rtirtrp tteth» tHme beitrdHj le^li M m<J^'^ 

n K I. (Ml I M I A M A. 


br W^♦♦<l, JitUi Im Jill »>'l|iM'fi iMi'l" lllt^" Hi" Mf^^tn. \Uf> 

m wlilHlH, 

t)iifhi|t Hill ^trthilMiflHM, I ^rtuN »fiy pH<|if/- fn Mit 
ImUf^lH, ^!1MM, rtfwl ffftN, fM |if tlifMwii lit friwfl^ffi fh^ 
fUrl tif ^l1^ )mM<l, Ih nhl^f• fM fijiO MV^^ M1^ l'ffl^ miul 
V^Hlfh Wtit ill llnf hM^^i rtMfl 5lf fll^ fitlfir fifflf f i'fll/frfl 
ftimr lliMf M» jif (itrj Mil ih^ ftililii') Hirtf I'ly (iMtrft in, 
'^ll^ if-jiMif Mf ilif (^iiii«t, rtful Hif* MiHIiip Hf f it^ fh'f Mfi Hia 
HiMf«( t»l ^ll^ MililHs Mirttit' Htriti nil fly ImM H^f" w«^fff4 
^4'lfll flit' f^fCrtfrlf lifrrijilMflnii ll»lfi|»lHnm>'. Wt^ f flftf^ rtf' 
lrMi>fli fM ft enlilii, IH wIllrH fH'*fr W^f-r Mnf f?K iM^hf* ^<f 
wrttft. t rntilM |M uHfIrt ih^ tnnf wlfli'<Mf Kf^Hhp nHjr 
thlii|5» eliiHli^ wlik-h I Hitv fhr pkf^ hf ni]l)ti'ftfft wlll'-h 
Wrt«t irthi imrlrr Htr- i-itlilii fhr fH^I^ |ifhvinmf«ij 

t rthrnvctl fif^rph filphM Hf WhHff, wifit fllMf lififff Iff 
jifitf ^imwpfl. The r-fltilM nlfh lisfl |]r(^^H tfiU M(ih<l ffif^ 
hMJrlii tlir tilddir, ttf wlilrli Hl^y werif mii^i w^tl^H ftyn<l^ 
ttIP tlllllk ^!1^h'llHrl his «WM f^ll. 

f nm Htt*v tri givfe tl rtt^^^t1 ^f thfc flr^hitf(?ruf^ ^if Hiffi? 
fltlljihlhioih ttHUtirt|j?4 and rtii rtceounf of fhcif vlllfigrq ) If is 
thUfi 1 Crtll the |»lrttc «f thrlr .'ijiotlr, riffrr fhf (Jifiji'l/aH* 
mid the IikIIjiih, wifh whnm I wgfee j find nll^r^, (ht;fe 
tuiimsilii (lell"rvf lb tiiiich thr inore to hcdl(liffg(iifti<^'l (mm 
hthfcts, fls 1 find thelf liilfiiitf ht lufjcrlor tn thnt of oth^'f 
rihimrtlfl. I Ihall not tarry the patallel any htthatf ii 
itilght hpcnme nftetiAve. 

The cahiiis of the heavers are round, having ahoiit fen 
bt twdve feet Itt dlaitieter, actordliig to the ffitml^er, 
ttiote ot left, of fixed lohahltanti. 1 mcao, that this dlAi 
llietcr Is to he taken tm the flooring at ahoiit a foot ahoVe 
the witter, when It Is even with the dam : htit as the 
tipper part rtitis to a point, the tindrr Is much larger than 
^hc flooring, which we m.iy reprcfent to onrfelves, hy 

JL fuppofmg 


THE H f S T O R V 

fuppoilng all the upright pofts to refemble the legs of z. 
great A, whofe middle ftroke is the flooring. Thefe pofts 
are picked out, and we might fay, well proportioned^ 
feeing, at the height this flooring is to be laid at, there ia 
a hook for bearing bars, which by that means form the 
circumference of the flooring. The bars again bear tra- 
verfes, or trofs pieces of timber, which are the joifts ; 
canes and grafs complete this flooring, which has a hole 
in the middle to go out at, when they pleafe, and into 
this all the cells open. 

The dam is formed of timbers, in the (hape of *^t. An- 
drew's crofs, or of a great X, laid clofe together, and 
kept Arm by timbers laid lengthwife, which are continued 
from one end of the dam to the other, and placed on 
the St. Andrew's crofl'es : the whole is filled with earth, 
clapped clofe by great blows of their tails. The infide of 
the dam, next the water, is almcfl: perpendicular ; but on 
the outfide it has a great flope, that grafs coming to grow 
thereon, may prevent the water that pafles there, to carry 
away the earth. 

I faw them neither cut nor convey the timbers along, 
but it is to be prefumed their manner is th * fame as that 
of other Beavers, who never cut but a l ft wood ; for 
which purpofe they ufe their fore-teeth, which are 
extremely (harp. Thefe timbers they pu(h ai 1 roll before 
them on the land, as they do on the ^ater, t 1 they come 
to the place where they want to lay theni I obferved 
t* efe grey Beavers to be more chilly, or fen ble of cold, 
than the other fpecics : and it is doubtlefs . " this reafon 
they draw nearer to the fouth. 

We fet out from this place to come to a high ground, 
which feemed to be continued to a great diftance. We 
came the fame evening to the foot of it, but the day was 
too far advanced to afcend it. The day following we 
went to its top, found it a flat, except fome fmall emi- 
nences at intervals. There appeared to be very little 



^cM'^oftit,' ftili lefs wat^r, and leaft of all ftorte^>ftHough 
probably there may be fome in its bowels, having ob- 
ierved fofflc ftones in a part where the earth was tumbled 

We accurately examined all this riftng ground, without 
difcovering any thing ; and though that day we traivelled 
upwards of five leagues, yet we were not three leagu(;s 
diftant from the hut we fet out from in the morning. 
This high ground would have been a very coiKimodious 
fituation for a fine palace ; as from its edges is a very 
diftant profpeffc. 

Next day, after a ramble of about two leagues and a 
half, I had the fignal of call to my right. I inftantly flew 
thither; and when I came, the fcbut (hewed me a ftump 
fticking out of the earth knee high^ and nine inches* in 
diameter. The Indian took it at a diftance for the ftump 
of a tree, and was furprifed to find wood cot in a country 
which appeared to have been never fipequent^d : but when 
he came near enough to form a judgement about it, he 
faw from the figure, that it was a very different thing : 
and this was the reafon he made the fignal of call; < 

I was highly pleafed at this difccvery, which w^s that 
of a lead-ore. I had alfo the f^lisfadioh to fiiid iny ^er- 
leverance recompenfed $ but in particular I was ravifhed 
with admiration, on feeing this wonderful produ£(ton, 
and the power of the foil of this province, conf^raining^ 
as it were, the minerals to uifclofe themfelves» I conti- 
nued to fearch all around, and I difcovered ore in fev^^l 
places. We returned to lodge at our laft hut, on account 
of the convenience of water, which was too fcarce on thi$ 
high ground. 

Wc fet out from thence, in order to come nearer to the 

MifTifippi : through every place we pafTed, nothing but 

herds of buffaloes, elk, deer, and other animals of every 

kind, yrcre to be feen -, efpecially near rivers and brooks* 

. L 2 Bears^ 


Bears,, on the other haf^d, keep in the tliick wooils, where 
they find their proper food* 

i After a march ofiive idaysilefpihl a mountain tb my 
right, which Teemed To high as to excite my curiofity* 
Next morning I directed' thither my courfe, where we 
arrjyed about three in the aft^cnqon., , We (popped at the 
too^ o^' the motuitai|i« where, we fouiid a fine fpring 
ii|MJf^^ <jHt of the rpcif, , ,. 

.Th0. day> following we went u)» ta it* topy whece it il 
i^»y.. Though th^ffr is eartb dnqught for plants^ yet 
they are fo thin fown, that hardly two hufiiibred 
fp\|DflQin an^ acrcof gpQ|Mn4# iTjfies arealfo very rare on 
t]buait>fpot^ andi thefe poor, ttifagre^. and cancerous. The 
j^9j^9t>tf9;Vi"4 there arfs.^U fit for making lime, 

r<W«' fromthenee took. the roMte that (houkl carry us to 
our piMiyiitrgiti a joubnry but of ai few days* We drew 
the i i^yaugie oiut > off ttiie r watdrj and .there paifed the 
nighb Next> day we;croi&d the .Miflifippii^ in going, up 
which we killed a ijbep^'beart With her cubs: for during 
the winter^ the bank* of< this Miflifipp* are lined with 
them ; atld: it isi rai^ ilk: gping- up' the riter^ not to fee 
many cxpfs it in a 4?^y>« in fcarch of food; thQwantof 
which makes themauit the bank«. . , ^ / 

Ir^Ofklnucdi ray* .route, in going up tbe Miffiiippi quite 
^•,«lf0 Chicafayi^) CUIirs«:(f£GOffe» 4 Prud^h^Hmtie) where 
].vWM te^ii I ihould Jujid iiyniethiag ^ the^eiie&t of the 
colmiyi this Was what lefteited my; curioitty* . 

Beihg arrived at thofe elifFs we landed^ ^nd ooncealedj 
after unlading tt, the petJtyaugre in th^e Witter ; and from 
that day I fought^ and^a^^tength found the iroh^mine, 6f 
which I had fome hints given me. After being fu re of 
this, I carefully feaFchisd all around^ to find iCaftiAe: but 
this was impoflible : however, I believe- It may be found 
higher up in afcendifig theMiffifippi, but that care I leave 
to thofe who hereafter (hall choofe to. uadsiitake the work- 

; j ing 

. OF l>OtJ;I6-lANA4 «4f 

]ng that oiiiie. Ihad^ however, rome amendi made in« 
for my trouble ; as in fearching^ 1 found ibme marks of 
pit«coaI ; ia the neighbourhood, a; thing at leaA as uieful 
in other' parts of die colony as in this. yH^m %' ■{' ■ 

After having made my refleiaions, I refolv^d-ln a Httii 
time to return homfe} but being loth to leave fo fine 1 
countty^ I penetrated a little farther into it } And in thil 
^ort exeurfion I efpied a fmall hill, all bare and parthed^ 
having on its top only two trees in a very drooping con« 
dition, and fcarce any grafs, befides fome little tufts, 
diftant enough afunder, which grew on sk very firm 
clay. The bottom of this hill was not fo barren, and 
the adjacent country fertile as in other parts, Thefe 
inditatidns made 'mc prefume there might be a mine in 

I at length returned towards the Miflifippi, in order to 
meet again the pettyaugre. As in all thi^ country, and 
in all the height of the colony we find numbers of buffa- 
loes, elk, deer, and other game ; fo we find numbers of 
wolves, fome tigers; Cat-a-mounts, (PIchous) and cari- 
riort-crows, all of them carnivorous animals, Wliich I 
(hall hereafter defcrlbe. When we came n'eiiV the Miffi* 
fippi we made the fignal of recognition, which was an* 
fwered, though at fome diftance. It was there mypeople 
killed fome buffaloes, to be drefled and cured in their 
manner, for our journey. We embarked at length, and 
went down the Miflifippi, till we came within a league of 
the common landing-place. The Indians hid the petty- 
augre, and went to their village. As for myfelf, I got 
home towards du(k, where I found my neighbours and 
flaves furprized, and at the fame time glad, at my unex- 
pe£led return, as if it had been from a hunting-match in 
the neighbourhood. 

I was really well pleafcd to have got home, to fee my 
^aves in perfe^ health, and all my affairs in good order : 
jput I ,was flrongly imprefled with the beauties of the 

. L 3 countries 


countriei I had feen. I could have wi(hed to end my 
days in thoft charming folitudesi at a diftance from thd 
tumultuous hurry of the world, far from the pinching 
gripe of avarice and deceit. There it ii, faid I to my* 
itlff one rcliihcfi a thoufand innocent delights, and which 
Are repeated with a fatisfaAion ever new. It is there one 
lives exempt from the aHaults of cenfure, detradlon, and 
calumny. In thofe dclightfome meadows, which often 
cxt(}nd far out of fight, and where we fee fo many dif- 
ferent fpecics of animals, there it is we have occafion to 
admire the beneficence of the Creator. To conclude, 
there it is, that at the gentle purling of a pure ami living 
water, and enchanted with the concerts of birds, which 
fill the, neighbouring thickets, we may agreeably con- 
template the wonders of nature, and examine tiiem all at 
our leifure. 

I had reafons for concealing my journey, and flrongcf 
reafons ftill to fupprcfs what I had difcovered, lu order 
to avail myfeif thereof afterwards : but the crofles I un» 
derwent, and the misfortunes of my life, have, to this 
day, prevented me from profiting by thefu difcoverles, in 
returnihg to that charming country, and even fo much a^ 
to lay them before the public. 





Of iU Nature of the Lmdi of Louifiana. Tf)e Landt tn 

the CoaJI* 

IN order to defcribe the nature of this country with 
fome method, I (hall firft fpcak of the jilace we land 
at, and (hall therefore begin with the coafl : I (hall then 
go up the MiiTifippi \ the reverfe of what I did in th<! 
Geographical Defcription, in which I defcribcd that river 
from its fource down to its mouth. 

The coail, which was the firft inhabited, extends from 
Rio Perdido to the lake of St. Louis : this ground is a very 
fine fand, white as fnow, and fo dry, as not to be fit to 
produce any thing but pine, cedar, and fome ever-green 

The river Mobile is the moft confiderable of that coa()t 
to the eaft *. It rolls its waters over a pure fand, which 
cannot make it muddy, fiut if this water is clear, it 
partakes of the fterility of its bottom, fo that it is far 
from abounding fo much in fi(h as the Mifldfippi. Its 
banks and neighbourhood are not very fertile from its 
fource down to the fea. The ground is ftony, and fcarce 
any thing but gravel, mixt with a little earth. Though 
thefe lands are not quite barren, there is a wide difference 
between their productions and thofe of the lands in the 
neighbourhood of the MiHifippi. Mountains there are, 
but whether (lone fit for building, I know not. 

In the confines of the river of the Alibamous (Creaks) 
the lands are better : the river falls into the Mobile, above 
the bay of (he fame name. This bay may be about thirty 
leagues in length, after having rieceived the Mobile, 
Yvhich runs from north to fouth for abou^ one hundred 

L 4 and 

* This river, which they call Mobile, anl which tfter the ralni of 
winter ii a fine river in fpr'ing. Ii but « bVo»k in fummer, efptclllljr tO«, 
wardf iti fource. Dmotitf I|. %ii. 


and fifty leagues. On the banks of this river Was thefirft 
fettlemcnt of the French in Louifiana, which ftood til) 
New Orleans was founded, which is at this day (he capi« 
tal of the colony. 

The lands and water of the Mobile arc not only un- 
fruitful in all kinds of vegetables and HOi, but the nature 
of the waters and the foil contributes alfo to prevent the 
multiplication of animals ; even women have experienced 
this. I undcrilood by Madam Hubert, whofe hufband 
-Wfia^at my arrival Commiffary Diredlor of the colony^ 
that in the time the French were in that poO, there werf 
feven or eight barren women, who all became fruitful, 
after fettling with their hufbands on the banks of the 
MiHifippi, where the capital was built, and whither the 
fettlement was removed. 

Fort St. Louis of Mobile was the French poft. This 
(ort llai)ds on the banks of that river, near another f^all 
^iver, called Dog River, which falls ir\to the bay to thp 
fouth of the fort. 

. Though thefe countries are not fo fertile as thoPe in the 
. iieighbqurhpod of the Minif^ppi } we arc, however, to ob» 

ferve, that ^hc interior parts of the country are much bet- 
.ter t|ia<i thoie near the ^. . ; 

Oti tthe coaft to the weft of Mobile, wc find iflafjds not 
worth mentioning. 

''***From the fourees of the river of the Paflca-Ogotulas, 
*quite to thofe of the river of QuefoniSlc, which falls into 
the lake of St. Louis, the lands are light and fertile, but 
(fomething gravelly, on account of the neighbourhood of 
the mountains that lie to the north. This country is 
int«ttnixt Wtth eictertfive hills, fine meadows, numbers of 
<thickets, and fomctinies with woods, thick fct with cane, 
particularly on the banks of rivers and brooks } and is 
^Iremely proper for agriculture. 

-01 X. 






ifThe moutttsins which I faid thefe Qountritfs have to the 
norths form nearly the figure of a chaplet, with one end 
pretty near the Miffifippi, the other on the banks of the 
Mobile. I'he inner part of this chaplet or chain is filled 
with hills ) which are pretty fertile in grafs, fimplest 
fruits of the country, horfe-chcfnuts, and wild-chefnuts, 
as large, and at leall as good as thofe of Lyons. 

To the north of this chain of mountains lies tlic coun* 
try of the Chicqfaws, very fine and free of mountains : it 
has only very extenfive and gentle eminences, or rifing 
grounds, fertile groves and meadows, which in fpring- 
time are all over red, from the great plenty of wood ftraw- 
berries : in fummer, the plains exhibit the mod beautiful 
enamel, by the quantity and variety of the flowers : in 
fiutumn, after the fetting fire to the grafs, they are cpvere<ji 
with muihrooms. 

All the countries I have juft mentioned arc ftored with 
game of every kind. The bulFalo is found on the moft 
rifing grounds } the partridge in thick open woods, fuch 
as the groves in meadows } the elks delight in large forefts* 
as alfo the pheafant } the deer, which is a roving animal, 
is every whei;: to be met with, becaufc in whatever place 
it may happen to be, it always ha« fomething to brovmip 
on. The ring-dove here flies in winter with fuqh rapio 
dity, as to pafs over a great deal of country in a few 
hours } ducks and other aquatick game are in fuch num* 
ibers, that wherever there is water, we are fure to find 
mi^ny more than it Is poifible for us to (hoot, were we tp 
do nothing elfe ^ and thus we find game in every placCp 
and fiih in plenty in the rivers. 

Let us refumc the coaft } which, though flat and Ary^ 
on account of its -fand, abounds with delicious fifli, and 
excellent {hell-fi(h. But the cryftal fand, which is per- 
nicious to the fight by its whitencfs, might it not be 
adsptcd for making fome beautiful compofition or manu- 



fa^urc ? Here I leave the learned to find out what ufe thlt 
faitd may be of. 

If this coaft is flat, it has in this ref^rf^ an advantage | 
as we might fay. Nature wanted to make it fo, in order 
to be feir-defended againft the dcfcent of an enemy. 

Coming out of the Bay of Palka-Ogoulas, if wo 
ftill proceed weft, we meet in our way with the Bay 
of Old Biloxi, where a fott was built, and a fettlement 
begun \ Jbut a great fire, fpread by a violent wind, de* 
Uroyed it in a few moments, which in prudence ought 
never to have been built at all. 

"''Thofe who fettled at Old Biloxi could not, doubtlefs, 
think of quitting the fea-coaft. They fettled to the weft, 
clofc to New-Biioxi, on a fand equally dry and pernici- 
ous to the fight. In this place the large grants happened 
to be laid off. Which were extremely inc6nvenient to have 
been made on fo barren a foil $ where it was impofllble to 
find the leaft plant or greens for any money, and where 
the hired fervants died with hunger in the moft fertile 
colony in the whole world. 

In purfuing the fame route and the fame coaft weft- 
vrard, the lands are ftill the fame, quite to the fmall Bay 
of St. Louis, and to the Channels, which lead to the 
lake of that name. At a diftance from the fea the earth 
is of a good quality, fit for agriculture ; as being a light 
foil, but fomcthing gravelly. The coaft to the north 
of the Bay of St. Louis is of a different nature, and 
much more fertile. The lands at a greater diftance to the 
north of this laft coaft, are not very diftant from the MifR- 
fippi } they are alfo much more fruitful than thofe to the 
caft of this bay ia thj^ fame latitude. 

In order to follow the fea-coaft down to the mouth of 
the Mifliftppi, we muft proceed almoft fouth, quitting the 
Channels. I hav«kelfe where mentioned, that we have to 
pafs between CjUMi^» which we leave to the left, and 
Cockle-Idand, 'flPFwc leave tq the right. In making 


this ideal route, we pafi over banki almoft level with the 
water, covered with a va(( number of ifleti i we leave to 
the left the Candlema^-lflfSi which are only heapa ot 
fand, having the form of a gi^t (;ut in pieces j they rife 
but little above the fca, and fcarcely yield a dozen of 
plants, jifft as in the neighbouring iflets I have noW rneil* 
tioned. We leave to the right lake Borgne, which It 
another outlet of the lake St. Louis, and continuing the 
lame route by feveral outlets for a conri4erable Way, we 
find a little open clear Tea, and the coaft to the right^ 
which is but a quagmire, gradually formed by a very Co(i 
ooze, on which fome reeds grow. This coaft leads foon 
to the £a(i; Pafs or channel, which is one of the mouthi 
of the MifTifippi, and this we find bordered with a like 
foil, if indeed it deierves the name of foil. 

There is, moreover, the Sputh-eaft Pafs, where ftanda 
fialife, and the South Pafs, which projeAs farther ihtothe 
lea. Balife is a fort built on an ifland of fand, fecured 
by a great number of piles bound with good timber* 
work. There are lodgings in it for the ofHcers and the 
garrifbn ) and a fufflcient number of guns for defending 
the entrance of the Miflifippi. It is there they take the 
bar-pilot on board, in order to bring the ihips into the 
river. All the pafles and entrances of the Miflifippi are 
as frightful to the eye, as the interior part of the colony 
is delightful to it. 

The quagmires continue ftill for about feven leaguei 
going up tl;ie Miflifippi, at the entrance of which we 
ineet . a bar, three fourths of a league broad : v/hich we 
cannot pafs without the bar-pilot, who alone ii acquaint- 
ed with the channel. 

All the weft ^oaft refembles thaf which | mentioned, 
from Mobile to the bay of St. Louis j it is equally flat, 
formed of a like fand, and a bar of iflcs, which lengthen 
out the coaft, and hinder a defcent ( ittie coaft continues 
$hus, going weftward, quite to ^mtJ^Bs^yt ind even 

ft little 


« littfe firlbtr. Itn foil ilfo la biirrcn, sinrt in tytifiv* 
IjpeA like tO'riitt 1 hove juft tmntioned. «• 

I «ga|n enter the MtTlifippi, and pafs wlth'^lpcfetf^ovi^ 
thefc quagmires, incapAblc to bear up the travitler, and 
which only a({t)r4 a retreat to gnats and mofkittoq, and to 
fome water-fowl, whighji dou^tlefs, find food to live on, 
ijtd that in fecurity. 

On coming out of thefe nuurlhes, we find a neck of 
land on each fide of the Miflifippi { this indeed is firm 
land, but lined with marHics, refembling thofe at the 
entrance of the river. For the fpace of three or four 
kagues, this neck of land is at ^r(l bare of trees, but 
comes afbrito be cov«ited with them, fo as to intercepjt 
the winds, which the ihipa require, in order to,go upthe 
liver to the capital. This land, though very narrow, is 
£ontinued| together with the trees it bears, qu^e to the 
flnglitti Reach, which is defended by two fof ts ^ one to 
the right| the other to the left of the MiiTifippi. 

The origin of the nattiq, Englilh Reach, (Detour aux 
Anglois) is diiferently affigned. I made cn<|uiry of the 
i>lde(^ of the country, to what circum^sMice this t^eacl^ 
might owe its name. And they told me, that before the 
Iwft fettloment of the French in this colony, the EngUlh, 
Wing iwatt) of the beauty of the counjtry,, which they 
had, doubtlefs, vifited before, in going thither fj?om Caro^ 
jina,by land* attempted tp make themfelves mafters of tho 
entrance of the Mifllfippi, and to go up the river, in order 
i9 (fittify themfcU'Cs on the (irft firm ground they could 
jneet» Xxfitcdby that j,ealou(y which is natural to them, 
they took fuch precautions as they imagined to beoroper^ 
ifi order to (Recced* 

The Ixxdians op theij* part, who had already (cen or 
jheard G(f feveral people (French) having gone up and 
4own the MiiGfippi at diffcccnt times } the Indians, 1 fay, 
who, .perhaps^ were not fo well pleafed with fuch neigh- 
4>9<^^ were fliil more frightened at feeing a fhip ent^r the 
*• river. 

or LOUISIAN/^. 157 

jtlver, which detcj-mined them to ftop iti palTagC} but 
thii was impofltblc) as lon{( as the Eiiglifh had any wind* 
of which they availed thetTift'Lvcs quite to thii Reach* 
Thcfe Indiana were the Ouachaa and Chaouachas, who 
dwelt to the wed of the Miflifippr, and below this Reach. 
There were of them oti each fide of the river, and they 
lying in the canes, obfcrved the Engliih, and followed 
them as they went up, without daring to attack them. 

When the Englifh were come to the entrance of thte 
Reach, the little wind they had failed them i obferviitD 
befldee, that the Miflinppi made a great turn or windifi|;« 
they dcfpaired of fuecieding ) and wanted to moor in 
thii fpot, for which purpofc thiy muft bring a ropoto 
land : but the Indians (hot a great number of arrows at 
them, till tin report of a cannon, fired at random, Scat- 
tered them, and gave the fignal to the £ngli(h to go on 
board, fur fear the Indians (hould come in gteater num- 
bers, and cut them to pieces. 

Such is the origin of the name of this Rsactf. The 
MifTiftppi in this place forms the figure of a crefcent, 
almoft clofed { Co that the fame wind which brings up a 
fhip^ proves often contrary, when come to the Reach ; 
attd this is the reafoir that Ihipi moor, and go up towed, 
or tacking. I'his Reach iv fix or Ctvtn leagues) fbme 
aflign it eight, more or lefs, according as they happen to 
make way. 

The lands on both Tides of this Reach ite inhabited, 
though the depth of foil is incnnfiderable. Imfnedlatdy 
above this Reach ftinds New Orleans, the capital of this 
colony, on the eaft of the Miflfifippi. A league behind 
the town, directly back ftom the river, we meet with a 
Bayouc or creek, which can bear large boats with oarsi 
In following this Bayouc for the fpace of a league, we go 
to the lake St. Louis, and after traverfmg obliquely this 
lafl,* we meet the Channels, which lead to Mobile, where 
I begah my defcription of the nature of the foil di Loui* 

1 a The 

The ground on which New Orle«ni it fituate^, heti\g 
an earth accumulated by the OMe, in the fame manner a« 
ii that both below and above, a good way from the capital^ 
la of a good quality for agriculture, only that it it ftrong, 
and rather too fat. This land being flat, and drowned by 
the inundations for fcveral ages, cannot fail to be kept in 
moidure, there being, moreover, only a mole or bank to 
prevent the river from overflowing it ) and would be even 
too moid, and incapable of cultivation, had not this mole 
been made, and ditches, clofe to each other, to facilitate 
the draining ofF the waters : by this means it has been 
put in a condition to be cultivated with fuccefli* 

From New Orleans to Manchac on the eaft of the 
Miflifippi, twenty-five leagues above the capital, and quite 
to the Fork to the weft, almoft over-againft Manchac, and 
a little way oflf, the lands are of the fame kind and quality 
with thofe of New Orleans. 

C H A P. IV. 

Quality ofthi Lands above the Fork. A ^arry ofSttm ftf 
huiidlng. High Lands to the EaJ} : Their vaji Fertility^ 
mji Coq/i : Weft Lands : Sakpetn. 

TO the weft, above the Fork, the lands are pretty 
flat, but exempt from inundations. The part beft 
known of thefe lands is called fiaya-Ogoula, a name 
framed of Bayouc and Ogoula, which flgnifles the nation 
dwelling near the Bayouc ; there having been a nation of 
that name in that place, when the firft Frenchmen came 
down the MiffiAppi ; it ties twenty-five leagues from the 

But to the eaf^, the lands arc a good deal higher, feeing 
from Manchac to the river Wabache they are between an 
hundred and two hundred feet higher than the Miififippt 
in its greaieft floods.. The flopc of thefe lands goes oflF per* 



pendicularly from the Miflifippi, which on that ftdere- 
ccivet but few riven, and thofe very fmall, if we except 
the river of the Yafouiy whofe courfe it not above fifty 
leagues. ^ 

All thefe high lands are, beftdes, furmoiintcd, in a good 
many p! ^cs, by little eminences, or fmall hills, and rifing 
grounds ruiuijniz off Icngthwlfc, with gentle flopes. Ic 
is only wh^n wc g/) ^ little way from the Miflifippi, that 
we find theft: Im^h lands are over-topped by little moun' 
tains, wh>h appear tu bf all of earth, though ftecp, with« 
out thelcail gravel or pebble being perceived on them* 

The foil on thcfe high Innds is very good } it is a black 
light mold, about three feet Joep on the hills or rlfing 
grounds. This upper earth lies upon a rcddifti clay, very 
ftrong and ilifF} the loweft places between thefe hills are 
of the fame nature, but there the black earth is between 
five and fix feet deep. The grafs growing in the hollows 
is of the height of a man, and very flender and fine ; 
whereas the grafs of the fame meadow on the high lands 
rifes fcarce knee deep ; as it docs on the highcfl eminences* 
Unlefs there is found fomcthing underneath, which not 
only renders the grafs (horter, but even prevents its growth 
by the efficacy of fome exhalations ; which is not ordi- 
narily the cafe on hills, though rifing high, but only on 
the mountains properly fo called. 

My experience in architedlure having taught me, that 
(evei^al quarries have been found under a clay like this» 
I was always o( opinion there mufl be fome in thofe 

Since I made thefe reflei^ions, I have had occafion, in 
my journey to the country, to confirm thefe conjectures. 
We had fet up our hut at the foot of an eminence, which 
was deep towards us, and near a fountain^ whofe water 
was lukewarm and pure. 

This fountain appeare<l to me to IfTue out of a hole, 

i^hi^h was formed by Uie finking of the earth. } flopped, 

^ '■ in 

1^. tttE HlStolY 

iaordbt to take abefttervi^ of it^. and I oBferVed ftone^< 
which to thef eye appeared pro|>er for buildings and the up«> 
pfit part Wh ich yr ^ fhis da^) which is pei^uliar to the coun^ - 
try. I was highly pleafed to be thus afcertained, that there 
was ftone fit for building in this colony, where it is ima* 
^ned there is none, becaufe it does not come out of thd 
earth to ihew itfelf. 

i&l! is not to be w6ridef6d, that there is flone to he found' 
hi 'the Lower Lotiifiana, which is only an earth accumu- 
lated by oo«ej but it is far more extraordinary, not to 
fee a flint, nor even a pfebble on thd hrlk, for upwards oT 
ah hundred leagues fometimes j howevdr, this h a thihg 
common in this province. 

I imagine I ought to afltgn a reafon for it, which feemt' 
pretty probable to nie. This land has never been turned, 
dr dug, ?nd is Very clofe above th6 clay, which is ex- 
irtmtly hard, and covers the ftone, which cannot fliew 
hfelf through ftlch aooVefing : it is therefore no fuch Tur- 
priiie, ths* • obftrve no ftonef oat of the earth in thefe 
j^Iains ana ^n thefb eminences. 

All thefe hig^ lands are generally meadows and forefis 
of tall trees, with grafs up to the knee. Along gullies 
they prove to be thickets, in which wood of every kind is 
found, and alfo the fruits of the country. 

^Almoft all thefe landi on the eaft of the river are (acH as 
I h^ve defcribed ; that is, the meadows are on thofe higU 
grounds^ whofe Oope is very gentle; we alfo find therd 
tall forefts, and thickets in the low bottoms. In the me^^* 
dows we obferve here and there groves of very tall and 
ftraight oaks, to the number of fourfcore or an hundred 
Ht moft: there are others of about forty or fifty, which 
ieem to have been planted by men's hands in thefe mea- 
dowSj for a retreat to the bufFaloeS) deer,, and other ani- 
mals, and a fcreeii againft ftorms, and the ding of the 







The tall forefts ar(; all hiccory, or all oak : in thtfc 
Utft we find a great manjr morals ; but then thece grows a 
fpecies of muihrooms at the feet of felled walnut-treei, 
which the Indians carefully gather i I tailed of them, and 
found them good. : > •, , 

The meadows are Itei^ ^ly covered with graft fit fbr 
|[>afture, but produce quantities of wood-ftrawberries hi 
the moAth of April } for the following mooth» th<^;prff(pe^ 
is charming; we fcarce oblerve a pile of grafs, nolefs wh^ 
we tread under foot ; tl^e flowers, which are. ithen; in aJl 
their beau«^y. exhibit to the view th/e mo:ft rai^iihing ftght* 
being diverfified without end ; one in particuUrJ have re- 
marlced, which would adorn the moft beautiful parterre ; 
I mean t^e Irion's Mputh (la gueuk de Lion), , 

Thefe meadows aibrd not only a charming pfoTpetEt %o 
the eye; they, moreover, plehUfully produce excellent 
iimples, (equally with, tall woods) sis well Yor the pur- 
pofes of medicine as of dying. When all thefe pllusts are 
burnt, and a fmall rain comfii on, muflirooms of an ex- 
cellent flavour fucceed to theok, and whiten th0 furface of 
the meadows all over. . : *, . j^'^rt? '^ 

ThoCe ri(ing meadows and tall forefts slbodhd With buf- 
faloes, elk, and deer, with turkeys, partrtd^es^ and all 
kinds of game ; conlequently wolves, tatamdurits, arid 
other carnivorous anittah' are found there} %hiclr^ in M» 
]6Wlh^ thii othier animus, defltoy and devour fuch as are 
too old or tdo fat; and wlieh the Indians ep a hunting, 
thefe aniWals are fure to have the bfl^^ or hound's fee, 
which makes them follow the hunters. - ' * 

. Thefe high lands naturally produce lipulberry-tre/ss, the 
leaves of which are very grateful to the {|lk-worm. tndigo, 
in like manner, grows there along the thickets, without 
culture. There alfo a native tobacco is foiuhd growing 
wild, f6r the culture of which, as well as for other fpecies 
of tobacco, thefe lands are extremely well adapted. Cot- 
ton is aifo cultivated to advantage : ivheat and flax thrive 

M better 

hi'ttvrttni) MdH! «!tniy>lh«H»^ ttmn bw«r tiow^i tv^wAttJi (h« 
VAI^iuU tHf UHd th(^ii6 l#lHg tntt frtt I which U tht irAfbU 
Ihftti fntitptH), tMkti tom« \\\t^ ^ M gi^itiei" height i\\m (n 
th« kHdi t Am n^itirtg ir^f I hut th« tt)ttt)n mit) th« »th«r 
l^hxtutEKons Ah* t\«^ither (b ftmng imi- Hi (tne thvtis nhd ihe 
tt\)pi of them «)« o(\eit kOi fM^Mhlvi though th« (bil be 
of Alt ettc«llthi hAturtk 

tit fiti»i ihttiAi high \m\^% to the ciitl t)f the MiftlHifipt, 
fhMn Mtnthdc ttt tht liyer WAhttche^ mny nut) might tn 
«^rttAtn m(Meji : sve lliit) in ihiHii, jud Mt th« (lirfkt'e, imii 
Aiiv) pit-fMnU hut itn A(^|)eAi^Ai^«e Mt nivet- mltttti golU 
th«)« n\;ty he, t^pptf ttlth^ Attd l«Ati. 

' Let \i8 V«tiM*ii to MrtnehAc, \vheit t qiiltteil the Mlttt- 
fippi I whieh I lh«n ewi^^ Ih dhlei' to virtt the well fttle, 
Ai t hAV« AlireAiiy done the «A(1^i t diAti begitt with the 
wi^tl m^t^% whith i«n»mhleii thAt to the e^ft i hut is (^ilt 
more «ih' Ahd hAfr«H tm the (hoi«. Ott quitttH| thAlcoAfl 
of whiN Aiui ttfiktA fkndi in ortler to go itdrthwAd} we 
meet (t^ ^Hx Ukm^ whkh ctimmuhicAte with otto Aim- 
th((> And whith Atr, iloultthsri) remAini of th« feA. He- 
tween thefe lAkei And the Mi(tifi|i|)i, it aa eArth Aciumu^ 
Uteni on the fAndi And IR>tmed by the oofte of thAt rive;, 
AS I fAidi between thefe Uken the^ tt nothing but fAndi 
OH whith there Is fo )iu)e Aarth^ thAt the fAnd-bottoi^ Ap* 
^{itAinta vi^^l fo thAt ^ 6nii there but little pAfture, 
whith foine dirAyed buftkloei cqme to eAt| And no treei, 
if we AKtept A hill on th« bAnb of one of the(^ Ukes, 
which tA #ll,tov«red with ever-green 0Aki| At ilbr (ht|w 
building. This fpot mAy be a IcA^ue in length by hAlf a 
leAgue inbreAdtht And wai CAlled lUrAtAriAi becAulk en» 
tlofed by th^tb lAkt* ahiI ihAll' t^UtletS) to form Almoll 
An IllAnd on dry Und. 

Tbe(^ lAkvii Ate lK>red with monllroui cArpi as well fur 
fite AS for lei^gth i which (lip out of the MilTifippi And Its 
muddy ftreAmi when oversowed) in feArch of cleArer WAter, 
^ft» (^UAntity of (\(U In thefe Ukei ii ver/ Airpriting, efpe- 

1 . <^»«^V 




or LOUtltANA. f«| 

cUlly II tH«y Abound with va(I numbtri of Mlllgitorii In 
the nelghhourhout) o» thelb Uk«» thtr« nre fome petty 
imtioni of Indium, who purity livn on this iiniphibioui 

fi«tw«en ihttk Ukei «nd th« banks of the MIfflAppt, 
Ht«tis is Aiinie thin herbiigit, «nd imontt others, niilur«i 
h«mp, whith grows like trees, and very bmnthed. This 
need not Airprite us, is eich pi«nt ftitndi very dift«nt 
from the other t here«bouts w« And little wood, unlelb 
when we ApproAch the Mifltflppl. 

To the weft of thelb lakes we And eM«tllenl Unds, 
covered in many pUces with open woods of tall trees, 
through which one mAy CAAly ride on horlbbAck i and 
here we And Ibme buA^Aloes, which only pAfn through theib 
woods becAufie the pAAure under the trcei Is bitter i And 
therefore they prefer the gredi of the meAdows, which ly^ 
iitg expoOed to the rays of the Aini becomes thereby mort 

In going Aill fArther weft, wt meet much thicker woods, 
becAutb this country is extremely well WAtered t we here 
And numbers of rivers, which fAil into the feai and what 
contributes to the fertility of this Und, Is the iiuml)«r of 
brobkS} thAt fall Into theAi rivers* 

This country nbounda with deer and other garnet 
buAViloes are rare t but it promKks great riches to fuch as 
Ihall Inhabit it, from the ejteellent ({ualitv of its lands* 
The Spaniards, who bound us on that Adc, are Jealous 
enough : but the great quantities of land they poAefs In 
America, have made them lofe Aght of fettling there, 
though acquainted therewith before us: however, they 
took fome fteps to traveri^ our defl^ne, when they faw 
we had fome thoughts that way. But they are not fettled 
there as yet ^ And who could hinder u« from making ad* 
vantegeous fettlements In that country f 

t refume the banks of the Mi/HAppl, above tht lakft^ 
and the lands above the Fork, which, as I l)ave fufllciently 

M a acquainted 


acquainted the reader, are none of the bed ; and I go up 
to Che north, in order to foUow (he (kme method I ob- 
lerved in deferilMng-the nature of the lands to theeaft. 

The banks of the MiiSfippi are of a fat and ftrong fdil ; 
but far lefs fubje£^ to inundations than the lands of the 
eaft. If we proceed a little way weftward, we meet land 
gradually rHing, and of an excellent quality ; and even 
meadows, which we might well affirm to be boundlefs, if 
they were not interfe£led by littlfe groves. Thefe meadows 
are covered with buffaloes and other gatne, Which live 
. there fo mucb the more peaceaMy, «s t^y aw neither 
. hunted by men, who never Irttquent f holb counftries ; nbf 
difquieted by wolves or tigers. Which keep tiiott to the 
north.. -■ ■ 

The country I have juft defcribed is fuch as 1 have re- 
prefented it, till we come to New Mexico : it rifes gently 
enbugh, near the Rrtl Ri\/er, which bounds it to the 
north, till we reach a high land, which was no more than 
■ Uteaffvir leagues in breadth, and in c:ertain places only a 
ie«lgu<i} k 4s almoft flat, having but fome eminences at 
Ibme cbnfideri^bk diftance from eadh other : we alfo meet 
Ibme mountains of a middling height, which appear to 
contain fomething more than bare &onc. 

This higjh land 'begins j(t fome leagues froni the Miffi- 

<J^, and do'ntirtucs fo ijuite to New Mexico ; it lowers 

tbwiards the 3led River, -by Hvihdings, where it is'diverfi- 

lied alterna^dy with meadows urtd ' woods. The top of 

this height, on the trohtrary, has feared any wood. A 

fine grafi ^rows between the ftones, which" are common 

T^&iere. The buffaloes ^bme to feed on this grafs, whea 

^''the raiiis drive them out x>f the plains ; otherwife they go 

fc%ut little Aither, betaufe they find ihere neither water, 

nof fahpeitre. 

We are to remaj-k, by the bye, that all cloven-footed 

<'«nim«ljare extremely fond of fait, and that Louifiana in 

general contains a great deal of faltpetre. And thus we are 




not to wonder, if the bufialo, the eUc, and the deer, have 
a greater inclination to foma certain places than to others, 
though they are there often hunted. We ought therefore 
to conclude, that there is more faltpetre in thofe places, 
than in fuch as they haunt but rarely^ This is what made 
me remark, that thefe animals, after their ordinary repaft, 
fail but rarely to go to the torrents, where the earth is cut, 
and even to the clay j which they lick, efpecially after 
rain, becaufe they there find a tafte of fait, which allures 
them thither. Moft of thofe who have made this remark 
imagine that thefe animals eat the earth ; whereas in fuch 
places they only go in queft of the fait, which to them is 
fo ftrong an allurement as to make them bid defiance 
to dangers in order to get at it. 

/ CHAP. V. 

^ality of the Lands of the Red River. Pojis of the Nacht- 
toches. A Silver Mine, Lands of the Black River. 

THE B^nks of the Red River, towards its confluence, 
are pretty low, and fometimes drowned by the in- 
undations of the Miffifippi } but above all, the north 
fide, which is but a marfhy land for upwards of ten 
leagues in going up to the Nachitoches, till we come to 
the Black River, which falls into the Red. This lail 
takes its name from the colour of its fand, w ich is red in 
feveral places : it is alfo called the Marne, a ame given it 
by fome geographers, but unknown in the country. Some 
call it thei River of the Nachitoches, becaufe they dwell 
on its banks : but the appellation. Red River, has re- 
mained to it. 

Between the Black Rivei* and the Red River the foil is 
but very light, and even fandy, where we find more firs 
than other trees } we alfo obferve therein fome marlhes. 
But thefe lands, though not altogether barren, if culti- 

M 3 vated. 



vated, would be none of the beft. I'hey continue Aich 
along the banks of the river, only to the rapid part of it* 
thirty leagues from the Miffifippi. This rapid part can- 
not jufily be called a fall i however, we can fcarce go up 
with oars, when laden, but muft land and tow« 1 ima- 
gine, if the waterman's pole was ufed, as on the Loire 
and other riven in Flrance, thi^ obftacle would be eafily 

The fouth fide of this river, quite ^o the rapid part, i| 
entirely different from the oppofite ftdc} it is fomething 
higher, and rifes in proportion as it approaches to the height 
I have mentioned } the qualitv is alfo very different. This 
land is good and light, and appears difpofed to receive all the 
culture imaginable, in which we may affuredly hope to 
fucceed. It naturally produces beautiful fruit trees and 
vines in plenty ; it was on that fide mufcadine grapes were 
found. The back parts have neater woods, and the mea- 
dows interfedled with tall forefts. On that fide the fruit 
trees of the country are common } above all, the hiccory 
and walnut-trees, which are fure indications of a good 

From the rapid part to the Nachitoches, the lands on 
both fides of this river fufficiently refemble thofe I have 
juft mentioned. To the left, in going up, there is a petty 
nation, called |he Avoyelles, and j^nown oi^ly for the fer- 
yices they have done the Colony by the horfes, oxen, and 
f ows they have brought from New Mexico for the fervice 
of the French in Louifiana. I am ignorant what view 
the Indians may have in that commerce : but I well know, 
that notwithflanding the fatigues of the journey, thefe cat- 
tle, one with another, did not come, after dedu6tf;ig all 
expenccs, and even from the fecond hand, but to about 
two piffoles a head } whence I ought to prefuine, that they 
have them cheap in New Mexico. By means of this na- 
tion we have in Louifiana very beautiful horfes, of the 
fpecies of thofe of Old Sp<iin, which, if managed or trained, 
people of the firft rank might ride. As to 'Iaz oxen and 


OF LbUiSlA'KAr ' 167 

cows, they are the fame as thofe of France, and both are 
at prefcnt very common in Louifiana. 

The fouth fide conveys into the Red River only little 
brooks. On the north flde, and pretty near the Nachi- 
toches, there is, as ii (aid, a fpring of water very fait, 
runniiig only four leagues. This fpring, as it comes out 
of the earth, forms a little river, which, during the heats; 
leaves fome fait on its banks. And what may render this 
more credible is, that the country whence it takes its 
rife contains a great deal of mineral fait, which difcovers 
itfelf by fevcral fprings of fait water, and by two (alt lakes, 
of which I (hall prefently fpeak. In fine, in going up we 
come to the French fort of the Nachitoches, built in an 
ifland, formed by the I^ed River. 

This ifland is nothing but fand, and that fo fine, that 
the wind' drives it like duft j fo that the tobacco at- 
tempted to be cultivated there at firft was loaded with it. 
The leaf of the tobacco having a very fine down, eafily 
retains this fand, which the leaft breath of air difFufes every 
where ; which is the reafon that no more tobacco is raifed 
in this ifland, but provifions only, as maiz» potatoes, 
pompions, &c. which cannot be damaged by the fands. a 

M. de St. Denis commanded at this place, where he 
infinuated himfelf into the good graces of the natives in 
fuch a manner, that, altho' they prefer death to flavery, 07 
even to the government of a fovereign, however mild, yet 
twenty or twenty-five nations were fo attached to his per- 
fon^ that, forgetting they were born free, they willingly 
furrendered themfelves to him ; the people and their Chiefs 
would all have him for their Grand Chief } fo that at the 
leaft (igtiily he could put himfelf at the head of thirty 
thoufand men, drawn out of thofe nations, which had of 
their own accord fubmitted themfelves to his orders; and 
$hat only by fending them a paper on which he drew th6 
ufual hieroglyphics that reprefent war among them, with 
a large leg, which denoted himfelf. This was ftill the 
moreiurprizing, as the greateft part of thefe people were 

M 4 on 


on the SpinUh ttrritoriei, and ought rather to have at* 
tached themfelves to them^ than to the French, if it had 
not been for the perfonal meriti of this Commander. 

At the diftance of feven leagues from the French Poft» 
the Spaniardt have fettled one, where they have refided 
ever fince M. dc la Motte, Governor of Louifikna, agreed 
to that fettlement. 1 know not by what fatal piece of po- 
licy the Spaniards were allowed to make this fettlement f 
but I know, that, if it had not been for the French, tha 
natives would never have fuflnered the Spaniards to fettle iti 
that place. 

However, feveral French were allured to this Spsinifti 
Ibttlement, doubtlefs imagining, that the rains which come 
from Mexico, rolled and brought gold along with them, 
which ¥fould coft nothing but the trouble of picking up. 
But to what purpofe f^rves this beautiful metal, but to 
make the people vain and idle among whom it is fo com^ 
mon, and to make them negledl the culture of the earth, 
which conftittttcs true riches, by the fweets it procures to 
man, and by the advantages it furniflies to commerce. 

Above the Nachitoches dwell the Cadodaquious, Whoft 
fcattered villages aiTume different names. Pretty near one 
of thefe villages wtt difcovered a filver mine, which Was 
found to be rich, and of a very pure metal. I have feen 
the alfay of it, an^ its ore is very fine. This filver lies 
concealed in fmall inviftble particles, in a ftone of ■ chef* 
nut colour, which is fpongy, pretty light, and eafily caU 
cinable : however, it yields a great deal more than it pro* 
mifes to the eye. The affay of this ore was made by a 
Portuguefe,who had worked at the mines of New Mexico^ 
whence he made his efcape. He appeared to be mafter 
of his buiinefs, and afterwards vifiied other mines farther 
north, but he ever gave the preference to that of the Red 
River, , 

This river, according to the Spaniards, takes its rift in 
32 degrees of north latitude j runs about fifty leagues 


or LOyiSIAKA** 1I9 

MTth-taft I fi>riB« threat dbow, ok wMioi t» tht uft | 
then proceeding thence fouth-eaft, at which place we be^ 
|in to know it, it comes and fallt into the Miflifippi, 
•^out 31*^ and odd minuiei. 

I faid above, that the Black River difcharget itfclf into 
the Red, ten leaguci above the confluence of thia Uft with 
the Miftflppi : we now proceed to refume that river, an4 
follow iu qou<(e, after having obfcrved, that the fifli of 
all thofe rivart which communicate with the MilBfippi, 
are the fame ai to fpecios, but far better in the Red and 
Black Riven, becauie their water is clearer and better 
than that of the Miflifippi, which they always quit witli 
pletfure. Theif delicate and finer flavour may alio ariiii 
from the nourifliaient they take in ^bofe rivers. 

The lands of which we are going to fpeak are to th« 
north of the R6i River. They may be diftinguiflied 
into twoparta ( which are to the right and left of the Black 
River, in going up to its fource, and even as far as tht 
river of the Arkanias. It is called the Black River, be* 
caufe its depth gives it that colour, which is, moreover, 
heightened by the woods which line It throughout the Co* 
lony. All the rivers have their banks covered witk 
woods { but this tivcr, which is very narrow, is almoft 
quite covered by the branches, and rendered of a dark co- 
lour in the flrft view. It is fometimes called the river of 
the Wachitas, becaufe its banks were occupied by a na« 
tion of that nime, who are now extindfc. I (hall continue 
to call it by its ufual name. 

The lands which wedireflly find on both fides are low, 
and continue thus for the fpace of three or four leagues, 
till we come to the fiver of the Taenfas, thus denominated 
frum a nation of that name, which dwelt on its banks. 
This river of the Taenfas is, properly fpeaking, but a chan- 
nel formed by the overflowings of the MiiHfippi, has its 
courfe almoft parallel thereto, and feparates the low lands 
from the higher. The lands between the Miffifippi and 
... the 


the river of tht TMnfkt arc the fame i»i in tht Lmrtr 

Tht finds we find in going up the Black River art 
nearly the fame, ai well for the nature of the foil, ai 
for their good qualitici. They are riftng groundii ex- 
tending in length) and which in general may be confl* 
4ered ai one very eKtenfive meadowi diverftfled with lil« 
the grovet, and cut only by the Blaclc River and little 
broekt> bordered with wood up to their fourcet. tiuflli* 
loci and deer are (ktn in whole herdt there. In approach- 
Ing to the river of the Arkantlis, deer and pheafanta be- 
gin to be very common i and the fame l^iei of game 
is found there, ai ii to the eaft of the Miflifippi i in like 
manner wood-f^rawberriet, fimplei, flowers, and mufh- 
roomi. The only difference is, that thii fide of the MifU- 
lippi it more level, there being no lands fo high and (m 
very different from the refl of the country. The woods 
are like thofe to the eaft of the MUfifippi, sno^pt (hat t« 
the wefl there are more walnut and h<ccor/ treeik 
Theft lafl are another fpecies of walniit, t^ie nuts of 
which are more tender, and invite to thefe parts a greater 
number of parrots. What we have juft faid, holds in 
general of this wefi fide | let us now confider what i* 
peculiar thereto. 




CHAP. vr. 

ABrttk •/ Salt fTattr : Sali Ltktu Landt $/ Ihi Rlwr tf 
tht Arkanfiis. Rid vtintd Marhtt: Slttt: Phjhr,^ 
Jfiunting tht Bujfkh, Thi dry Satid-kanki in ihi MiOU 

AFTER we htve gone up the Black River about 
thirty leaguesi we find to the left a brook of falc 
water, which comei from the weft. In going up thia 
brook about two leaguei, we meet with a lake of faU 
water, which may be two leaguei in length, by one in 
breadth. A league higher up to the north, we meet an- 
other lake of fait water, ^Imoft at long and broad as the 

This water, doubtlefs, pafles through fome mines of 
fait I it has the tafte of fait, without chat bitternefs of tht 
fea-water. The Indians come a great way off to thli 
place, to hunt in winter, and make fait. Before tht 
French trucked coppers with them, they made upon the 
fpot pots of earth for this operation : and they returne4 
home loaded with fatt and dry provifions. 

To the eaft of the Black River we obferve nothing that 
indicates mines } but to the weft one might affirm there 
fhould be fome, from certain marks, which might well 
deceive pretended connoifTeurs. As for my part, 1 would 
not warrant that there were two mines in that part of the 
country, which feems to promife them. I fliould rather 
be IcJ to believe that they are mines of fait, at no great 
depth from the furface of the earth, which, by their voia- 
tile and acid fpirits, prevent the growth of plants In thofe 

Ten or twelve leagues above this bi^ook is a creek, near 
which thofe Natchez retreated, who cfcaped being made 
(laves with the reft of their nation, when the MciTrs. Pe- 



ilev «xltrpited them on the et(l fitle of the river, hf ordef 
of the Court. 

The Bletk Rfver tnkei tti rife to the imrth-wi(l of iti 
confluence And pretty nrttr the river nf the Arkenfai, 
into which ralli t branch from thii ritii or foutee i by 
means nf which we may have a communication fVom the 
one to the other with a middling carriage. Thii commu- 
nication with the river of the Arkanfas ii ti|kWAn}(i of in 
hundred leagues fVom the Poll of that name. In other 
refiieiSlH this Black River might carry a boat throughout, 
K fleered of the wood fallen into lt» bed, whieh generally 
Iraverfei it fTom one ftde to the other. It reri&lves fome 
brooki, and abounds in excellent fi(h, and In alligators. 

\ make no doubt but thelb lands are very fit to hear and 
produce every thing that cfti» be cultivated with fticceft 
«n the en(i of the Milftfippl, oppoAte to this fide, enccpt 
the canton or quarter between the river of the Taenfas 
•nd the MifTtfippi \ that land, being fubje£t to inunda- 
lloni, would be proper only for rice. 

1 imagine we may nrtwpafs on tc the nortK of the river 
of the Arkanfiis, which tekes its rife in the mountains 
tdjotning to the ead of Santa F^. It afterwards goes up 
« little to the north, from whence It comes down to the 
fbuth, t little lower than its fource. In this manner it 
forms a line parallel almoft with the Red River^ 

That river has a catarafi or fall, at about an huAdred 
and fifty leAgties from its confluence. Before we come to 
this fall) we find a quarry of red-veined marble, one of 
flate, and one of pi after. Some travellers have there ob- 
ierved grains of gold in a little brdok : but as they hap- 
pened to be going in queft of a rock of emeralds, they 
deigned not to amufe themfelvcs with picking up parti- 
cles of gold. 

This river of the Arkanfas is ftored with fith i has a 
great deal of water) having a courft of two hundred and 


or LOUlBtAKA. 171 

thy teigUH, •tid tun cutty lurge tioats qulM !• lYie eiu^ 
fdt^. Iti b«nk§ are covtfrM with wnodi| mi kre ftll ihf 
otiier rWem nf thi» eourttry. Ih \h cdurft It rett^lvM 
(bvctrat htookn or riviil«Nt nf litttt; co»rtn}qu«Hr#| unldk 
we exeept thNt eiitled the Whl(^ Hlver, Mftd Whiell diPt 
chargeft itTetf thto Hte etffve br kltldw of thM w# irt 
<^eikihg af, kiftd below ttl fiN. 

In (lie whole trnQ north of thli Hv«r, W« find ptltffi 
that extend out of fighti Mfhlch are vaft meadowi, lt\Mm 
felled hy grovei» at no great dlftince from one another^ 
which are all tall woodi, where we might eaflly hunt thi 
ftag 1 great numhers of which, $* alfo of buffaloes, irl 
found here. Deer alfo are, very common. 

From haying feen thof^ anintaU frightened at the lenft 
noiO;, efpecially at the report of a gun, I have thought 
of a method to hunt them, in the manner tjie Spaniarda 
of New Mexico do, which would not fcare th^m at allf 
and which would turn to tj|t; gt-cat ndvantage of the Inha- 
bitant!, who have this game in plenty in their country. 
This hunting might be let about in winter, from the be- 
ginning of Oflober, when the meadows are burnt, till 
the month of February. 

This hunting is neither expenfive nor fatiguing : horfet 
are had very cheap in that country, and maintained almoft 
for nothing* £ach hunter is mounted on horfeback, and 
armed with a crefcent fomewhat open, whofe infide 
fhould be pretty (liarp ) the top of the outHde to have a 
focket, to put in a handle : then a number of people on 
horfeback to go in quell of a herd of bu^aloes, and Al- 
ways attack them with the wind in their backs. As foon 
AS they fmell a man, it is true, ihey run away) but at the 
Aght of the horfes they will moderate their fears, aftd 
thus not precipitate their flight ) whereas the report of a 
gun frightens them fo as to make them ruii at full fpeed. 
In this chace, the lighteft V^ould run fa(r enough j but 
the oldeil, and even the young of two or three years old, 



are fo fat^ that their weight would make th^m (oonht 
overtaken : then the armed hunter may ftrike the buffalo 
with his crefcent above each ham, and cut his tendons ; 
after which he is eafily maftcred. Such as never faV^r 
a bulfaloi.' will hardly betieve the quantity of fiit they 
yield :/bMtJt; ought to be confidered, that, continuing 
day and night in plentiful jnftures of the fined and moft 
delicious • grafs, they muft foon fatten, and that from 
the;ir youth. Of this we have an infbnce in a bull at the 
Natcnezy which was kept till he was two years old, and 
grevv fo fat, that he could ^ot leap on a cow, from his 
great weight i (o that we were obliged to kill him, and got 
nigh an liundred and fifty pounds of tallow from hirn. 
His neck was n^ar as big as his body. 

From vlrh^t I have faid, it may be judged what profit 
fuch liuqters ihight make of the fkirs and tallow of thofe 
buffaloes} the hides would be large, and their wool 
would be ftih an additional benefit. I may add, that 
this huntihg of them would not diminifh the fpecies, thofe 
fat 1)u^aloes being ordinarily the prey of wolves, as being 
too heavy to be able to defend themfelves. 

Befides, the wolves would not find their account in 
attacking theoi in herds. It is well known that the buf- 
faloes irange themfelves in a ring, the ftrongefl without, 
and the weakcft within. The flrong flanding pretty 
clofe together, prefent thei*- horns to the enemy, who 
dare not attack them in this difpofition. But wolves, 
like, all other animals, have their particular inftin6l, in 
CMrder to procure thdr neceffary food. They come fb 
near that the buffaloes fmell them feme way off, which 
makes them run for it. The wolves then advance with a 
pretty equal pace, till they obferve the fatteft out of 
breath. Thefe they attack before and behind j one of 
them feizes on the buffalo by the hind-quarter, and over- 
turns him| tii^ others flrangle him. 



i^n ^rhe wolves being many in « body, kill not what it 

fufEcient for one alone, but as many as they can, befooe 

they begin to eat. For this is the manner of the wolf, to 

'kill ten or twenty times more than he needs, efpecially 

'when he ckn do it with eafe, and without interruption* 

Though the country I defcribe has very «xtenfive 
plains, I pretend not to lay that there are ao rifii^ 
grounds or hills ; but they are nore rare there than clfe- 
where, efpecially on the weft fide. In approaching to New 
Mexico we obferve great hills and mountains, fome of 
which are pretty higli. ' 

I ought not to omit mentioning here, that from the low 
lands of JLouifiaiia, the Miffifippi has feveral fiioal banks 
of fand in it, which appear very dry upon the falling of 
the waters, after the inundations. Thefe banks extend 
more or lefs in length ; fome of them half a league, and 
not without a confiderable breadth. 1 have feen the Nat« 
chez, and other Indians, fow a fort of grain, which 
they called Choupichoul, on thefe dry fand-banks. This 
iand received no manner of culture x and the women and 
children covered the grain aoy how with their feet, with- 
40ut taking any great pains about it. ' After this fowingp 
and manner of culture, they waited till autumn, when 
they gafhered a great qumtity of the graiji. It was pre- 
pared like millet, and very good to eat. Thispjantis 
what is called Belle Dame Sauvage *, which thrives In 
all countries^ but requires a good foil: and whatever 
^od quality the foil in Europe may have, it fhoots but a 
foot and a half high ; and yet, on this (and of the Mi0i- 
fippi, it rifes, without any culture, thtee feet and a half* 
and four feet high. Such is rh.e virtue of this faod all up 
theMi^ppi; o^r, to fpeak more prcpefly, for the whole 
length of it& cduiTe ; if we except the accumulated earth 
of the Lower Louifiana, acrofs which it paiTes, and where 
• it cannot leave any dry fand4>anks j becaufe it is ftrait- 

* H« fttini to mean flvck*w)iciit. 


»M«^ #(thth tti t)iHk»i whtcH the HvtHr itMt t«ifl)i» tnil 

th ill the gh)\hes And llhle tbttfts t liAv^ ttieHt!attetl» 
""^ which Itti to the horih of the Atkdtiniii pheininti, 
|)At^vtd|;lli t\Upes) knd wobtlcocksi Aire lit llkch gteiit 
M^m%«r«, thit thbn^ who tt»^ moft rdnd bf thii gtme^ 
lft(ght VftAljr Iktiiiry thiii^ h)rtgiti|i ttl «llb etet-y othl^r 
tpii:M bf ]g;AHt«« BmAil hfhil Ahs ftitl va(tl| more nil- 


. t 



C H A P. Vtf* 

HW £ff>»^ dfi^ River St* l^t-AHcts. M>r^ tf MuMHiej^, 
itx«r^M^,illtH^h A Lhd Mifie* Jl j^ Sunt refia/th^tHf 
Jhirhhm, Lti^s */ ^^ MlltbufL TO ti>H«/^ WftA «/ 
f/^WAWh<^. <%i;rf^<fjtf/r^tllliiot<. DeUMothe*! 

THIRTY leagues ?»V^ 'the Hvt»»- bf the Atkanflit, to 
th« no^th) Mil) \r)ii the fume Ht of Ihe MilAflpitfi 
Uhiltnd the rtvtr Sh l^^rthett; 

\ TheUnds At^btnbg to It fttt ;^lw»yk toverdl with herds 
'# h\il!^dloes, iiotw,ith(iAHt}liig they are, huntej every 
Winter '\\\ thofe |)iir^s : for it is t^ tnil rlver^ that Is, In 
its neighbourhood^ thftt the ^"^rench ftnd CunAdiins go 
iAd make their foU prnvifionslbr the inhabitants of the 
tA{kital) and of the neighbouring plantationsi in which 
they are afttl^ec! by the native Arkanfasi whom they hire 
Ifor that purpofe* When they are upon the l^ot, they 
thufe « tree fit to make a pettyaugrc, which fervts for n 
tasting or i)owdering-tub in the midillet and is clofed at 
the two endsi where only is letV room for a man at each 
extremity. I 

The trees they choofe are ordinarily the poplar, which 
giM)W on the banks of the water. It is a white wood, 
fofk and bindin^b The pettyaugres might be made of 



•thrf Woottt bectiu(b TutH Hre to be had pretty Iflfge ) bttt 
either too heavy For pettyaugffs, or too apt to f))lit. 

The ll^etles of wodd In thii part of Loulflarm Is tall 
oik I the fields abound with four Ibrts of walnut, ef^e- 
tially the black kltid ^ ib talN« becaufti it is of « dark 
browH colour, bordei'tttg on black \ thli fort groWi vety 

There are belldes fruit trees In this country, and It l« 
there we begin to find commonly Pap^tws. We have alio 
here other trees of every fpecies, more or lellt, according 
as the foil is favourable. I hefe lands In general are fit tv 
produce every thing the low lands can yield, except rice 
and indigo. But in return, wheat thrives there extremely 
well ! the vine is found «*very where i the mulberry-tree 
is in plenty } tobacco gl-ows line, and of a good tjualityi 
as do cotton and garden plants : fo that by leading an 
eafy and agreeable life in that country, we may at tht 
fame time be fure of a good return to France. 

The land which lies between the JVlifflfippI and tht 
river St. Francis, is full of rifing ground!, and mountains 
of a middling height, which, according to the ordinary 
indications, contain Jeveral mines: fome of them have 
been aflayed ) among the feft, the mine of IVtarameg, on 
the little river of that name ) the other mines appear not 
to b*" lb rich, nor fo eafy to be worked. There are fomt 
lead mines, and others of copper, as is pretended. 

The mine of Marameg, which is filver, is pretty near 
the confluence of the river which gives it name) which 
is a great advantage to thofe who would work it, becaufe 
they might eaftly by that mtana have their goods frort» 
Europe, tt Is fituate about five hundred leagues from tht 

t fliall continue on th« wefl: fide of the Mlfllfippl, and 
to the north of the famous river of MilTouri, which wf 
•re now to crofs. This river takes Its rife at eight hun** 
drcd leagues diftance, as is aliedgcd, from the place whers 

N it 

. I7« T H E H I S T O R V 

it difcharges itfelf into ^he Miffifippi. Its waters are 
muddy, thidc^ and charged with nitre; and thefe are the 
waters that mak« the MifTiCippi muddy down to the fea, 
its waters being extremely clear atove the confluence of 
the Miflburi : the reafon is, that the former rolls its waters 
over a fand and pretty firm foil ; the latter, on the con- 
trary, flov^s acrofs rich and clayey lands, where little ftone 
is to be feen ; for though the Miflburi comes out of a 
mountain, Which lies to the north-weft of New N^^xico, 
we are told, that all the hnis it paffes through art gene- 
rally rich; that is, low meadows, and lands without 

This great rlvfer, which fecms ready to difpute the pre- 
eminence with the Mi/^fippi, receives in its long courfe 
many rivers and brooks, w^iich confiderably aug.nent its 
waters. But except thofe that have received their names 
from fome nation of Indians who inhabit their banks, 
there afe very few of their names we can be well aflured 
of, each traveller giving them different appellations. The 
French hiving penetriited up the Miflburi ohly for kbout 
three hxindr'ed leagues at moft, and the rivers which fall 
into its bed Wi'ng only known by the Indians, it is of lit- 
tle rmportancT^ What names thcy may bear at prefent, beihg 
Ibendes in a country but little frequented. Th6 river 
which is the beft known fs that df the Ofages, (O called 
from a nation of that name, dwelling on its banks. It 
falls into '^t A^fffoiiri, pnetty near its confluence. 

The largiefft known river which falls into the Mifj[buri, 
is fhat of ihb Canzas ; Which runs for near two hundred 
leagues iti a very fine country. According to What I 
liave beten able to learn about the courfe of this great 
riv^er, Yi-ohiitsVbtfrce to theCatnias, it runs from weft to 
eaft ; and from that nation it falls down to the fouthward, 
where it receives thfe river of the Canzas, which comes 
from ^ W€!ft ; there it forms a great elbow, which ter- 
minates lA tihe neighbourhood of the Mi^uris } then it 

a . refumcs 



refumes its courfe to the fouth^eaft, to lofe at laft both its 
name and waters in the MiQifippiy about four leagues 
lower down than the rivax of the Illinois. 

There wa^ a French Poll for Tome time in an ifland a 
few leagues in length, overagainft the MifTouris ; the 
Frenth fettled in t^is fort at the eaft.point, and called it 
Fort Orieans. M. de Bourgmont .commanded there a 
fuffcient time to gain the friendfliip of the Indians of the 
countries adjoining to this great river. He brought about 
a peace among all thofe nations, who before his arrival 
were all at war ; the nations to the north being more war- 
like than thofe to the fouth. 

After the departure of that commandant, they mur- 
dered all the garrifon, not a fingle Frenchman having 
efcaped to carry the news : nor could it be ever known 
whether it happened through the fault of the French, or 
through treachery. 

As to the nature of that country, I refer to M. de 
Bourgmont*s Journal, an extract from which I have given 
above. That is an original '^ccbunt, figned by all the 
officers, and feveral others of the company, which I 
thought was too prolix to give at full length, and for that 
reafon I have only cxtra^cd from it what relates to the 
people and the quality of the foil, and traced out the 
route to thofe who have a mind to make that journey ; 
and ev«n this we found neceflary to abridge in this tranf- 

Iiii this journey of M. de Bourgmont, mention is on^ 
made of what we meet with from Fort Orleans, from 
which we fet out, in order to go to the Padoucas : where- 
fore I ought to fpeak of a thing curious enough to be rcr 
lated, and which is found on the banks of the MifTouri ; 
and that is, a pre;tty high cliiF, upright from the edge of 
the water. From the middle of this clifF juts out a mafs 
of red fton6 with white fpots, like porphyry, with this 
difference, that what we are fpeaking of is almofl foft 

N 2 ' and 



tnd tender* like nrnd-nnne^ tt U covered with nnothef 
fort df (tone of no vntiiet the bottom is an r;\rth, like 
that on other rifing grounds. Thii (tone fn eii(^)y worked^ 
and bcttri the mo(i violent fire. The Indians of the coun- 
try have tontrivcd to ftrike oft* piecei thereof with their 
arrows, and aOer they fall in the water plungo for thtm. 
When they can procure pieces thereof litrge enough to make 
pipes, they fadiion them with knives and «wl9k Thli pipe 
has a focket two or three inches long* and on the oppoTite 
Ade the figure of a hatchet i in the middle of all is th0 
boot, or bowl of the pipe, to put the tobacco in» I'heH* 
fort of pipes are highly elleemed among them» 

All to the north of the MifTouri is entirely unknown, 
unlefs wc give credit to the relations of different travrU 
lers t but to tv'^ich of them (hall we give the preference f 
In the firft pbce^ they almoft all contradii^t each other : 
and then, men of the mod experience treat them as im^ 
po(Vors ) and therefore t chooRs io pay no regard to any uf 

Let us therefore now reptfs th« Miftifippi, U\ order to 
rcfume the defcription of the lands to the ea(t, and which 
we quitted at the river Wabachc. This river is diftant 
from the fea four hundred and fixty (three hundred) 
leagues ^ it is reckoned to have four hundred leagues in 
length, from its Iburce to iti confluence into the Miflitippl. 
h is called VVabache, tltough, according to the ufual 
method, it ought to be called the Ohio, or Beautiful 
River) feeing the Ohio is known under that name in 
Canada, before \tt confluence was known: and as the 
Ohio takes its rife at a greater diftance o(F than the three 
others, which mix together, before they empty thcmfelves 
into the Miffilippi, this (hould make the others lofe their 
names \ but cullom has prevailed on this occafton *. The 
ftrft river knnwn to us, which falls Into the Ohio, is 
that of the Miamis, which takes its rife towards lake 


* But not imong tht Englilh ( wt tall (t the OMo* 

nr LOUISIANA. i8t 

tt ii hy thia river nf the Minmiii that the CutlAttinns 
come to Lntiifiann. For this purpof^ they ehiburk on the 
riv«r St. Liiircnrc, go up thi$j river, pnl^ the ttturaifls 
quite to the bottom of LntteKH^, where they fiott « finull 
river, on which they nlfo go up to « place called the Cnf^ 
riage of the Mitimis i becaulb that people come and takv 
ihcir cfl*e£ls, and carry them on their back* for two 
leagues from thence to the banki of the river of their 
name, which 1 juft fuid empties itfelf into the Ohio* 
From thence the Canadians ao down that river, enter the 
Wnbachc, and at lafl the Miflifippi, which brings them 
to New Orleans, the capital of Louifiana. They reckon 
eighteen hundred leagues * from the capital of Canada to 
that of Louifiana, on account of the great turns and 
windings they are obliged to take. 

The river of the Miamis is thus the firft to the north, 
which falls into the Ohio ; then that of the Chanuanont 
to the fouth t and laAly, that of the Cherakees) all 
which together empty themfelvcs into the Miflifippi. 
This is what we call the Wnbache, and what in Canada 
and New England they call the Ohio. This river is 
beautiful, greatly abounding in HOi, and navigable almoft 
up to itafource. 

To the north of this river lies Canada, which inclines 
more to the eaft than t|ie fource of the Ohio, and extends 
to the country of the Illinois. It is of little importance 
to difpute here about the limits of thefe two neighbour^* 
ing colonies, as they both appertain to France. I'he 
lands of the Illinois are reputed to be a part of Louifiana | 
we have there a poft near a village of that nation, called 

The country of the Illinois is extremely good, and 
abounds with buffalo and other game. On the north of 
the Wabache we begin to fee the Ori^naux } a fpecies of 
animals which are faid to partake of the bufTulo and the 

N 3 ftagj 

* Jt li but i)ln« hundred leigutit 


ftdgi they htve, indeed, been defcribed to me to be 
much more clumiy thtin the Adg. Their horni have 
fomething of the ft«g, but are (horter and more many | 
the meat of them, ai they fay, is pretty good* Swans 
and other water-Fowl are common in thefe countriei. 

The Fiienth Poft of the Illinois is, of all the eoldny, 
that in which with the greated eafe they grow Wheati 
rye, ortd other like grain, for the fowing of which you 
need only to turn the earth in the flighted; manner \ that 
flight culture in (Uffiicient to make the earth produce A» 
much as we can reafonably defire* t hav« been afl\ired| 
that in the lafl war, when the flour from France was 
fcarce, th« Illinois Cent down to New Orleans upwards 
of eight hundmi thoufand weighi thereof in one winter. 
Tobacco alfo thrives there, but comes to maturity with 
difficulty. All the plants tranfported thither from France 
(uccced well, as do alfo the fruits* 

In thofe countries there is a river, which takes its 
name from the Illinois. It was by thi* river that the firft 
travellers came from Canada into the Miflifippi. Such ai 
come from Canada, and have bufinefs only on the Ilii* 
nois, pafs that way yet : but fuch as want to go dircdtly 
to thfi fca, go down the river of the Miamis into the 
Wabache, or Ohio, and fi-cm thence into the Mifliftppi. 

In this country there are mines, and one in particular^ 
called De la Mothers mine, which is filvcr, the aflay of 
which has been made ; as alfo of two lead-mines, fo rich 
at ftrft as to vcgetatci or Ihoot a foot and a half at lead 
out of the earth. 

The whole continent north of the fiver of the Illinois 
is not much frequented, confequcntly little known. Tht 
great extent of Louifiana makes us prci'ume, that thefe 
prtrts will not foon come to our knowledge, unlefs fome 
curious pcrfon (hould go thither to open mines^ whcra 
they ate laid to be in great numbers, and very rich, 


c~ r 

or li ours I AN A. 



C tl A P. VIII. 

Of the jfgrletiltttret or Manner 9f cuhivatingt orderut^^ and 
manu/aJluting the Commtdities that ate proper jfriielei sf 
C*mmerce» Of the Culture of Malt, Kicc, and ilher 
fmts ef the Country* Of the Silk-worm. 

IN order to give an aecount of the feveral forts of plant! 
cultivated in Louifiana, I begin with Mai^^ as being 
(he moft ufcAil grain, feeing it is the principal food of 
the people of America, and that the t^rench found it cul- 
tivated by the Indians. 


Mai«, which in France we call Turkey corn, (and we 
Indian-corn) is a grain of the ftze of a pea ) there is of 
It as large as our fugarpea : it grows on a fort of hufks, 
(Qiicnouille) in afcendihg rows: fome of thefe hulks have 
to the number of fcven hundred gruins upnn them, and 1 
have counted even to a greater ntimber. This hufk may 
be about two inches thick, by I'cven or eight inches and 
upwards in length : it is wrapped up in feveral covers or 
thin leaves, which fcreen it from the avidity of birds. 
Its foot or ftalk is often of the fame fixe: it has leaves 
about t^yo inches and upwards broad, by two feet and a 
half long, which are chaiielled, or formed like gutters, 
by which they coHei^t the dew which diflblves at fun- 
rifin*. and trickles down to the ftalk, fometimcs in fuch 
plenty, as to wet the earth around them for the breadth of 
fix or feven inches. Its flower is on the top of the ftalk, 
which is fometimes eight leet high. We ordinarily find 
five or fin cars on each ftalk, and in ofder to procure a 
greater crop, the part of the i^alk above the ears ought to 
be cut away. 

For fdwing the Mai» In a field already cleared and pre- 
pared, hotea are made four feet afunder every way, ob« 
ferving to make the rowa as ftraight ai may be, in order 
to Wt^ them the eaficr : into every hole five or fix grains 

N 4 are 


■re put, which are previoufly to be (leeped for twenty^ 
four hourt at leaft, fo make them rife or (hoot the quicker^ 
and to prevent the fox and birds from eating fu9h quai\« 
titles of them : by day there are people to Ruard them 
agninft birds} by night fires are made at proper diftances 
to frighten away the fox, who would otherwife turn up 
the ground, and eat the corn of all the rows, one after 
linother, without omitting one, till he has his fill, and ii 
therefore the mofl pernicious animal to this corn. The 
corn, as foon as fhot out of the earth, is weeded ; when 
It mounts up, and its ftalks are an inch big, it is hilled, 
to fecure it againft the wind. This grain produces enough 
for two negroes to make fifty barrels, each weighing an 
Iiundred and fifty pounds. 

Such as begin a plantation in woods, thick fet with 
cane, have an advantage in the Maiz, that makes amends 
for the labour of clearing the ground » ^ labour always 
more fatiguing than cultivating a fpot already cleared^ 
The advantage is this : they begin with cutting (]ow() the 
franes for a great extent of ground ; the trees they pee| 
tWo feet high quite round : this operation is performed it\ 
the beginning of March, as thep the fap is in motion in 
that country : about fifteen days after, the cane^, being 
dry, are fet oi| fire ; the fap of the trees are thereby n^ade 
fo defcend, apd the branches ;^re burnt, which kills the 

On the following day they few the corn in the manner 
J have juft (hewn : the roots of th^* cane, which are not 
quite dead, (hoot frefh canes, which rre very tender and 
brittle } and as no other weeds grow in the field that year» 
it is eafy to be weeded of yiefe canes, and as much cori^ 
again may be mad?, as in a field already cultivated. 

This grain they cat in many difFerent ways r the moft 
common way is to make it into Sagamity, which is a 
kind of gruel made with water, or ftrong broth. They 
^ake bread of it like cakes (by baking it over the fire 



fit an iron pUte, or on a board before the lire,) wrhkh 
is much better than what they bake in the oven, at 
Icaft for prefcnt ufe j but you muft make it every day | 
and even then it is too heavy to foak in foup of any kind. 
They llkewifc make Parched Meal * of it, which ii a 
di(h of the natives, as well as the Cooedlou, or breal 
mixt with beans. The ears of corn roafted are likewife 
a peculiar difli of theirs \ and the fmall corn drelTed in 
that manner is as agreeable to us as to them. A light and 
black earth agrees much better with the Maiz than a ftron^ 
and, rich one. 

The Parched Meal is the befl; preparation of this corn } 
the French like it extremely well, no lefs than the Indi^ 
ans themfelves : I can affirm that it is a very good food, 
and at the fame time the beft fort of provifton that can be 
carried on a journey, becaufe it is refrefliing and extremely 

As for the fmall Indian corn, you riiay fee an account 
of it in the firft chapter of the third Book } where you 
will likewife find an account of the way of fowing 
wheat, which if you do not obferve, you may as weU 
fow none. 

Rice is fown in a foil well laboured, either by the 
plough or hoe, and in winter, that it may pe fowed 
before the time of the inundation. It is fown in furrowt 
of the breadth of a hoe : when (hot, and three or four 
inches high, they let water into the furrows, but in a 
fmall quantity, in proportion as it grows, and then give 
water in greater plenty. 

The ear of this grain nearly refembles that of oats ^ 
its grains are faftened to a beard, and its chaiF is very 
rough, and full of thofe fine and hard beards : the bran 
adheres not to the grain, as that of the corn of France ; 
it confifl^ of two lobes, which eafily feparate and loofen» 
and are therefore readily cleaned and broke off. 


• See Book III. Chap. 4. 


thtf 9At their rie« ti they ilo in Fii«Hc#t hit MM 
tlisith thicker, iini! wHh much left cbnkfry» ulthmigh it 
fa not inferior in gortdheft tn tmrs : thty ohiy wiifti it in 
WArm Wftter, takfii out wf the fume not ymi ure to holl It 
l)»t then ihtnw it in nit At mir^ itnd hnil it titt it burfti, 
tn^ To ft i^ d^elfetl withrtiit any fViither twublc. They 
ihftk^ hrcAd or it thdt is very white ami of a good relifh ) 
but they have tried in vain to make any that will (bak in 

The culture of the Wtttcr-melon in Ample enough, 
They choofe for the purpol'e a light Toil, as that of i» 
tlAng ground, well expofed : they make holes in the 
tarth, Rom two and a half to three feet in diameter, and 
fiifbnt fVom each other fifteen feet every way, in each of 
which holes they put five or fix feeds. When the feeds 
ire tome up, and the young plftntu have ftruck out five 
©r fix leaves, the four mort thriving plants are pitched 
Upon^ and the others plucked up to prevent their ftnrving 
itch other, when too numerous. It is only at that time 
that they have the trouble of watering them, nature alone 
l^erfbrming the re(V, and briitging them to maturity; 
which is known by the green rind beginning to change 
colour; There is no occafion to cut or prune them. 
The other fpecies of melons arc cultivated In the fame 
manner, only that between the liolea t|)e diftauce ii but 
live or fix feet. 

All forts of g->rden plants and greens thrive eKtremely 
well in Louifiana, and grow in much greater abundance 
than in France : the climate is warmeri and the foil much 
better. Howevei-) it is to be obferved, that onions and 
other bulbous plants anfwer not in the low lands* with- 
out a great deal of pains and labour \ whereas in the high 
grounds they grow very large and of a fine flavour. 

Tht inhabitant! of Louifiana may very eaAly make 
Silk, having mulberries ready at hand, which grow n|itu- 
rallyin the highlands, and plantations of them may beeafily 


or rnuiaiAN-A. #f^ 

m«d(*. The Icmvi*! of the ntttiiril mitthe^ri^f «if 1,nu]H* 
nm ire what the fiHi^wrtrttfi «re Very fnhd nf) 1 me«ti 
thr nmre roinmon miilherrici with a large iMf, bttt tunStt^ 
and the fruit of the colour of Uurgundy wine. The prti-* 
vince prbducei ilfu the White Miilherry, whkh has th# 
fame quality with the red. 

Ifhiill iiett reHte tome rxfirrlmenti* thrtthateheen mttJ« 
on thii ruhjedt, hy people who were rtet|ualnted with It. 
Madam Hiihert, H native of Provence, where they mallfl 
II great deal r>f fillr, which /he nnderftood the martage- 
ttierit of, was defirouii of trying whether they eould ralfe 
filk-worms with the ttiulberry letvci of this province, 
and what fort of flik they would afford. The firft of her 
expt-rimehti wa^, to give fome large fitk- worms a parcel 
•f the leaven bf the Red Mulberry, and another parcel of 
the White Mtilberry both upon the fame frame. She ob- 
ferved the worms went over the leaVija of both forta, with- 
out (hewing any greater liking to the one than tn the 
other : then (hk put to the other two forti of leavefi fome 
of the leavdi of the White-fweet or Sugar-Mulberry, and 
Ihe found that the worms left the other forts to go to ihefe^ 
«nd that thev preferred them to the leaves of the common 
Red and White Mulberry *, 

The fecond experiment of Madam Hubert was, to ralfe 
and fefed (bmt filk-Wdrms f^parately. To fOfVte fhe gave 
the leaves of the common White Mulberry, AhA to bfhtifa 
the leaves of the White flugar^Mulberry j In order to fee 
the difference of the (ilk from the difference uf their food. 
Moreovei, fhe raifed and fed fome of the native ftlk- 
worms of the country, which were taken very y^iung fj'om 
-the mulberry-trees ; but (he obferved that thefe laff were 
very flighty, and did nothing but run up and down, their 
nature being, without doubt, to live upon trees : Ihe then 
changed their place, that they might not tmtc with the 


* See ail account of thcfe different finti of Mulberry, in <he notel at 
ikt in<t of thii Volume. 


other worms that came from France, and gave them Kttio 
branches with the leaves on them« which made them m 
little more fettled. 

This induftrious lady waited till the cocoons were per« 
t^\y made, in order to obferve the difference between 
them in unwinding the filk; the fucce(^ of which, and 
of all her other experiments, {he was fogood as to give me 
a particular account of. When the cocoons were ready to 
be wound, Ihe took care of them herfelf, and found that 
the wild worms yielded lefs filk than thofe from France ; 
for although they were of a larger fize, th^y were not fo 
well furniihed with filk, which proceeded, no doubt, 
from their not being fuificlently nourifhed, by their run-^ 
ning inceflantly up and down ; and accordingly (he ob- 
ferved that they were but meagre; but notwithftanding^ 
their filk was ftrong and thick, though coarfe. 

Thofe who were fiod with the leaves of the Red Muf- 
berry made cocoons well furnilhed with filk i which \n^ 
ftronger and finer than that of France. Thofe that were 
fed upon the leaves of the common White Mulberry, had 
the dune filk with thofe that were fed on the leaves of tko 
Jted Mulberry. The Iburth fort, again, that had been 
fed with the leaves of the White Sugar-Mulberry, had 
but little filk; it was indeed as « fine as the preceding, 
h^iit was ib weak and fo brittle, that it was with great 
difficult they could wind it. 

Thefe are the experiments of this lady on filk-worms^ 
nlfhi^h every one may make his own ufes of, in< order to 
have the forts of filk, mulberries, or worms, that are moil 
fuitable to his purpofev and muft likely to turn to his 
account^ which we are very glad of this opportunity to 
inform them of, that they may fee how much fociety owes 
to thofe perfons who take care to ftudy nature, in order 
t<^ promote induftry and public utility. 





•J jii 

Of Indigo, Tobacco, Cotton, Wax, Hops, ami Saffron. 

THE high lands of Louiiiana produce a natural In- 
digo : what I faw in two or three places where I 
have obferved it, grew at the edges of the thick woodsj 
which (hews it delights in a good, but light (oil. One of 
the(e (talks was but ten or twelve, inches high, its wood 
at leaft three lines in diameter, and of as fine a green as 
its leaf; it yn^ as tender as the rib of a cabbage leaf j 
when its head was blown z little, the two other ftalkt 
(hot in a few days, the one feventeen, the other nineteen 
Inches high ; the ftem was fix lines thick below, and of 
a very lively green, and ftill very tender, the lower part 
only began to turn brown a little ; the tops of both were 
equally ill furni(hed with leaves, and without branches ; 
which makes it to be prefumed, that being fo thriving 
and of To fine a growth, it would have (hot very high, 
and furpafs in vigour and heighth the cultivated Indigo. 
The (blk of the Indigo, cultivated by the French at 
the Natchez, turned brown before it (hot eleven or 
twelve inches ; when in feed it was five feet high and up* 
wards, and furpafTed in vigour what was cultivated in the 
Lower Louifiana, that is, in the quarter about New Or* 
leans ; but tbe natural, which I had an opportunity of 
feeing only young and tender, promifed to become much 
taller and ftouter than ours, and to yield more. 

The Indigo cultivated in Louifiana comes from the 
eflands ; its grain is of the bignefs of one line, and about 
a quarter longer, brown and hard, flatted at the extremi* 
ties, becaufe it is comprefled in its pod. This grain is 
fown in a foil prepared like a garden, and the field where 
it is cultivated is called tbe Indigo-garden. In order to 
fow it, holes are made on a ftraight line with a fmall 
hoe, a foot afunderj in each hole four or five feeds art 



put» which are covered with fcarth | great care is had tioC 
to fufitr any ftrange plants to grow near it, which would 
choak it t and it is fown a foot afunder, to the end It 
may draw the (Vttler nourifliment, and be weeded without 

f racing or ruflling the leafi which is that whirh jtlvat ih^ 
ndigo* When Tti leaf ti quite come iio its ihape, it 
tefeniblei exaflly that of the Acacia, fo well known In 
France* only that it ii Imaller. 

It is tut with larg« |N-uii»ng^knives, or a fort of fickleti 
with about Ak or fcven ioohei apcrturei which Ihould be 
pretty ftrahg» It ougltt t« hn cut before jti wood hard* 
end' I and to be green as iM leaf, which «)Ught| however^ 
to have a blueifti eye «hr caA^ When cut it ii conveyod 
into the rotting-tub, as we lliall pretl^itly explairt. Ac- 
cording as the foil ia better or worfe, it (hoots higher or 
lower I the tuft of the (ir(^ cutting* whkh grows rounds 
does not exceed eight inches in hcighth and breadth : the 
(econd cutting rifes fometimcs to a foot» In butting the 
Indigo ^'ou afe ito fet yt>ur foot upon the root, in order to 
prevent the pulling k out of the earth ) and to be upon 
your guard not to cut yourfclf, as the tool ii dangerous. 

In btrder to Aiake an lAdi^^work, a (hcd Is fii'fl of alt 
to ht built t th|!< building is at leaft twenty feet high, 
without walls or flooring, but only cowrod. The whol6 
Is built upon pofVs, wliith ttiay be clofed with mats, if 
you plMfti this building has twenty feet In breadth, and 
Kt kaft thirty In length* In this fhcd three vats or large 
tubs are (Ist Ih fVich a tnaninei^, that the water niay be eaftty 
drained off from the itrf^i which, is the lowermoft and 
fmallefl^k The fecoiid refls with the edge of its bottom oa 
the upper edge of the firft, fo that the water may eafily 
run from it into the one bdow. This rconnd vat is not 
broader b\kt deeper than the firft, and is called the fiat«> 
«ery i lor this reafon it Hi* {t* beaters, which are Little 
buckets formed of (bur ends of boards, about eight inohce 
longy vi^ich together have the figure of the hopper of a 


or LOUIStAKA. 1^ 

fnill ) a ftick rum Kcrofa them, which ii put Into t wooden 
fork, ill order to beat the Indigo : thett «re two of them 
toll each Add, which in ail make four. 

The third vat is placed in the fame manner ovar tht 
fecond, and ii as big again^ that it may hold the Icavea $ 
it is called the Rotting-tub, becaufe the leaves which aft 
put into it are deadened, not corrupted or fpollcd theraiii. 
The Indigo-operator^ who conducts the whole wor]^ 
knows when it is time to let the water into the (econ4 
vat ) then he lets go the cock ; for if the leaves were left 
too bng, the Indigo would be too black ) it muft have no 
tnore time than what is fufHeient to difchtirge a kind of 
flower or froth that Ii fbund upbn the leaf. 

The wateri when It is all In the Aicond vat, is beat till 
the tndigo- operator gives orders to ceafei whi<:h he doet 
not before he has Ceveral times taken up fome of this 
water with a filver cup, by way of allay, In order to 
know the exadt time in which they ought to give over 
beating the water : and this Is a fecret which practice 
alone can teach with certainty. 

When the Indigo-operator finds that the water is fulfil 
cicntly beaten, he lets it fettle till he can draw off the 
water clear ) Which is done by means of feveral cocks one 
above another, for fear of lofmg the Indigo. For thie 
purpofe, if the water is clear, the higheft cock is opened, 
the fecond In like manner, till the ^ater is obferved to be 
tinged } then they fhut the cock : the fame is done in alt 
the cocks till all the Indigo be in a pap at the bottom Of 
the fecond vat. The firfl:, or fmall vat, ferves only to 
purify the water which is found to be tinged, and let run 
while clear.. 

When the Indigo is well fettled, they put it In elorh 
bags a foot long and fix inches wide, with a fiiHill circle 
at top, which helps to receive the Indigo with eafe j it i« 
fuftcr«d to drain lill it gives no more water : however, 

[\\ ns^H \\) \\A\>* k\w iv«hI^ k\w\f rtirt^v It irt m\ ii^ (il 

^^v^Ht^^ l\^«t wt tt^^ IWt Hl^h, i»tt*t^iillM| tn the »|uiillt^ w^ 

l^l\tK^ lU ti^ViilUUAi AHtl bf A9 l^m) A t^aAltt)^ At lt»t\(l rt!( 

Jh tht» IttftiuUi 

i\)^Act<rt| Vvhtt^h Wft* I\h»Hi1 ftmWHft th« tlultAHl ttt tittUl- 

^M\As tWmi «llU t« ^p A HAUvfe bi the ttuiHti^yi i^lHg 
th^'tv «vwrl\r»\t tvttt^ltlwH h\ft>»m« w»i thdt l^tim tlm^i lmm«- 
)\\ts\\$\ th*y hAMp^ l« theU tH»tttle« ttl' iiertt'e ttiul In i\\tW 
^\^H'(^n% \\M \)\^ tNi^^» th^ t>tl»\tl|^Al un» Hf which Is 
Vh<\t tht* ^^\^yuN thftil s\!l llwrtb tht^t^hu Thin HrtthI 
i\^hAtt*H \% \^s\ \A\p \ ItH Mits wht»iv i\»rtV»t^l tw m\ t«* 
th>^^ tt^v^*^t^ t*^ m^ mk t\\\\ a hrtll' m^ Ilk IV?t i tht* In^^Pi- 
t^AHt^r Iti rt^m l» At iHl^ i^lfthtt^^^ ll»\fn 111 illftHi^tvi', Ahtl It* 
Wwi viVfn wnY twtt iv»*t l^^j^fei whith m thifit ttwt'i t\it'^ 
t«t\Pttt \ \n )\\W^ \% ^\m^s \s\\k \\n^)t tillbuJ^tn thi» h^Atl. 
t1\tft t\>t^Attrt t>r Vl^^gi^^lA hAi A hwAil^fi- hvit tt^«mt I^^Ati 
iM rt*\k il WmWtvs M^ \m% httt w}^ ^ hbh i Itii t\m\\ li 
wvst v^l!^!¥*Ahtis tiwt \m h rthi»i^ t It mn mm i^lrtiui 

^ Wftttt A pm\«\i» l^«^AWli* lt!< Iti^f II thlHH*!'^ AHtl Hwt IH 
|\\tl \rtt Ikp A* »h^ «*tU t^. WhAt U tultlVAti*^ IH the I MVt^k 

V.m\Um U i\waII<p^^ m'ii \m tb tti-rtrtft i h\it \\m \m\\<> In 
ih« IftA^tli l« tt^lt^y^e^ thAn thAt ^t t.millUu\A| \i\[i mutlfi 
i^wng^^ Antt t^lfrthWH^ tH«* hrAit* 

th vihti^ hs ft^vv 1\)tvA»'tt>^ yirtv\ \\\A^ A hetl t^n the W^ 
f^t^ ttf i^x^utw^ yt^tt A»^ waIW^ ttt\ Aht! ftl^ It Hjt ththt^^ 
Irt MghilN \ thli tArtli you t^«»At Artit Wrtke Icviel with Ihtp 
Wtk tsf A l\^:\tl*e i yt^wtlW^WAhU low thy tVH»tl| whl^ih li 
f\t\im\%ly fiMe» wtfAtty H»^tm\t^lll\g |^*^^^t>y ImK tt mult he 
Udxvtt tt^<w^ A»\\< nrttwl^htVAUttluj^ ihAt Att^utlou^ It ttt\ei\ 
^4^>|\e«^i h> tsf ttvtt vhkk. Wheu tht ft*e^ is l\»Wu, th« 
%Ant\ Is m bi%^ i^\t\x^\ but ihe llftd In tovtttfil with 


01" taUtfllANA. «9| 

An ibHll Ml (lit! HillMet^H ttMl hiUf iMVIfli U le tMHf)llHHl«4 

1h M 4ihi, IHH dltlUHl tllf«(! I^(!t DVil*)^ WRf t « M\»{Wlt HHt 
IHH iHIII(| Ih 0H)» (t) Wl«t( it with IfAi^i without tift!HltlM| 
Ihl lIMVIIi 

Thl ilfcft tlM1l» fht lNHt)»tllHtiHft It In t^t^H mIH, Hf<*»f*« 
m\ik fm Hiud WMt«t It ! )H lilt(< milHHI>(-f WH«H tll(* /H^fl 

In In tki! hh\\^ if It tMlttN tmt| jtmu ttitill ^t*Htlf ()iHh* 
kli IttHWtitilii »v»MlH^< hdbtiyf^ It l« IbmfwhMt tim in fli- 
Itiigt Min) wH(!tt It ifi IVtHUtd It tPt\u\m m llttl(< wrif»*fi 
You tttoil iittlttly t*ov(*f tli» plHht IH tN« dti)^ timt* with 
Ihitte l(»MVM jiiutsbd the til||ht h«fbf(« ) m pt-eeiuilMH m hh 
MttMUHt tb Hi! tiil^fHN withi till th(! ^mtHtt H^^^ li^<* 
t\illy ilNt!k tnntt V»u Hiult (tiib ^Mlly vlllt th« tohnftdi 
lo diiflt l( bf CHtit^lllitH, whlt^h fMi((!H (ifft^H itf flftd 
wmitti «Htli-il)^ (•Mt it [ipi if th«v t(^(! Hbt tl«(lfby«tl< 1*ha 

lbhAbt!H'tlMt(!l'|llllll(' l« bf th« fH»i(l(! bf M Dili-^w^«»m, hill 

M pHitkle bH Iti htit^lt tbWMftlii iti i^itttcftfit jf ) itn tblbiir 
(9 bf lh« ttibtl ht^MUtifUl (^ti|f-^«H4 ftH^d with l)lvt*f t^tHkt 1 
Ih M WbHif It h «N h(!MUtlM tb thit nyc mn it N fiitNl tb tht 


I iHVII jtm^ MttCHtlbH tb k^¥p mf ttlHHtdtlbH t'lMf bf «lf 

mm^ bBft«tvlH|i Ih w»'*'^lM|f It with th«* hbi? Hwt t« tb«*^h 
thiftftlkii flhbulwhifh 1 tnuNtb Iny h^wewHh, m wtll 
lb n*t;ut« thi^m M|ttiM(t giiltn bf wIhH, ttn tb ««b(ihl# them 
lb tlfftW fl^Hi th» niifth r« ttibrt! «hubtl«ht hbuH/hmt'ttt. 
Wh*!h the Ibhutcb he^Ub th put foHh tutiters ' ^lut^lted 
th«tiio(t^t hftiut^ the^ wbuld ht4v« fhbt ihtb Wtibth««« 
whitih WbuM (mtibVt*Hlh the lenvei^ Hbd for th« tutnt ttm* 
ft»H rtbjijied the tbhflttb Hhm IhbcillMjs^ nkm the tw^-lfth 
!vgfi iit\etwiirtl» fttlpH'^d ^1^' ^^^^ ^^«^ UiwtittntSf whi^h 
mm tbHtf tb ihy thittg. Mlthertu f did Hothlbg hut 
whtti wai oHllHirify 4(ih(t hy thbi); who tultiviie iohi^tt 

O Wlfh 


with fottie degree bf '^lire ; but my method Of j)ftM»ediiig 

lifferw^rd^ was diftcfcnt. 

I i'aw my neighbours ftrip the leaves of tobacco fromtM 
felk, itrihgtheim', Tetihtifhtodry, by hangitlg them out 
1n the aif, then prut th^in in heapr^, t6 hiiike theih fWeat. 
*As for me, Icarefull'y ^kamihed the plaht, and %hefn I 
bbferved the ftem begin to turn ydlbw httt ^nd thtfre, I 
caufed the ftallc to be cut with a pruning-knife, knd left 
iX for fome time on the earth tode;iden. After\Vard5 If^as 
carried off, on hand-barroWs, becaufe it is thus l^fs.'ex'* 
pofed to be broken than on the necks of negroes. Wheii^ 
it wias brought to the hoUfe, I caufed it to be hung up* 
with the big end of the ftdm turned upwardis, the leaves 

n of each ftalk (lightly touching one another, being well af- 
fured they would ihrivel in drying, and no longer touch 
I each other. It hereby happened, that the jtiice contained 
in the pith (fometimes as brg as one's finger) of the fteiii 
k)f the plant, flowed into the leaves, and aiigmenring theit 
fap, made them much morie mil4 and wax^^ As'f^ft as 
thefe leaves afllimed a brrght chefnut colour^ I ftripfied 
them from the ftallc, and mkde them dir^dily into 'bundles^ 
.which! wrapped tip in a cloth, and boUnd it clofe with a. 

' cord fdr twenty four hours;; th^n undoing the cloth, they 
were tied up clofer ftill. This tobacco turhed black and 
lb waxy, that it could not be rafped in lefs than a year ; 
butth^n it had a fubftaiice and muph the more 
agreeable, as it never afFedled the head; and fo I fold it 
for double the price of thd common. 

The cotton which is cultivated in Louifiana, is of the 
fpecies of the white Siain*, though not fo foft, nor lb 
Jong as the filk-^cotton ; it is extremdy white and vtiy 
fine, and a very good ufe may be made of it. This cotton 

. ' : . h 

* l^his Eait-tndia annual cottop has been found to t>e much f;etter 
and whiter tb'irn what is cultivated in our colonief, wHfcViV'df the "turo 
key kind. Both q£ them keep their eoloutheuer in ttifliiiin; lAd'Arliili^ 
_^r than the perennial cotton tb|t, comes from the Ulandi, although thit 
lad it of a longer ftaple. - ' 


U, >ro^ed, mX flfom ^. C^^^y 99 in the ii«i0*lndic8, but 
(rom ^' pl|4pt9 ar.4i fMW«8 mucH b^|tqr in light than in 
ftroftg 9n4 f4t isinf) 8; fMcii ;ts thoTe of the : Lower Louifiinte) ' 
inhere it i« Qot fo iineas on the high gro4nd9. 

Thia pkint may hv <u^tiv>ated in lands newly cleared, 
ftnd rt«t yet proper for; tobacco, much lefs for indigo^ 
which requitee » gi^und weH worked like a garden. The 
feeds of cotton are plantied three feet afunder, more or lefi 
acce^-djug to the quality of |he foil : the field is weeded at 
the proper feafon, in oHer to clear it of the noxious weeds^ 
and freib earth laid to the root of the plant, to fecure ii. 
againft the winds. The cotton requires weirdfng, neither 
Co often, nor fo carefully as other plants ; and the care of 
gathering k the employment^ of young people, incapable 
d harderlabour. 

When the root of the cotton is once coyered with fre/b 
earth, and the weeds are removed, it is fuflered to grow 
without further touching it, till it arrives to maturity. 
Then itb heads or pods open into five parts, and expofb 
dieir Cotton to view. When the fun has driied the cotton 
"well, it is gaHiftred in' a proper manner, and conveyed into 
the CohferVatory j after which comes on the gi^teft tafk, 
which i^ to fisparaee tt fi^m the grain or feed to which it 
i9}okiif adheres ; ^nik ifi this part of the work, which^dtf- 
gufts,ijheinli»bitants In the pul vvation of it. I contrived 
jl miU for the purppfe, tr.i«d it, and found it to fucceed, 
lb a^ to difpatQh the Wj^k very much. 

Thecidture of indigo, tobaccd, and cotfon, may be 
^a^y carried oniwithout any interruption to the making of 
4itVitf a» aj^ one of thefe is no manner of hindrance to the 
other. In the lirft place, the work about thefe three plants 
idoes^^Kit come on till after the worms have fpun their filk: 
"in the fecond place, the feeding and cleaning the fllk- 
worm requires no great degree of flrength j and thus the 
-care employed about them interrupts no other fort of 
^work, either as to time, or as to the perlbns employed 
'3rl*:'3 0/2 Iherpin, 


thtrein. tt fuffiees for this operttion to have t perfen whd 
knows how to feed and cl«tn the worms ) young negroei 
of both rexes might iffift this peffoh, little (kill fuffieing 
for this purpofe : the oldeft of the young negroes^ when 
Mught, might (hift the worms and lay the leaves | the 
othet young negroes gather and fetch them i and all this 
Ubour, which takes not up the whole day, lafts only for 
about ftx weeks. It appears therefore, that the profit 
made of the C\\k is an additional benefit, fomuch the more 
profitable, as it diverts not the workmen from their ordi- 
nary tafks. If it be obje^kd, that buildings are requifite 
to make filk to advantage } I anfwer, buildinss for the pur- 
pofe co{( very little in a country where wood may be had 
lor taking t I add farther, that thefe buildings may be 
made and daubed with mud by any perfons about the far 
mily i and befides, may ferve for hanging tobacco in, two 
months after the Alk- worms are gone. 

I own I have not feen the wax-tree cultivated in Loui- 
fiana ; people content themfelves to take the berries of this 
tree, without being at pains to rear it { but as I am per- 
suaded it would be very advantageous to make plantations 
of it, 1 (hall give my fentiments on the cultureprpper fpr 
this tree, after the experiments I made in regard to it. 

I had (bme feeds of the wax»tree brought me to Fontenii' 
le Comte, in PoiAou, fome of which I gavetofeveriil'of my 
friends, but not one of them came up. I began to refledl, 
that Poi<9;ou not being by far fo w»rm as Louifiana^ thefe 
feeds Would have difficulty to fhoot \ I therefore thought it 
was neceiTury tofupply by art thedefe^of natures I pro- 
cured horfe, rcow, (heep, and pigeon's dung in equal quii^ 
tity, all which I put in avelTel pf proportionable rtKe, and 
poured on them water, almoft boiling, in order todiflbive 
their falts : this water I drew off,, and fleeped the grains 
in a fuiHcient quantity thereof for forty-eight hours } «f- 
ter which I fowcd them in a box full of good earth i feven 
of them came up,, and made (hoots between feven aiMi 


fight inchei high, but they were all killed by tht froft for 
want of putting them Into thegreen-houfe. , , , 

Thii feed having ftich difficulty to come up^ I preAimt 
that the wax, in which it ii wrapped up, hindt ri the moi« 
fture from penetrating into, and making iti kernel flioot t 
and therefore I ihould think that thofe who chooft to fow* 
it, would do well if they prevtoufly rolled it lightly be- 
tween two finall boardi juft rough from the faw t this 
frif^ion would caufe the pellicle of wax to fcale off with 
fo much the greater facility, ai it ii naturally ytry dcyi 
and thtn it might be put to ftsf p. 

Hogi grow naturally in Louifiana, yet fuch ai have a 
dcftre to make ufe of them for themfelves, or fell them to 
breweri, cultivate this plant. It is planted in alleys, diftant 
aAinder fix feet, in holes two feet and one foot deep, in 
which thQ root is lodged. When fhot a good deal, a polt 
ot the fixe of one's arm, and between twelve and fifteen 
fieet long, is fixed in the hole i care is had to dired th# 
ihoots towards it, which fail no^ to run up the polot 
When the flower is ripe and yellowifh, the ftem is cut 
quite clofe to the earth and the pole pulled out^ in order to 
pick the flowers, which are faved. 

If we confider the climate of Louifiana, and the qua* 
lity of the high lands of that province, we might eafily 
produce faflfron there. The culture of this plant would 
be fo much the more advantageous to the planters, as thf 
neighbourhood of Mexico would procure a quick and uft*- 
fi4 vent for it, . 






,'J' :fl iOilvni itiyw 


,,. C H A P, X. 

Of At Gmntfret that is^ ahdiilgj^ki tihritdmik Loiiifiaiia. 
(^4ki GtihmtMtia mbUh tbM Brdvinumafftami/b imntmrk 
ffrfhrfg^Kurope, Of tbi Ctmmn^a 'if Lo^itucnk with 

v"|l^.^ft»»-''' > «. ' • ' < 'H >v,HT^fiif bnf 

Y tlAI^)^ often refle^ed 0n the happincTs of iTranbe 
jL lii itit portion which Provnlence has allottecf heir m 
America. She has found in her lands neither tbegpI<i^nor 
liiv^r of '!N^xico and Peru, nor the precious ftbnes ana 
rich ftiiffs of the Eaft-Indies; but £be will findtheretn, 
«r)l«n 'fhe ^e^fe^, mines of itc^; lead, ahd coj^er. '$he 
i) there ^^iMecl of afertile fotl, Which 6nly req^rts t6 
%e occupied in order to produce hot only a)t the ihiits 
Vitoetlkry^d agreeable to Kfe, btita)f6 aU the fttbjeiS^^ 
\ifh\ch hiAikaM rnduftry ttitiy exerdfe itfelf in ^de^ tbYupw 
fHytmif^m. What I have a^r^ady (kid ^fXouiilialm 
vi^Ht tbtHiiVkikh very pla}h ; but to brilTg the )lHVble (6- 
g^tHei", in dtd«r-, and'titidei* ohe -^bint of vi^^ I Iki^ 
^tfxt relMfc etidry thhig tWit tegards 'the commerce of tills 

Cfj^mjdjtj^.whifh JLpuiiaf^a nut^furnijh in f(Hkmfor4}^ft of 

i»ittFRAt«2E'trti^htdt^w'frbM this cblony ftyeral-fbirtsdf- 
aflA-s, wfjicfh* wbdiif Aot be witifitmt fheir vsilae, tire 

Th<6ap hi^raricci and ibythrff x/'it^«y,'"afld^e;i/(fe''that 
might be made of them, would yield fatisfalftion T Sdfnb. 
perfons have difluaded the traders from taking any furs 
from the Indians, on a fuppofition that they would be.' 
moth-eaten when carried to New-Orleans, on account 
of the heat of the climate : but I am acquainted with peo- 
ple of the bufinefs, who know how to preferve them from 
fuch an accident. 

Dry buffalo hides are of fuflicient value tO eiicourag^ 
the Indians to procure them, efpecially if they were told, 

" ■■' ''I ' ' ^ ' ' ■"•"■■■■ that' 


thit only their (kins SMid tallowr ^^re F^nted* } t^eywouM 
tken kill the old bulls, i^hich are (9 fata* fcaroe tQ b^able 
to go : each bufalo would yie]4 at ka^ a hMif d;ied pcivi\di 
pf tallctw } the value of whi^rhi yflti^ the fl(i9,;^OMi4,niak9 
it worth their while to kj^ theny, and thys Qpn^ of omf 
money would be Cent to Ireland in orjer ^9 h<iv^ talkf^ 
from that country > befides the fpeqies of bufalpcs woul4 
notbe dimklinied, bccaqfy ijjefe (^ k^^jdfifi ve aiw»yp 
the prey of wolves. ;♦ ,h * v 

Deer-lkins, which were bought of the Indians at firtt^ 
did nqt plcafe ^he manufacturers of Niort, where they are 
drefied, becaufe thp lodjans altered the quality by their way 
of dreifing. thefn } but fince thele (kins have b0en called for 
without atiy preparation but taking ofF the hair, they 
make more of them, and f^U them cheaper ths^n before. 

The wax-tree produces wax, which being much drier , 
than bees- wax, may beajr mixture^ which wiU not hinder 
Its lafting longer than bees-wax. Some of this wax wais 
feiit to Paris to a fadlor of Lbuifiana, who fet fo low a 
price upon it as todifcourage the planters from fowing any 
more. The fordid avarice of this fa£tor has done a feN 
vice to the iflands, where it gives a higher price than that 
of France. 

The i^ands alfo draw timber for building from Louiiiana* 
v^hich might in time prevent France from making hei* pro- 
fits of t^e' beauty, goodnefs, and quantity of wood of thia. 
province. The quality of the timber is a great induce- 
ment to build docks there for the conftru6]tion of fliips : 
the wood might be had at a low price of the inhabitants, 
hecaufe they would get it in winter, which is almoft 
an idle time with them. This labour would alfo dear 
the grounds, and fo this timber might be had almoft for 
nothing. Mafts might be alfo had in the country, on ac- 
count of the number of pines which the coaft produces ; 
and for the fame reafon pitch and tar would be common. 

O 4 for 



For tht planki of (hipi, then It no wtnt of oak i but 
might not v«ry good onet b« made of cypreA f this wood 
ia, indctdi (bfter than oak, but andowoi with qualUhN 
furpaAng thii laft : it is light, not apt to Q>lic or waifs 
it fuppla and tafily worlted t in a word, it ii incomipcl* 
bic both in air and water } and thui making th« planka 
ftouter than ordinary, there would be no inconvcnienct 
from the ufe of cyprefi. I have obferved, that this wood 
ii not injured by the worm, and (hip-wormi might per« 
hapa have the fame averfion to it aa other wormi have. 

Other wood fit for the building of ihipi ii very com* 
mon in this country j fuch as dm, afl), alder, andothen. 
There are likcwife in this country fcveral fpecies of wood| 
which might fell in France for joiners work and finaering» 
as the cedar, the black walnut, and the cotton-tree. No* 
thing more would therefore be wanting for compleating 
ibips but cordage and iron. As to hemp, it grows fo 
ftrong as to be much fitter for making cabUi than cloth. 
The iron might be brought from France, as alfq fails i 
however, there needs only to open the iron mine at the 
cliffs of the Chicafaws, called Prud'homme, to fet up for- 
ges, and iron will be readily had. . The king, therefor^, 
might caufe all forts of (hipping to be built there at fo 
fmall a charge, that a moderate ixpence would procure a 
numerous fleet. If the Englifli build (hips in their colo- 
nies from which they draw great advantages, why might 
not we do the fame in Louifiana i 

France fetches a great deal of faltpetre from Holland 
and Italy i (he may draw from Louifiana more than (he 
will have occafion for, if once (he fets about it. The 
great fertility of the country is an evident proof thereof, 
confirmed by the avidity of cloven- footed animals to lick 
the earth, in all places where the torrents have broke it 
up : it is well known how fond thefc creatures are of fait. 
Saltpetre might be made there with all the eafe imagina- 
ble, on account of the plenty of wood znfi water i it 


would bcfidti be much mori purt thtn what ii commonly 
hid, th« Mith not being fouled with dunghilli ( and 911 
the other hand, it would not be dearer than what it now 
purchafcd by France in other placet. 

What commerce might nut be made with Silk f Tho 
filk-wormt might be reared with muck greater fucceft in 
thii country than in Prance» at appeara from the trhda 
that have been mado, and which I have above related. 

,The landt of Loulfiana are vtry proper for the cultura 
of Saffron, and the climate would contribute to produce 
it in great abundance ) and, what would ftill be a con« 
fiderable advantage, the Spaniardt of Mexico, who oon« 
fume a great deal of it, would enhance iti price. 

I have fpoken of Hemp, In refpe^l to the building of 
fhipi ! but fuch ai might be built there, would never bo 
fufficient to employ all the hemp which might be raifed 
in that colony, did the inhabitant! cultivate at much of it 
u they well might. But you will fiiy. Why do they 
not } My anfwer it, the Inhabitanti of thii colony only 
follow the beaten track they have got into; but if they' 
faw m Intelligent perfon fow hemp without any great ex- 
pence or labour, at the foil ia very fit for it t if, I fay, 
they faw that it thrivet without weeding t that in the 
winter eveningt the negroet and their children can peel 
it t in a word, if they faw that there it good profit to be 
had by the fale of it } they then would all make hemp. 
I'hey think and aA in the fame manner at to all the other 
articlet of culture fn thit country. 

Cotton it $lfo a good commodity for commerce ; and 
the culture of it it attended with no difficulty. The only 
impediment to the culture of it in a greater quantity, it 
the difficulty of feparating it from the feed. However, if 
they had milli, which would do thitAvork with greater 
difpatch, the profit would confiderably increafe. 



ibi TttlE hi STORY' 

r^tTlM^ Imligd of Louifiani, according to intdllgentoiefw 
diants, tH'iiii good M that of the iitands; and hat even 
more of the copper colbtir. As it thrives ejttremely well, 
and yields more herb than in the iflands, as much Indigo 
may fie'iBidt as there, -though they have four outtings* 
mni' only three in Louifianiw The climate is warner in 
^ttt ilfansdsy and therefore thty make four gatherings j but 
the Ibil is drier, and' produdes hot fp mttchasLouifiana: 
1^ j^t ,^e .^ree |CMttit;4{^ pf ^ laft arf a| gpod a^ the 
f^ qit^ngs in tlve ifl^rf^v »ji?i. ■ , > 

. ocTke Tobacco, of' thiacoldaiy is So excellent,, that if the 
«onnience ^beof .wras free,) it would fell for oaeiitindvdl 
Ibis and.fix.)ivres thaiipoUhd^ io£he and delicate i»it8 

juice -^ layour. Ricp my .*!^ fP"** ? ^^ ^^9^ ^ 
|;ra4e. W^ g^ to the Eal^^jln^ies for the jfiq^ vf^ jcoiUun^ 
99 Ff a«fej i»Wl mhj iVM,l4!Wi? jir^w ff^pfl? f9rf ign <^f|Uflr 
j|ri«, i|i()Hit ,3iv9 ^n*X Ji^y^ 9^ ft^r qwp cpuiji/[,ryRif^f Wf 

^4ef,^ iEmetiH^i^ P^lHtps tj9p often, y?|«-s.of fcfrcijQr 
ll^pcin^ 9re migh,t al>jf^8,4ppe9d uppij ^di^ fjpe ^ 
l^i^ji^^^ ^ec^ufe U ^ A^ MJB§ U?^ fftiJ, R^ufjdM^agc 
l^i?l^.frV^P«W>»V?es/q8ioy«-n.r) ...;, j.^/ .^j,^ff,,] ,,. , , 

We may aiTd to tht^^cdmrnerce ibme drugSi ufed in 
medicine and dying. ' As to the iirft, Loviifiana produces 
SafKifras, Sarfapal-iHe, £4^iiine, but above" alP the excel- 
knt bairn of Copj^lm (Sw^t-gum) the virtues of Which, 
if weH known, would fave the life of iMny a perfon. 
This colony alfo furnifi\es us With bears oil, which is ex- 
cellent in aU rheumatic pftins. For 4ying, I 4ui4 only 
.fhe wood Aync, or Stinking Wood, for yellow ^ and the 
Achctchi /qr fed; of |he be^Mty of which . colours we 
J^J^I giye.^n accpunl in ^Ci<hiif4'^9Qk» 

Such are t)^ commodities which may form « c«n- 

merce of this colony with France, which laft nwy carry 

in exchange all forts of European goods and merchandize; 

->thc vent whereof is certain, as every thing anfwers there, 



Whs^luKirjr fcigiis ecjually fts in Frtnoci Vlmat winei^ 
mid ftroiig liquon- ftU well i and tbough I hi? c fpolun 
of the manner of growing wheat in this country, thd iiu 
habitants, towards the lower part of the river ejpeciallir, 
will never grow it, any more than they will cultivate^ tn« 
vine, becaufe in thefe forts of fv««k a negro will not earn 
his mafter half as much as in cultivating Tobaccot 
which, tiowiv^r, it lefs profitable than Indigo. ' 


11^ CdrntiHTif ^ Loulfiahft wUh tht IJkmdi, 

"^^'fROM ItOtiifiahB to dM Ifland« they cany cfpreft 
wood fquared for building, of different fcantlings : Tome- 
times they tranfport houfes, all framed and marked out* 
ready to fet op, oh landing at thdf place of deftination. 

jpriokt, w^j^ coil fourteen or fiftren llyfct the |li(^ 
iJMld, df:Uva^;ifn Mrd the ihip. 

dt'THct for covering hosfet and Aeda, of theikmeprico.' 

; ApalAchea|ibeansj (Garavan^ns) worth ten livxtiche 
'^itd, of t#o hundred we^ht. 

Jkfaiv, or Indjin corn. 

^^tiCyprefb flank often or twelve feet. 

^i^'^ledpeas, whtdi coft in «he country twelve or thirteen 
iiVres (>he barrel. 

tritaned tiee, which cofts twenty livres the barrel, of 
two hundred wei^t. 

There is, a p;reat profit to be made in the iilands, hj 
carrying thither the goods I have juft mentioned : this profit 
is generally cent, per ant, in returns. The ihipping which 
go from the cokuiy bring back -fugar, cofFco, -rum, 
which the negroes^confume in drinks bcAdea other goods 
foi; the ufe of t)ie, country. 

The (hips which come from France to Louifiana pyt 
all in at Cape Fran9ois. Sometimes there are (hips, 
^hich not having a lading for France, becaufe they may 




Wvt bMii pild in money or bills of exehihgei •ra6bligH 
«i mum by Cape Franvoiii in order to teke in their cergA 
fcff France. 




Of th* Cmmrtt with the Spaniards, fhi Gtmrnttiitm thiy 
Wing H thi CoUnyy if thtn is a Dtttmnd fir tbm. Of 
fick m mqjf ht givM in rrturHp mul maj fui{ tbm* /?#- 
JUitiont m tht Cmmtrti •f this Prwincf^ and the gnM 

e ) Jtkmtihfgt wkitk. tki Sum mid ptrtimUit Pirfinf mttf dtfivt 

- wifif^tn% 


'> \ilV\ ' . 1 ■ .■ Mi,, 4 . 

Thi Ommirtt mth thi Spaniardi. 

THE commodities which fuit the Spahlatdt are Atf- 
ficiently knov/n by traders, and therefore It is not 
neoeiTary to give an acdotunt of them : t haye likewif« 
lorebore to give the particMlars of the commodities which 
*they carry to this colbny, though Tknow tkem all : thf^ 
is not our prefent bufinefs. I (hall only apprifb (Itch aa 
Ihall fettle in Louifiana, in order to traffick with the Spa- 
niards, that it is not fuAcient to be furniflied with the 
.principal commodities which fuit their commerce, but 
they (hould, befides, know how to make the proper aflbrfi- 
meats } which are moft advantageous to ui| ai well at t* 
them, when they carry them to Mexico* 

Thi dmrntditiit which the Spaniards bring f Louifiana, if 
thin is a dtmsndfir them* 

CAMPEACMY wood, which is generally worth from 
ten to fifteen livres the hundred weight. 

Brafil wood, which has a quality fuperior to that of 
Campeachy. * 


oir'LoutriAHA; ws 

Very |dOil CftCMf which U t6 bd met with Ifi ill th^ 
iwrti of Spahi, worth between eighteen ihd twenty ItrNi 
Che quintilt or hundred weight. ' ' ' •'» 

Cochineid, which comei from Vera Crux : there It no 
difficulty to have ai much of ^t ai one can defire, becaufii 
To near ) it !i worth fifteen livrei the pound : there it ^ 
inferior fort» called Sylvefter. 

Tortoife-lhell, which ii common in the Spaniib Ulaiid%| 
U worth feven or eight livrei the pound* 

i'Tanned leather^ of which they have great quantitleii, 
|(hat marked o^ iiA^ped is worth /bur livrei ten foli tte 

Marroquin, or Spanilh iepthcri of which they hiv* 
great quantities and cheap, 

-Tumedealf, which ii alfo cheap. , ' \ ^ 

Indigo, which ii manufactured at ' uaiimala, ti'^rorai' 
^ree or four livrei the pound ; there ii of it of a perfe5| 
good quality, and therefore felli at twelve Uvrei thi 
pound* "^ 

. Sarfaparilla, which they have In very great quantilioi^ 
and fell at thirteen or fifteen foil* 

Havanna fnufFy which ii of different pricei and quali« 
ties : I have feen it at three ihillingi the pound, which ia 
our money make tbirty-feven fall fix deniers. 

Vanilla, which ii of different prices. They havo 
many other things stty cheap, on which great profici 
might be made, and for which an eafy vent may be found 
In Europe ) efpecially for their drugs : but a f.articular 
detail would carry me too fiir, a<id make me lo£e fight of 
the tki^ I had in view. 

' What I have juft faid of the commerce of Louifiana, may 
faMy fliew that it will neceffarily encreafe in proportion ae 
the country ii peopled ) and induftry alfo will be brought 
to jpterfe^lion. For this purpofe nothing more is requifiee 




illiMi ^fome inveatiiv^ #iwl ii^duftriout geiuuie99 urbo coming 
$ponit£uro|)e> may diicQiK«c (uc|i obj«^.«f commerce at 
may turn to account, t im^giiie it gop4 it^n^r flight m 
^js cploojr tan tl^e leather of the country, and cheaper 
^an in France i I even imagine that the liattier , might 
ihere be brought to its perfedlion in lefs time> and what 
inakes me think fo, is, that I have l^rd it ayerred^ that 
the Spanifh leather is extremely good, and is never above 
Aree or four mondis ih the tan-pit. 

The fame will hold of many otheir thingf , lyhich woufit 
l^dit money going out of the kingdom t6 ft^gn coun- 
tries. Would it not be thore foitable ttni more ufeful, td 
devife means of drawing the fame commodities from our 
0mk codoiiietf As tbefriaeaM arc lb eafy^ at leioft money 
would not go out of our hands j France and her oalomiei 
would be as two families who traffick together, find reader 
each other mutual fervice. Befides, theipe vould not be 
occaiion for fo much money to carry oh a commerce to 
liOuifiana, feeing the inhabitants have need of European 
goods. It would therefore be a commerce very di^rent 
from that which, without exporting the merchandife of 
ihe kingdom, exports the inoney ; a cjmmeree iUtI very 
different from that which carries to f'rance commodities 
highly pff^udicial to our own manu/lM^ures. 

' I may add to all that I frave faid im Louiftana, as on^ 
of the great advantages of this country, that women ar6 
very frmtf ol in k, which they attribute to the, waters of 
die Miffiiippi. Had the intentbns of the Company been 
puriuedyr and dieir orden execa^ed, there iaiaoidouht hot 
this colony had at this day been very Atoog, *nd bitflcd 
widi a Jiumeroua young progeny, iwhom^ nn Other climsrtc 
would allure to go and fettle in ; but being iretamed by 
the beauty of their own, they would improve its riches, 
and multiplied anew in a ihort time* could offer tbeir 
mother-country Xticcours in men andXhifM, aiid in many 

other things that «re not^ be cpncemfied. . 

I cannot 

I catihd^ tb6 Ihtidt ili^ the itn^rtjtifM± of thte (\jN*(cdfii»ii| 
COM, Whfc!i ilhis doldny might atthffli !h ^ (int^ df fetfdty^ 
fo ft bftd yeiir^are iiybtiged t^ catry biiir tnortef (to K»rrfg;i<iA 
tn Ibr x^ntf Hvliich hiti beM cftentiihes pttrdiiftd hi 
France, bisciiuil th^y have tiad the fttret bf ipi'ilMiig 
their cdNi ; !)iUt if the cbfeMy <>^ LouifianH Vr«i OHceMl 
fdtled, what rupt)lie8 of torn fnigbtt ndt be vetelved frdm 
that frUttftil coiMtry i I IhW ghre iwe reafom Wbidi iiv)ii 
confirm tny opinion. '' 

The flr'ft ik. That tHfe f^kbftants UlWajrs 'gre^ nttxt 
corn than is Me^ty l6r the fubfiftende of wenhfelvitt, 
their Workmen, and flaves. I dWn, that in the lower 
jikrt oT the colony ohly rice cculd be hi(d, btit thi^ is aU 
^ys kjtttit fupply. Now, were the colony ^Iduallj^ 
ftttled to'^he Arkanfas, (hey Would gr6w Wheat and rye 
in ks gireiit quantities 'as one cotild well defire, whicb 
W6uld be of great fervice t6 Franpe, when her crops hap- 

The fecond reafon is, That in this colony a Scarcity it 
never to be apprehended. On my arrival in it, I informed 
myfelf of what had happened therein from 1709, and I 
tnyfelf remained in it till 1734; and finfe my return t» 
France I have had accounts from it down to this prefent 
year 1757 ; and from thefe accounts I can aver, that 00 
tntemperature of feafon has caufed any fcarcity ilnce the 
beginning of this century. I was witnefs to one of the 
fevereft winters that had been known in that country in 
the memory of the oldeft, people living ; but provijQpns 
were then not dearer than in other years. The foil of 
this province being excellent, and the feafcns always fuit- 
able, the provifions and other commodities cultivated in it 
never fail. to thrive furprizingly. 

' One will, . perhaps, be ftirprized to hear me pfbmiie 
iuch fine things of a country which has been reckoned to 
be fo much' inferior to the Sp»iilh.or Port ogucfe colonics 
in ^aiet'icsii but fuch as will take the trouble to rcRaSt on 

. ; that 


th«t iKhich coniUtutM tiM fnuiiiM ftrangth of flitWy tnd 
tlM feal foodaeif of i^ ooontrjTt will fooA altsr their opli 
nioAt and mm with mf» that a country lertila in men» 
in pfodilAioot of the earth» and in neoeflary metali^ ia 
infinitily pielerable to.couBtriet from which aaea draw 
golds filver, and diamond! : the firft elM of which ii to 
pamper, luxury and render the people indolent) and tho 
ftoond to ftir up the avarice of neighbouring nationi. I 
therefore boldly aver, that Louifiana, well governed, would 
not long fiUl to fuUU all I havt advanced about itt for 
thott|^ there are ftill fomenftiona of Indiani who mighf 
prove en(|mies to the French, the fettlert, by their martial 
charaAer, and their seal for their king and country^ - 
aided by a few troops,, commanded, above .all, by good 
officers, who at the fame time luiow how to command thf 
colonifts : the fettlers, I fay, will be always match enough- 
for them, vnd prevent any foreigners whatever from in- 
vading the country. What would therefore be the con- 
fequence if, as I have projected, the. firft nation that 
Ihould become our enemy were attacked in the manner I 
have laid down in my reflections on an Indian war ? They 
would be dire£My brought to fuch ti pafs as to make all 
other nations tremble at the very name of the French, and 
to be ever cautious of making war upon them. Not to 
mention the advantage theiie is in carrying on wars in this 
manner; for as they coft little, as little do they hazard the 
lofs of lives. * 

In 1734, M. Perier, Governor of Louifiana, was re- 
lieved by M. de Biainville, and the King's plantation put 
on a new footing, by an arrangement fuitable to the 
notions of the perfon who advifed it. A fycophapt, who 
wanted to make his court to Csrdinal Fleury, would per- 
fuade that minifter, that the plantation coft his Majefty 
ten thoufand livres a year, and that this fum might be 
well favcd ; but took care not to tell his Eminence, that 
for thefe ten thoufand it (aved at leaft fifty thoufand 




Upon thiiy my plioe of OireAor of tht public plantt- 
ttont WMabolUhcd, tnd I at length refolvtil lo quit the 
colony and return to Friuicei notwithfUnding all the fair 
pnmiifn and warm folicitationi of my fuperion to prevail 
upon me to ftay. A Kin^^t ihip» La Gironde^ being 
ready to fail, I went down the river in her to Balife, and 
from thence we fet fail, on the loth of May, 173A. We 
bad tolerable fine weather to the mouth of the Bahama 
Streightf 1 afterwards we had the wind contrary, which 
retarded our voyage for a week about the banks of New- 
foundland, to which we were obliged to ftretch for a wind 
to carry us to France : from thence we made the paiTage 
without any crofs accident, and happily arrived in the 
foad of Chaidbois before Rochelle, on the 25th of Jurjc 
following, which made it a pailage of forty-five days from 
I^Ottifsana to France. 




Some AkfirM&sfrom tbt Htfierieal Memoir f of Lbui-. 
fiana, by Af. Da Mope. ''*t huu / 

Of Tobaccoi with tht way <f tuliivating ,kttd iuring it* 

TH E Lands of Louifiatia are as propcf as cduld \ik 
dcHred, for the culture of tobacco } ahd, without 
defpifing what is made in other countries, vft may aflirih, 
that th6 tobacco which grows in the country of 'the Nat* 
chez, is even preferable to that of Virginia or St. Do- 
mingo ; I fay, in the country of the Natchez, becaufo 
the Ibil at that pod appears to be more fuitable to this 
|Aant th^ any other: although it mud be owned, that 
there is but very little diftcrcnce betwixt the tobacco which 
grows there and in fome other parts of the colony, as at the 
Cut- point, at the Nachitoches, and even at New Orleans; 
but whether it is owing to the expofure, or to the good- 
nefs 6f the foil, it is allowed that the tobacco of the Nat- 
chez and Yafous is preferable to the reft. 

The way of planting and curing tobacco in this coun- 
try, is as follows : they fow it on beds well worked with 
the hoe or fpade in the months of December .v January, 
or February ; and becaufe the feed is very fmall, they mix 
it with alhes, that it may be thinner fowed : then they 
rake the beds, and trample them wich their feet, or clap 
them with a plank, that the feed may take fooner in the 
ground. The tobacco does not come up till a month 
afterwards, or even for a longer time; and then they 
ought to take great care to cover the beds with ftraw or 
cyprefs-bark, to preferve the plants from the white frofts, 
that are very common in that feafon. There are two forts 
of tobacco ; the one with a long and (harp-pointed leaf, 
the other has a round and hairy leaf} which laft they 
reckon the beft fort. 

At the end of April, and about St. George's day, the 
plants have about four leaves, and then they puil the 


beft utA ftrongeft of them : thefe they plant out on their 
tobicco-ground by a line ftretched acrofs it, and at three 
feet diftance one from another: this they do either with 
a planting-ftick, or with their finger, leaving a hole on 
one fide of the plant, to receive the water, with which 
they ought to water it. The tobacco being thus planted, 
it ihould be looked over evening and morning, in order to 
deftroy a black worm, which eats the bud of the plant, 
and afterwards buries itfelf in the ground. If any of the. 
plants are eat by this worm, you muil fet another one by 
it. You muftchoofe a rainy feafon to plant your tobacco, 
and you (hould water it three times to make it take root. 
But they never work their ground in this country to plant 
thev tobacco ; they reckon it fufficient to ftir it a littlo 
a'jout four inches fquare round the plant. ,ii t^ , • . 

When the tobacco is about four or five inches high, 
they weed it, and clean the ground all about it, and hill 
op every plant. They do the fame again, when it is about 
a foot and a half high. And when the plant has about 
eight or nine leaves, and is ready to put forth a flalk, 
they nip ofFthe top, Which they call topping the tobi^cco : 
this amputation makes the leaves grow longer and thicker. 
After this, you muft look over every plant, and every 
leaf, in order to fucker it, or to pull off the buds, which 
grow at the joints of the leaves ; and at the fame time you. 
muil deftroy the large green worms that are found on l^ie 
tobacco, which are often as large as a man's finger, and 
would eat up the whole plant in a night's time. 

^^After thisj you mutt take care to have ready a hanger 
- (or tobacco-houfe,) which in Louifiana they make in 
the following manner : they fet feveral pofts in the 
ground, at equal diftances from one another, and lay a 
beam or plate on the top of them, making thus the form 
of a houfe of an oblong fquare. In the middle of this< 
Xquare they fet up two forks, about one third higher than 
the pofts, and lay a pole crofs them, for the ridge-pole 

P2 ?f 




tX the building ( upon which they nail the rafters, and 
cover them with cyprefs-bark, or palmetto-leaves. The 
firft fettkra Hkewife build their dwelling-houfes in thii 
manner, which anfwer the purpofe very well, and as 
well as the houfes which their carpenters build for them, 
cfpecially for the curing of tobacco ; which they hang 
in thefe houies upon fticks or canes, laid acrofs the 
building, and about four feet and a half afundcr, one above 

The tobaeco-houfe being ready, you wait till your to* 
bacco is ripe, and fit to be cut } #hich you may know by 
the leaves being brittle, and eaflly broke between the 
fingers, cfpecially in the morning' before fun-rifug; but 
i^ofe verfed in it know when the tobacco is fit to cut by 
the looks of it, and at firfl fight. You cut your tobacco 
with a knife as nigh the ground as you can, after which you 
lay it upon the ground for fome time, that the leaves may 
fall, or grow tender, and not break in carrying. When you 
carry your tobacco to the houfe, you hang it firft at the 
top by pairs, or two plants together, thus continuing 
from ftory to ilory, taking care that the plants thus hviq^ 
are about two inches afunder, and that they do not touclv 
t>ne another, left; they (hould rot. In this manner they 
fill their whole houfe with tobacco, aAd leave it to fweaC 
and dry. :., 

After the tobacco is cut, they weed and clean the 
ground on which it grew : each root then puts out feveral 
Aickers, which are all pulled off, and only one of the beft 
is left to grow, of which the fame care is takei>.as of the 
firfl crop. By this means a fecond crop is made on th<B. 
iame ground, and fometimes a third. Thefe feconds^ in- 
deed, as they are called, do not ufually grow fo high as the 
firft plant, but notwlthftanding they make very good 

tobacco ♦. . ^ 


* Thii is an advantage that they have ia Louifiana over our tobacco 
planters, wito >fe prohil)ite<l by law to cuUivite theTe feconds ; the ' futn- 
ncri are fo (bort,^ that thej do not come to due maturity in our tobacco 

colonies \ 


If you hive a mind to make your tobaeeo Into rolls, 
there is no occaHon to wait till the leaves are perfeAly 
dry i but as foon as they have acquired a yellowifli brown 
colour, although the ftem is green, you unhang your to- 
bacco, and ftrip the leaves from the ftalks, lay them up in 
heaps, and cover them with woollen dcKhs, in order to 
fweat them. After that^you ftem the tobacco, pr pull out 
the middle rib of the leaf, which you throw away with the 
ftalks, as good for nothing ; laying by the longeft and 
largeft of the leaves^ that are of a good blackifli brown 
colour, and keep them for a covering for your rolls. 
After this you take a piece of coarfe linen cloth, at leaft 
eight inches broad and a foot long, which you fpread on 
the ground, and on it lay the large leaves you have picked 
out, and the others over them in handfuls, taking care 
always to have more in the middle than at the ends : then 
you roll the tobacco up in the cloth, tying it in the middle 
and at each end. When you have made a fufficient num* 
ber of thefe bundles, the negroes roll them up as hard as 
they can with a cord about as big as tht little finger, which 
is commonly about fifteen or fixteen fiithom long : you 
tighten them three times, fo as to make them at luurd 

P 3 u 

coIobIm} whercM In LonlfiaM th* Aimnert art two or tkrto monthi 
leB|«r, bjr which they mako two or three crops of tobacco a year upon 
the fame ground, ai eaUy at wo make one. A4d to Ihit, their freft laoda 
will produce three timea at auch of that commodityf aa our old planta- 
dona } which are now worn out with cvlture, by fupplyim the wholo 
world alnoft with tobacco for a huodred and fittj yeara. Now if their to- 
bacco ia worth fifc and fix ftillinga a pound, u we are told abore, or even 
the tenth part of it, when oura ia worth but two pence or three pence, 
and tlwy ^vc a bounty upon fliips going to the Miififipi^, when our tobacco 
it loaded with a duty equal to Teven timet itt prime coftj they may, with 
all thefe advantaged, foon get thia trade from ut, the only one thii nation 
hat left entire to itfclf. Thefit advantiget enable the plantera to give n 
nucK better price for fenranttand flavet, and thereby to e^ngroftthe trade. 
It wat by thefe meant, that the French got the fugar trade from ut, after tho 
treaty of Utrecht, by being allowed to tranfport their people fn^ St. Chri- 
[ftopber't to the rich and freft landt of Sc Domingo } and by rcinoving from 
Canada to Louifianat they may in the like manner get not only thia, b«C 
^ OTcry other branch of the trade of North America, 


as poiBbltf } and to keep them To, you tie them up with a 

ft'ring. ; !. * • m M! 

But (ince the time of the Weft India compaoy, we 
have feldom cured our tobacco in this manner* if it is not 
for .our own ufe ; we now cure it in hands, or bundles of 
the leaves, which they pack in hogflieads, and deliver it 
thus in France to the farmers general. In order to cure 
the tobacco in this manner, they wait till the leaves of the 
ftem are perfe£lly dry, and in moift, giving weather, 
they ftrip the leaves from the ftalk, till they have a handful 
of them, called a hand, or bundle of tobacco, which 
they tie up with another leaf. Thefe bundles they lay in 
heaps, in order to fweat them, for which purpofe they 
cover thofe heaps with blankets, and lay boards or planks 
ovtr them. But you ihould take care that the tobacco is 
not over-heated, and does not take fire, which may 
eafily happen } for which purpofe you uncover y6ur heaps 
from time to time, and give the tobacco air, by fpreading 
it abroad. This you continue to do till you find no more 
heat in the tobacco ; then you pack it in hogiheads, and 
may trani^ort it any where, without danger either of its 
heating or rotting. 


<\4 ' !•• <>•» • 


Oftbt way of making Indigo. 


The blue ftone, known by the name of Indigb, Is tSo 

extra^ of a plant which they who have a fufEcient number 

of flav^s to manage it, make fome quantities throughout 

call this colony. For this purpofe they firft weed the 

'ground, and make fmall holes in it with a hoe, about f\ve 

^ inches afuoder, and on a ftraight line. In each of thefe 

holes they put five or ftx feeds of the indigo, which are 

fmall, long, and hard. When they come up, they put 

forth leaves fomewhat like thofe of box, but a little 

longer and broader, and not fo thick and indented. When 




tbt plant li'liVe or fix iiiohe» high > they take care to 
looftnthf .tarth about the root, and at the fiune time to 
wced'tt^ I'hey.reclcon it has acquired a proper inatunty» 
when it ia about three feet and t half high ; chit you may 
likewife know, if the leaf cracki u you T'lueese the plant 
ill yout'hand. 

Before you cut it, you get ready a place that is covered 
19 khe fame manner with the one made for tobacco, about 
twenty-five feet high ; in which you put three vats, one 
sbove anothen, as it were in difFerent ftoriea, fo that the. 
higheft is the iai^efV ; that in the middle is fquare, andthe^ 
deepeft; the -third, at bottom, is the lead.. 

After thefe operations, you cut the indigo, and when 
you have^^vei^at arms-full, or bundles of the 'plant, to 
the quantity judged neceflslry for one working^ you fill 
the vat at leift three quarters full ; after which you pour 
water thereon up to the brim, and the plant is lef^ tH fteep^ 
in order' to rot it; which is the reafon why this vat is 
called the r6tting-tub. For the three or four hours which 
the plant takes to rot, the water h impregnated With its 
virtue;' and, though the plant is green, communicates 
thereto a blue colour. :■■,■■'*•■ 

At th^ bottom of thegreSt vaY, 'ind where \t bears on 
the one in the middle (which, as was faid, is fquare) is 
a pretty large hole, flopped with a bung ; which is opened 
when the plant is thotight to be fufficiently rotten, and 
all the water of this vat, mrxed with the mud, formed by 
the rotthig of the plant, falls- by this hole into the fecond 
vat; on the edges of which are placed, at proper di- 
ftanceft, forks of iron or wood. On which large long poles 
are laid, which reach frbth the two fides to the middle of 
the Watbr In the vat ; thcend plunged in the water is fur- 
nifhed ' wfth' a bucket without a bottom. A number of 
flaves lay hold on thefe polds, by the end which is out of 
the water ; and alternately pulling them down, and then 
letting the buckets fall into the vat, they thus continue to 

P4 beat 



beat the water ; which being thus agitated and churned* 
comes to be covered with a white and thick fcum | and in 
fuch quantity as that it would rife up and flow over tho 
brim of the vat, if the operator did not take oare to throw 
in, from time to time, fome fi{h-oil, which he fprinklca 
with a feather upon this fcum. For thefe reaibns this vat 
is called the battery. 

They continue to beat the water for an hour and a half, 
or two hours } after which they give over, and the water 
is left to fettle. However, they from time to time open 
three holes, which are placed at proper diftances from top 
to bottom in one of the fides of this fecond vat, in order 
to let the water run off clear. This is repeated for three 
Ceveral times } but when at the third time the muddy 
water is ready to come out at the lowermoft hole, th^ flop 
it, and open another pierced in the lower part of that 
fide, which refts on the tb^rd vat. Then all the muddy 
water falls through that hole of the fecond vat into 
the third, which is the leaft, and is called the devifing 

They have (r:ks, a ^9ot long, made of a pretty clofe 
cloth, which they fill with this liquid thick matter, and 
hang them on nails rounfi the indigo- houfe. The water 
drains out gradually \ and the matter which is lc;ft behind, 
refembles a r^al mud, w^ich they take out of thefe facks, 
and put in moulds, naade . like little dravtrers, two feet 
long by half a foot broad^ and with a bordcir, or ledge, an 
inch an^ a lialf high. Theii they lay tbc^ out in the 
iiin, which draws oflFall.the moifture: and as this mud 
comes to dry, care is taken to work it with a mafon's 
trowel : at length it forms a body, which-holds together, 
and is cut in pieces, while freftv, with wire* It is in this 
manner that they draw from a green herb this fine blue 
coloMr, of which there are twp (prts, one of which is of a 
^purple dove colour. 



nf: ♦ 


Of fori th$ wt§ tf moHng iti tmd tf maiim it inf 


I htf c hiAf that tiMy made « great deal of tar in this 
colony, from pinei and fin ; which is done in the follow- 
ing miilncr* It it a commoii miftake, that tar is nothing 
but the (kp or gum of the pine, drawn from the tree by in* 
ciiioni the largeft trees would not yield two pounds by 
this method ; and if it were to be made in that manner, 
you muft choofe the moft thriving and flouriihing trees 
for the purpofe ; whereas it is only made from the treet 
that afe old, and are beginning to decay, becaufe the 
older tl^ey; are, the greater quantities they contain of that 
fat bituminous fubftance, whicb yields tar } it is even 
proper that the tree fhould bo felled a long time, before 
they ufe them for this purpofe. It is ufually towardf the 
mouth of the river, and along the fea-cosifts, that they 
make tar} becaufe it is in thofe places that the pinea 
chiefly grow. 

When they have a fuflkient number of thefe treetf 

that are fit for the purpofe, they faw them in cuts with a 

crofs-cut faw, about two icet in length $ and while the 

Haves are employed in fawing them, others fplit thefe 

cuts lengthwife into fmaU pieces, the fmaller the better. 

They fometimes fpend three or four months in cutting 

and preparing the trees in this manner. In the mean 

time thor make a fquare hollow in the ground, four or 

five feet broad, and five or. fix inches deep : from one fide 

of which goes off a canal or gutter, which difcharges it- 

fclf into a large and pretty deep pit, at the diftance of a 

few paces. From this pit proceeds another canal, which 

communicates with a fecond pit ; and even from the firfl: 

fquare you make three or four fuch trenches, which dif- 

charge themfelves into as many pits, according to tl^ 


i%B 'THE HiS^T'OR^^ 

quantity 6f wood you have, or the quantity of tar you 
imagine you may draw from vit. Then you lay over the 
fquare. hole four oc five pretty^j^^rong; biUfs. of jron;,>fu\4v 
upon thefe. bars you arrange .^rofs- wife the fplit pieces of 
pine, of which you (hould'have a quantity ready ; laying 
them fo, tha^.thereroay,ib^a,iUUeai^^bn|;iJlre^$;{hoiQ,, f In 
thi» mJ|nn© raifei^rMV"ge^W<V.i*ag|bi/fll|rft»«f|^, 
wpojd, s^n4 ^ is^,i,tj/#^K.3f<?ii ^|; ^p \%.{m ^^^ 
top. As t^;.wopd bwASi^thR»l»fci»0lt8„t^ JC^tein tfje,- 
pine, aod th4S liquid tskg dift^U i^^^^tv^ >the TqujU^e ^le^^^anid:' 
from thence iuns into the pits n^dev'>:rcj^iv^ibtl:j.~: .i*, 
If you would make pitch of this tar, take t^d Spthttif cannon bullets^ and throw 'th)emMiMt»^ the'' pits, 
fuU of the tar, which you invend for thii ^rp^fe : ' hhme-^ 
diately up6h which, the 'tar takes' fire' with <^^^i^rible 
noiieand a horrible thick ftnoke, by which tlV6'iliM>ii(hite 
that may remain in the tkr' is <:on fumed ifid ^dillfipated, 
and the (nafs diminiflie6-in--|»rQportion;< and When they 
think it isr Sufficiently burnt, they extitiguifli fh^^'fire^ 
not with water, but with a hurdle covered with turf and 
earth. As it grows cold, it becomes hard and Ihining, 
fo that you cannot take it ottt of the pits^ but by cut* 
ting it with an axe« . . .! 

'^ ■ ' ■ • ■ . . - - ■ 

■ . IV. 

Of the Mines of Louifiana. 

BEFORE we quit this fubjed, I fhall conclude this 
account by anfwering a queftion, which has of^en beeii 
propofed to me. Are there any Mines, fay they, in this 
province }! There are, without all difpute ; and that is fo 
ceftairtV sirid ( > w«^ll known, that they who have any 
knowledge of this country never once called it in qucf- 
tion. 'And ft is allowed by alL that there arc to be found 
in this country quarries of plafter of Paris, flate, and 
very fine .veined marble ; and I have learned from one of 


my friends, who as well as myfelf had been a great way 
on difcoverles, that in travelling this province he bad-, 
found a place full of fine flones of rock-cryftal. As for 
my (hjare, I can affirm, without endeavouring to impofe 
on any one, that in one of my excurfions I found, upoa 
tbe river of the Arkanfas, a rivulet that rolled down with 
its waters gold-duft ; from which there is reafon to be- 
lieve that there are mines of this metal in that country. 
And as for filver-mipes, there is no doubt but they might 
be found there, as well as in New Mexico, on which 
this province borders. A Canadian traveller, named Boh 
Homme, as he was hunting at fome diftance from the Poft 
of the Nachitoches, melted fome parcels of a mine, that 
is found in rock? at a very litt)e diftance from that Poft, 
virhich appeared to be very good Hlver, without any far-^ 
ther purification *. ,^ . 

It will be objected to me, perhaps, that if there is any 
truth in what I advance, I fhould have come from that 
country laden with filver and gold ; and that if thefe pre- 
cious metals are to be found there, as I have faid, it is 
furprizing that the French have never thought of difcover- 
ing and digging them in thirty years, in which they have 
been fettled in Louifiana. To this I anfwer, that this 
objedion is only founded on the ignorance of thofe who 
make it; and that a traveller, or an officer, ordered by 
his fuperiors to go to reconnoitre the country, to draw 
plans, and to give an account of what he has feen, in 
nothing but immenfe woods and deferts, where they can-< 
not fo much as find a path, but what is made by the wild 
beafts ; I fay, that fuch people have enough to do to take 
care of themfelves and of their prefent bufmefs, inftead 
of gathering riches ; and think it fufficient, that they re- 
turn in a whole fkin. 

With regard to the negligence that the French feem 
hitherto to have (hewn in fearching foi thefe mines, and 


\ * Sec a farther account and aflay of tbii oiiae above. 



in <Kgging them, we ought to take due notice, thtt tnf 
orrfor to open t filveNmine, for example, you muft a^-* 
vtnce at leaft a hundred thoufand crowns, before you can 
txpnSt to get a penny of profit from it, and that the* 
peopfe of the country are not in a condition to be at tny 
ibch charge. Add to this, that the inhabttanti are too 
ignorant of thefe mines ; the Spaniards, their neighbour^^ 
are too difcreet to teach them ; and the French in Europe 
are too backward and timorous to engage in fuch an un-* 
dertaking. But notwithftanding, it is certain that the 
thing has been already done, and that iuft reafons, with- 
out doubt, but different from an impoflibilityy have 
caufed it to be laid aHde. 

...This author gives a like account of the culture of 
kice in Louifiana, and of all the other ftaple commodi- 
ties of our colonies in North America. 




Bxtr^frm « lati French H^riart emtn^ng the Jk^trtamt 
9f Louifiana #» France. 


ONE cannot help lamenting the lethargic ftatc e^ 
that colon/t (Louifiana) which oarriea in its bo(bni . 
the bed of the greateft richei \ and in order to pfroduof 
them, a(kt only arms proper for tilling the earth, which 
n wholly difpofed to yield an hundred fold. Thanks to 
the fertility of our iflands, our Sugar plantations arc infi« 
nitely fuperior to thofe of the Englifli, and we likewifo 
excel them in ot^r produAions of Indigo, Cofiee, mmI 

<* Tobacco is the only produ^^ion of the earth which 
. gives the Englifh an Advantage over us. Providence* 
which referved for us the difcovery of Louifiana, has 
given us the pofl^flion of it, that we may be their rivals 
in this particular, or at leaft that we inay be able to do 
without their Tobacco. Ought we to continue tributaries 
to them in thi« refpefl, when we can fo eafily do without 

** I cannot help remarking here, that among feveral 
proje£ls prefented of late years for giving new force to 
this colony^ a company of ere litable merchants propofed 
to furniOl negroes to the inhabitants, and to be paid for 
them in Tobacco alone at a fixed valuation. • 

*« The following advantages, they demonftrated, would 
attend their fcheme. L It would increafe a branch of 
commerce in France, which alFords fubfiftcnce to tw<^f 
, the Engliih colonies in America, namely Virginia and 
Maryland, the inhabitants of which confume annually a 
very confiderable quantity of Englifh (luft's, and employ 
a great number of ihips in the tranfportation of their 
Tobacco. The inhabitants of thofe two provinces are {o 
greatly multiplied, in confequence of the riches they have 
acquired by their commerce with us, that they bt;giti 
. X . to 



to fpread 'h^ir^relves upon territories that falelong to us. 
I|»r,Thc ! /!oi d advsuitage trifmg from the fchemc 
would ))e» to carry the cultivation of Tobacco tp its 
great^ extent and perfection. III. To diminifh in pro- 
portion the cultivation of the Ehgltfh plantatioifl^, v ay 
well as leflen their navigation in that part. IV; To ^ut 
an end entirely to the importation of any Tobacco from 
Great-Britain into France, in the fpace of twelve years. 
V. To diminiih annually, and in the fame fpace of time 
finally put an end to, the exportation of fpecie from 
France to Great-Britain, which amounts annually to five 
millions of our money for the purchafe of Tobac9o, and 
the freightage of Englifh (hips, which bring it into our 
ports. VI. By diminiihing the caufe of the outgoing of 
fpecie, to augment the balance of commerce in favour of 
this nation. Thefe are the principal advantages which- 
France woulci K^ve reafon to have expeded from the efta- 
blifhment of this company, if it had been efFcAed." 
EJai fur Us Interets du Commerce Maritime^ p^r M, du 
Hayc. 1754. 

The probability of fucceeding in fuch a fcheme will 
appear from the foregoing accounts of Tobacco in Loui-' 
fiana, pag. 192, 193, 202, 212, &c. They only want 
hands to make any quantities of Tobacco in Louiilana^ 
The confequences of that will appear from the following 





Jn Account oftht Quantity of Tobacco imported into Britain, 
mtd exporttdfrom it, in the four TVart of Poaa, afttr thi 
late Tobacco-Law took place, according to the Cuftom'Houji 




















/• 1752 22,322 21,64a 

I I 1753 26,210 24,728 

' I >7S4 22,334 21,764 

'■1755 20,698 19.7 " 



Total — . — -p 350,111 — -^ 298,980 

Average — — 87,528 74»74S 

Imported yearly — . — — — hhds 87,528 
Exported 74,745 

Home confumption — — — — 12,783 
To 87,528 hogiheads, at lol. per hogfliead, j£875,28o 
Toduty on 12,783 hogiheads at 20I. — — 255,660 

Annual income from Tobacco — — — 1,130,940 

The number of feamen employed in the Tobacco tra^e 
is computed at 4500; — in the Sugar trade 3600 ; — and in 
the Fifiiery of Newfoundland 4000, from Britain. 



■)ftvr\ 'yi t. ^»ft C 

*. t A 










6 F 


|r- :?ttJ \ 


, : /if; j-jdj: r 

k* - • 

STi'/ ^aiural Hifiory of Louisiana* 

' (I'-f 


Of Com and Pulfi. 

HAVING, in the former part of this work, gfverf 
an account of the nature of the-foil of LouiHiKnJty 
and obferved that fome places were proper fair one 
kind of plants, and ^ine fof another; and that almoft 
the whole country was capable of producing, and brfng** 
ing to the utmoft maturity, all kinds of grain, 1 0iaU'hoii# 
prefent the induftrious planter with an account 'of the 
trees and plants which may be. cultivated to advantage in 
thofe lands with which he is now made acquainted* ' - 

During my abode in that country, where I niyfelf have 
a grant of lands, and where I lived fixteen years, I have 
bad letfure to ftudy this fubjefi, and have made fuch pro« 
grefs in it, that I have fent to the Wei|-India Companjr 

Q. ia 


in France no lefs than three hundred medicinal plants, found 
in . their |Loflcifioni« aod worthy of the attention of the 
public* The reader may depend upon my being faithful 
and exadl J he muft not hpweyer here expeA a defer! ption 
of every thing that Louifiana produces of the vegetable 
]4p4t 1(9 pcodigiout fertility makes it impracticable for 
me to unthrl^ke (o extenfive a work. I (hall chiefly 
defttibe thofe plants and fruits that are mod ufeful to the 
inhabitants^ either in regard to their own fubfiftence or 
prefervation, or in regard to their foreign commerce; 
^ and I fliall add the manner of cultivating and managing 
the planti that are of greateft advantage to the colony. 

Lomfiarta produces feveral kinds of Maiz, namely 
Flour-maias, which i» whjte^ with a flat and ihrivelldk} 
furface, and is the fofteft of all the kinds ; Homony corn, 
which is round, hard» and (hining^; of this there are four 
ibrts, the white, the yellow, the red* and the blue ; the 
Alaiz of theie two laft colours is more common in the high 
lands than in the Lower Louifiana. We have befides 
fmall corn, or fmall Maiz, fo called becaufe it is fmaller 
than the other kinds. New fettlers fow this corn upon 
their firft arrival, in ord^r^ to have whereon to fubfift as 
foon as poflible } for it rifes very fail, and ripens in fo ihorc 
siti^, tha^ffc^ the:iai9e Jield they may have two crops 
of, it in, qnf.yi;ajf. BfTided ihi?, it has. the advantage of 
l2^j(ig;fnoi:e, agreeable to tha taftet than thft largio kind. 

MaiZf which in France Is called Turkey Corn, (and 
in. JSflgland Indian Corn) is the natural produ£l of this 
CQW9Cvyi. fbi; upon our arrival we found it cultivated by 
th^ natives. It grows upon a ftalk fix, feven, and-eigh( 
^t.hi^l thA.ear is large, an4 about two inches diame- 
ter, contsMAing fometimes feven hundred grains and up- 
wards i 9ni.9HKh ftalk beacs fometimes fix or feven ears, 
accofdmg to the goodaefs o^ thje ground. The hlack^an4 
I'j^it (oil is that which agrees bei^ with: iti b»t ftiong; 
eroiuid b not fo fav9^rab|e,to Lt. 

•' i This 

Of LOtJISlAKA. 227 

This corn, it ife well known, is very> wholerome both 
for itiaiv And other animals, efpecially for poultry. The 
tmtivest that they iHay have change of diflHei, drcOr it in 
various waysk The beft is to make it into what is called 
Parched Medl, (Farine Ffoid^.) As there li nobody who 
does not eat of this with |rftfafure, even though not very 
hungry, I will give the manner of preparing it, that our 
provinces of France, which reap this grain, may draw tht 
fame advantage from it. 

The corn is iirft parboiled in water ; then drained and 
well dried. When it is perfeflty dry, it is then roifled ia 
a plate made for that putpofe, a(hes being mixed with i^ 
to hinder it from burning) and they keq> continually ftir- 
ring it, that it may take only the red colour which they 
want. When it has taken that colour, they remove the 
aihcs, rub it well, and then put it in a mortar with the 
aflies of dried (talks of kidney beans, and a little water } 
they then beat it gently, which quickly breaks the huflc., 
and turns the whole into meal. This meal, after being 
pdunded, is dried in the fuft, and after this laft operation 
it may be carried anywhere, and will keep fix months, if 
care be taken fr5m time to time to expOfe it to the fun. 
When tbey w|nt to eat of it, they mix in a veflel twd 
thirda water with one third meal, and in a few minutei 
the mixture fwells greatly in bulk, and is fit to eat. It it 
a very nourifliing food, and i» an excellent provifion fot 
travellers, and thofe who go to any diftance to trade. 

This parched meal, mixed with milk and a little fugft)^^ 
may be ferved up at the beft tables. When mixed witH 
milk'Chocolate it makes a very lafting nouriflimentl Froni 
Maiz they make a ftrong and agreeable beer ; and thejf 
likewifef diftil brandy from it.^ 

Wheat, rye, barley, aAd oats grow extremely well iii 
Louifiana ; but I rrruft add* one precaution in regard to 
wheat ; when it is fown by itfelf, as in France, it grows 
at fifft wonderfully i but wheii it is in Bower, a greai 

Q,^ * fiumbac 







■ 2.2 
^ li£ 12.0 









WEBSTER, N.Y. 145S0 

(716) S72-4503 



, 'A- 


number of drops of red water may be obferved at the bot- 
tom of the ftalic within fix inches of the ground, which 
are collefted there during the night, and difappear 9t 
fun-rifing. This water is of fuch an acrid nature, that 
in a (hort time it confumes the ftalk, and the ear falls be- 
'for^ the grain is formed. To prevent this misfortune, 
which is owing to the too great richnefs of the foil, the 
method I have taken, and which has fucceeded extremely 
well, is to mix with the wheat you intend to fow, fome 
rye and dry mould, in fuch a proportiwi that the mould 
fhall be equal to the rye and wheat together. This me- 
thod I remember to have feen pradlifed in France; and 
when I a(ked the reafon of it, the farmer told me that as 
the land was new, and had lately been a wood, it con- 
tained an acid that was prejudicial to the wheat; and that 
as the rye abforbed that acid without being hurt, it thereby 
prcferved the other grain. I have feen barley and oats in 
that country three feet high. ^ 

The rice which is cultivated in that country was 
brought from Carolina. It fucceeds furprizingly well, 
and experience has there proved, contrary to the common 
notion, that it does not want to have its foot always in 
the water. It has been fown in the flat country without 
being , flooded, and the grain that was reaped was full 
grown, and of a very delicate tafte. The fine relifli need 
not furprife us ; for it is fo with all plants and fruits that 
grow without being watered, andat a diftance from watery 
places. Two ^rops may be reaped from the fame pjant ; 
but the fecond is poor if it be not flooded. I knpvv npt 
whether they have attempted, fmce I left JLouifiana, ,t9 
fow it upon the fides of hills. . " ' ■ 

The firft fcttlers found in. the country French-beans of 

various colours, particularly red jind black, and they have 

been called beans of forty days, becaufe they require oq 

longer time to grow and to be fit to eat green. The Apa^ 

' lachean beans ^re fo called beg^ufe we received them froni 

a nation 

O't'LOUISI AN a'. 22Q 

k riatfoh oT the natives of that name. They probably had 
them from the Engliifh of Carolina, whither they had 
Iseen brought from Guinea. Their ftalks fpread upon 
the ground to the length of four or five feet. They are 
like the other beans, but much fmallefr, and of a brown 
colour, having a black ring round the eye, by which they 
are joined to the (hell. Thef^ beans boil tender, and 
have a tolerable relilh, but they are fweetifh^ and fome- 
what infipid. 

The potatoes are roots more commonly long than thick ; 
their form is various, and their fine fkin is like that of the 
Topinambous (IriOi potatoes.) In their fubftarice and 
tafte they very much refemble fweet chefnuts. They are 
cultivated in the following manner; the earth is raifed in 
little hills or high furrows about a foot and a half broad, 
that by draining the moifture, the roots may have a better 
relifh. The fmall potatoes being cut in little pieces with 
an eye in each, four or five of thofe pieces are planted on 
the head of the hills. In a (hort time they pufli out 
Ihoots, and thefe fhoots being cut oft about the middle of 
Auguft within fcven or eight inches of the ground, arc 
planted double, crofs-ways, in the crown of other hills. 
The roots of thefe laft are the moft efteemed, not only 
on account of their fine relifh, but becaufe they are eafier 
kept during the winter. In order to preferve them during 
that feafon, they dry them in the fun as foon as they are 
dug up, and then lay them up in a clofe and dry place, 
covering them firft with aihes, over which they lay dry 
mould. They boil them, or bake them, or roaft them on 
hot coals like chefnuts j but they have the ifineft relifli 
when baked or roafted. They are eat dry, or cut into 
fmalUflices in milk without fugar, for they are fweet of 
themfelves. Good fweetmeats are alfo made of them, and 
fome Frenchmen have drawn brandy from them. 

The Cu{haws are a kind of pompion. There are two 
forts of them, the one round, and the other in the fhape 

0.3 «>* 

230 T H E H I S T O R y 

of a hunting horn* ThrXc laft arc the heft, being of 4 
more firm fubflance, which makri them Iccep much better 
than the others ; their fweetnefs is not fo infipid, and 
thry have fewer feeds. They make fwectme^its of theft , 
|a(l, and ufc both kinds in foup ; they make fritters of 
them, fry thorn, bake them, and road them on the coals, 
und in all ways of cooking they are good and palatable. 

All kinds of melons grow admirably well in Louifianaf 
Thofe of Spain, of France, of England, which laft arc 
called white melons, are there infinitely finer than in the 
countries from whence they have their name ; but the bcft: 
fif all are the water melons. As they arc hardly known 
in France, except in Provence, where a few of the fmalj 
kind grow, I fancy a dcfcriptiop pf ti^em wD) not bp dif- 
ilgreeable to the reader. 

, The ftalk of this melon fpreads like ours upon the 
ground, and extends to the length of ten fi^et. It is (a 
tender, that when it is any way bruifed by treading upon 
St, the ff uit dies ; and if it is rubbed in the lead, it grow^ 
warm. The leaves are very much indented, as broad as 
the hand when they are fpread out, and arc fomewhat of 
t fea-green colour. The fruit is either round like a 
pompion, or long. Thera are fomc good melons of this 
laft kind, but the ftrft fort are moft efiecmed, and de- 
fervedly fo. The weight of the largeil rarely exceeds 
thirty pounds, but that of the fmallcft is always above 
, ten pounds. Their rind is of a pale green colour, inter- 
(jperfed with large white fpots. The fubftance that ad. 
kieres to the rind is white, crude, a|id of a difagreeable 
fartnefs, and is therefore never eaten. The fpace withii) 
ihat is HIM with a light and fparkling fubdance, that 
may be called for its propertws a rofe-coloured fnow. It 
, fpelts in the mouth as if it were actually fnow, and leaves 
a relifh like tJiat of the water prepared for Ack people 
from goofcberry jelly. This fruit cannot fail therefore of 
being very rcfrelhing, and is fo wholcfome, that pcrfon^ 


* \ 


in all kinds of dift^mpers tn'ay fatisfy their iij^petlte with 
it, without any ap|)rchenflon of being the worfe for it. 
The water-melons of Africa are not near fo relilhing n 
ihok of LouiAana* 

I'he feeds of water-melons are placed like th()fe of the 
French melons. Their (hape is oval and flat, being a» 
thick at the ends as towards th6 middle ; their length rs 
about fix lines, and their breadth four. Some are black 
And others red } but the black are the beil, ind it is thofe 
you ought to choofe for Ibwing, if you would wifl) to 
have good fruit ; which you cartnot fail of, if they art: 
not planted in (Irong ground, where they would degene- 
rate and become red. 

All kinds of greens dnd roots Which hiive been brought 
from Europe into that colony fucceed better there than ih 
France, provided they be planted in a foil fuited to them ( 
for it it certainly abfurd to think that onions and other 
bulbous plants fhould thrive there in a (bft and watet-y foiF, 
when every where clfe they require a light and dry ^th. 

Of tht Fruit Tras 0/ Louifiana. 

IShaCll now proceed to give an account of the fruit 
trees of this colony, and (hall begin with the Vine, 
which is fo common in LoUifiana, that ^^atever way you 
walk from the fea coaft for Ave hundred leagues north- 
wards, you tanhot proceed in hundred fteps without 
meeting with one j but unlcfs the yme-ihoots (houid hap- 
pen to grow in an expofed place, it cannot be expe£^ed 
that their fruit (hould ever come to perfe6t maturity. The 
treej to Whith thiy twine are fo high, ind fa thick of 
|eav^$, and the intervals of underwood are fo Ailed with 
reeds, that the fun cannot warm the earth, or ripen the 
fmt of t\\\^ ihrub. I will not undertake ro defcribe afl 

0.4 ^9 


^32 TH E HI STOR Y'i , • 

the kinds of grapes which this country produces ; it is 
even jmpodlblc to know them ail ; I Hull only fpcak uf 
three vr fpur^ 

The firft fort that I (hall mention docs not perhaps 
defer ve the name of a grape, although its woud and its 
leaf greatly rcfemblc the vine. This (hrub bears no 
bunchqs, an^ you hardly ever fee upon it above two grapes 
together. The grape in fubftancc and colour is very like 
a violet ^aoiafk plum, and its Hone, which is always lingte, 
greatly ijcfemblcs a nut. Though not very rclifliing, it 
has not however that difagrecable fliarpncfs of the grape . 
that grows In the neighbourhood of New Orleans. , 

On the edge of the favannahs or meadows we meet with 
a grapc^_ the fhoots of which refemble thofc of the Bur- 
gundy grape- They make from this a tolerable good 
wine, if they take care to cxpofe it to the fun in fummer, 
and to the cold in winter. I have made this experiment 
myfelf* and muft fay that I never could turn U into 

There is another kind of grape which I make no diffi- 
culty of "claflihg with the grapes of Corinth, commonly 
called currants. It refemb|es them in the wood, the leaf, 
the tree, the fize, and the fwcetnefs. Its tartnefs is owing 
to its being pVcvented from ripening by the ifhick (hade of 
the large trees to which it twines. If it were planned 
and cultivated in an open field, I make not the Icaifl doubt 
but it would equal the grape of Corinth, with which 

I clafs it. 

' -• ■ . ' -'sr itiO':' , 

Mufcadme grapes, of an amber colour, of a very good 
l^ind, iand very fweet, have been found upon declivities of 
3, good e;cpof^re, even fo far north as the latitude of 31 de- 
grees. There is the greatell probability that they might 
make excellent winc of thefe, as it cannot b^ doubted 
but the grapes might be brought to great perfeftion in this 
country* fince in the moi(t foil of New Orleans, the 
iy^tings of the grape whi^h fomc of the inha|)itants of 


that city Kronght from France, have fuccccded extremely 
wcl), jind afforded good wine. 

As a proof of the fertility of Louifiana, IcanilotToi*- 
bcar mentioning the following fa£t ; an inhabitant of New 
Orleans having planted in his garden a few twigs of this 
Mufcadine vine, with a view of making an arbour of 
them, one of his fons, with another negro boy, entered 
the garden in the month of June, when, the grapes are 
ripe, and broke off all the'bUnchcslhey could find. The 
father, after fevercly chiding the two boys, pruned the 
twigs that had been broken dnd bruifed ; and as feveral 
months of fummcr ftill remained, the vine pufhed out newr 
fhoots, and new bunches, which ripened and were as good 
as the former. • -^ ;i Ix 

The Perfimltion, which the French of the colbny call 
Pliicminier, very much refijirrbles our medlar-tree in its 
Jeaf and wood : its flower, Which is about an inch and 
a half broad, is white, and 'is compofcd of five petals; 
its fruit is about the fize of a large hen's egg ; it 19 Yhaped 
like our medlar, but its fubftarice is fwecter and more 
delicate. This fruit is aftriftgent ; when it is qifite ripe 
the natives make bread of it, which they keep from year 
to year; and the bread has thisf'remarkablc property that 
it will flop the moft violent loofencfs or dyfentcry ; there- 
fore it ought to be ufed with caution, sind only after phy- 
fic. The natives, in order to 'make this bread, fqucezc 
the fruit over fine fieves to feparate the pulp from the fkin 
and the kernels. Of this pul'p, vvhich is like parte or 
thick pap, they make cakes about a foot and a half long*, 
a foot broad, and a finger's breadth in thicknefs : thefe 
they dry in an oven, upon gridirons, or elfe in the furt i 
whicli laft method of drying gives a greater relifli to tht 
bread. This is one of their articles of traffic with the 

Their plum-trees are of two forts : the bcft h tfjat 
lyhicb beairs violet-coloured plums, quite like ours, which 


' t 


■re not difagreeable* and which certainly would be good 
if they did not grow in the middle of Woodi. The other 
kind bears plums of the colour of an unripe cherry, and 
thefe are To tart that no body can eat them } but J am of 
opinion they might be preferved like goofeberries ; cfpe- 
cialiy if pains were taken to cultivate them in open 
grounds. The fmall cherries, called the Indian cherry, 
are frequent in this country. Their wood is very beauti- 
ful, and their Je^^ves difTqr in nothing from thofe of the 
cherry tree. 

The Papaws are only to be found fat up in Higher 
X^^ouiftana. Thefe trees, it would feem, do not love 
hejit ; they do not grpw fo tall as the plum-trees ; their 
wood is very hard and flexible } for the lower branches are 
fometimes fo loaded with fruit that they hang perpendicu- 
larly downwards; anfl if you unlo;^d them of their fruit 
in the evcningv you wiU £nd them next morning in their 
natural ere^ portion. The fruit refembles a middle-fized 
Fucumberji the pulp is very agreeable and very whole- 
fome } but the rind, which is eafily dripped off, Reaves on 
the finders fo (harp an acid, that if you touch your eye 
with (hem before you wa£h them, it will be imntediately 
inflamed, and itph mfift ipfi^pportably iQ^ (w?f>ty*fouf 
hours after. 

The natives had doubtlefs got the peach-trees ^nd fig* 
trees from the £ngli(h colony of Carolina, before the 
f rench eftabUib«d tliiemfelves in Louiftana. The peachei 
are of the kind whicH we call Albergcs } s»re 0f ^e fixe 
of the fift, adhere to the ftone, and contain Co mucli 
water that they make a kind of wine of it, Th^ figs are 
either blue or white \ gns Urge and well enough tafted. 
Our colonifts plant tbci peach ftones about th4 end of 
February* and fuiFer the tree^ to grow cxp6fe4 to al| 
weathers. In tl>e third year they will gather frtjm one 
tree at leaft two hundred peaches, and double that num- 
ber for fix or feven years more, when the tree dies irreco? 
» • ■ ■ ' ' i' * • '■■ "■■' 7 ..' 

♦ >■ 


verably. As new trees are fo eafily produced, the lofs of 
the old ones is not in the lead regretted. 

The orangc-trccs and citron-trees that were brought 
from Cape Francois have fuccoeded extremely well ; how« 
ever I have fcen fo fevcre a winter that thofe kinds of threes 
were entirely frozen to the very trunk. In that cafe they 
cut the trees down to the ground, »nd the following fum^ 
mer they produced (hoots that were better than the former. 
If thcfc trees havf; fucceeded in tKe flat and moid foil of 
New Orleans, what may we not ejtpciSl when they are 
planted in better foil, and upon declivities of a good ex- 
pofure ? The oranges and citrons are as good as thofe of 
other countries } but the ripd of the orange in particu-* 
)ar is very thick, which makes it the better for a fwcct» 

There is plenty of wild apples in LouiHana, like thofe 
in Europe } and the inhabitants have got many kind of 
fruit trees from France, fuch as apples, pears, plums, 
cherries, &c. which in the low grounds run more into 
wood than fruit ; the few I had at the Natches proved 
that hig^ ground is much nvore fuited to them than the 


The blue Whortle berry is a flirub fomewhat taller than 
our largeft goofeberry bufhes, which are left to grow as 
they pleafe. Irs berries are of the (hape of a, goofeberry, 
grow finglc, atid are of a blue colour: they tafte like a 
fwcetiKh goofeberry, and when infufed in brandy it makes 
^ good dram. They attribute feveral *- i.ites to it, which, 
as I never experienced, I cannot anfw ^ for. It lovwC a 
poor gravelly foil. 

Louifiana produces 170 black mulberries : but from tt^e 
fea to the Arkanfas, which is- an extent of navigation 
upon the river of two hundred leagues, wcmcct very fre- 
quently with three kinds t^f mulberries ; one a bright red, 
another perfectly white, and a third white and fwcetifh. 
The firft of thefe kinds is very common, but the two laft 



are more rare. Of the red mulberries they mnke excel- 
lent vinegar, which keeps a long time, provided they 
take care in the making of it to keep it in the (hade in a 
veflcl well flopped, contrary to the practice in France* 
They make vinegar alio of bramble berries, but this is 
not fo good as the former. I do not doubt but the colo-* 
nifts at prefont apply themfelvcs ferioufly o the cultiva- 
tion of mulberries, to feed filk -worms, cfpeciaily as the 
countries adjoining to France, and which fupplied us 
with filk, have now made the exportation of it diffi- 

The olive-trees in this colony are furprifingly beauti- 
ful. The trunk is fomctlmes a foot and an half diameter, 
antt thirty feet high before it fprcads out into branches. 
The Pioven^als fettled in the colony affirm, that it8 
olives would afford as good an oil as thofe of their coun- 
try. Some of the olives that were prepared to be eat 
green, were as good as thofe of Provence. I have reafon 
to think, that if they were planted on the coafts, the 
olives would have a finer relifli. 

'" They have great numbers and a variety of kinds of wal- 
nut-trees in this country. There is a very large kind, the 
wood of which is almoft as black as ebony, but very 
porous. The fruit, with the outer (hell, is of the fizc 
of a large hen's egg : the fhell has no cleft, is very rough, 
and fo hard as to require a hammer to break it. Though 
the fruit be very relifliing, yet it is covered with fuch a 
thick film, that few can beftow the pains of feparating 
the one from the other. The natives make bread of it^ 
by throwing the fruit into water, and rubbing it till thp 
film and oil be feparated from it. If thofe trees were 
engrafted with the French walnut, their fruit would pro^ 
bably be improved. 

Other walnut-trees have a very white and flexible 
wood. Of this wood the natives make their crooked 
ipaJcs for hoeing their fields, 1 he nut is fmaller than 


» t) F I. O U I S I A N A. 237 

ours, and the (hell more tender} but the ftuit is To bitter 
that none but perroquets can put up with it. 

The Hicori bears a very fmall kind of nut, which at 
firft fight one would take for filberts, as they have the 
fame ihapc and colour, and their (hell is as tender, but 
within they arc formed like walnuts. They have fuch an 
excellent relifh, that the French make fried cukes of them 
as good as thofe of almonds. 

Louifiana produces biit a few filberts, as the filbert re- 
quires a pour gravelly foil, which is not to be rnet with in 
this province, except in the neighbourhood of the Tea, 
efpecially near the river Mobile, 

I'he large chcfnuts are not to be met with but at the 
diiUnce of one hundred leagues from the fea, and far 
from rivers in the heart of the woods, between the coun- 
try of the Chadaws and that of the Chicafaws. The 
common chefnuts fucceed befl upon high declivities, and 
their fruit is like the chefnuts that grow in our woods. 
1 here is another kind of chefnuts, which are called the 
Acorn chefnuts, as they are fhaped like an acorn, and 
grow in fuch a cup. fiut they have the colour and tade 
of a chefnut/; and I have often thought that thofe were 
the acorns \yhich the firfl of men were faid to have lived 

• The Sweet-Gum, or Liquid-Ambar (Copalm) is not 
only extremely common, but it affords a balm, the vir- 
tues of which are infinite. Its bark is black and hard, 
and its wood fo tender and fupple, that when the tree is 
felled, you may draw from the middle of it rods of five 
or fix feet in length. It cannot be employed in building 
or furniture, as it warps continually ; nor ts it fit for 
burning on account of its ftrong fmell ; but a little of it 
in a fire yields an agreeable perfume. Its leaf is indented 
with five points like a flar. 

I (hall not undertake to particularize all the virtues of 
this Sweet-Gum or Liquid-Ambar, not having learned all 




of thrm from the natives of the country, who irould ht 
no lefs furprifcd to find that we ufed it only as a varniih^ 
than they were to fee our furgeons bleed their patients^ 
This balm, according to them, is an excellent febrifuge » 
they take tco-or a dozen drops of it in gruel fading, andi 
before their meals i and if they fhould take a little more« 
they have no reafon to apprehend any danger. 1 he phy- 
ficians among the natives purge their patients before they* 
give it them. It cures wounds in two days without any. 
bad confequcnces : it is equally fovereign for all kinds of' 
ulcers, after having applied to them for fome d ys a plafteK 
of bruifed ground-ivy. It cures confumptions, openst 
obftrudtions } it affords relief in the cciic and all internal! 
difeafes ; it comforts the heart i in fhort, it contains fo 
many virtues, that they are every day difcovering fome 
new properly that it hat< 

Of fvrefi Trees, 

HAVING defcribed the moft remarkable of their 
fruit trees, I fliall now proceed to give an account 
of their foreft trees. White and red cedars are very com* 
mon upon the coal^. The incorruptibility of the wood, 
and many other excellent properties which are well known, 
induced the firfl French fettlers to build their houfes of 
it ; which were but very low. 

Next to the cedar the cyprefs-tree irtlie moft valuaUe 
wood. Some reckon it incorruptible } and if it be not, it 
is. at leaft a great many years in rotting. The tree that 
wat found twenty feet deep in the earth near New Orleans 
was a cyprefs, and was uncorrupted. Now if the lands 
of Lower Louifiana are augmented two leagues everjr 
century, this tree muft have been buried at leaft twelve 
centuries. The cyprefs grows very ftraight and tall, with 

a pro- 

O r L O U I S I A N A. 239 

a proportionable thkknedit They cominonljr make their 
pettyaugret of a Angle trunk of this tree, which will carry 
three or four thoufand weight, and fumerimes more. Of 
one of thofe trees' a carpenter offered to make two 
pettyaugres, one of which carried Axtecn ton, and th< 
other fourteen. There is a cyprefs at liaton Kouge, a 
French fettlemcnt twenty-fix leagues above New Orleans, 
which meafures twelve yards round, and is of a prodi- 
gious height. The cyprefs has few branches, and it» 
le»f is long and narrow. The trunk clofe by the ground 
fometimes fends off two or three ftems, which enter the 
earth obliquely, and ferve for buttreiTes to the tree. Its 
wood is of a beautiful colour, fomcwhat reddiHi ; it is foft, 
light, and fmooth ; its grain is ftraight, and its pores 
very clofe. It is cafily fplit by wedges, and though ufed 
green it never warps. It renews itfelf in a very extraor-* 
dinary manner : a fliort time after it is cut down, a (boot 
is obferved to grow from one of its roots exa<5lly in the 
form of a fugar-loaf, and this fometimes rifcs ten feet high 
before any leaf appears : the branches at length arife front 
the head of this conical ihoot *. 

The cypreflcs were formerly very common InLouifiana ^ 
but they thuve wafted them fo imprudently, that they are 
now fomewhat rare. They felled them for the fake of 
their bark, with which they covered their houfes, and 
they fawed the wood into planks which they exported ac 
diiFerent places. The price of the wood now is. three 
tunes as niuch as it was formerly. 

The Pine-tree, which loves a barren foil, is to be 
found in great abundance on the fea coafts, where it 
grows very high and very beautiful. The. iflands upon 
the coaft, which are formed wholly of (hining fand, bear 
noother trees, and I am perfuaded that as. Anemafis might 
be made of them as of the firs of Sweden. 


* Thii U a aiflake, accerdia| to Cbulcvolx. 


All the fbuth parts of Louifiana abound with thd 
Wild Laurel, which grows in the woods without any cuU 
tivation: the fame may be faid of the ftone laurel; but 
if a perfon is not upon his guard he may take for the 
laurel a tree natural to the. country, which would com- 
municate its bad fmell to ev^ry thing it is applied to. 
Among the laurels the preference ought to be given to the 
tulip- laurel (magnolia) which is not known in Europe. 
This tree is of the height and bulk of one of our common 
walnut-trees. Its head is naturally very round, and fo 
thick of leaves that neither the fun nor rain can penetrate 
it. Its leaves are full four inches long, near three incnes 
broad, and very thick, of a beautiful iea-green on the 
upperfide, and refembling white velvet on the under-fide : 
its bark is fmooth and of a grey colour ; its wood is white, 
folft and flexible, and the grain interwoven.' Jt owes its 
name to the form of its great white flowers, which are at 
Icaft two inches broad. Thefe appearing in the fpring 
amidft the glofly verdure of the leaves, have a moft beauti- 
ful efFe<^. As the top is naturally round, and the leaves 
are ^ver-green, avenues of this tree would doubtlefs 
be worthy of a royal garden. After it ha^ (he its leaves, 
' its fruit appears in the form of a pine apple and upon 
the flrft approach of the cold its grain turns lu > a lively 
red. Its kernel is very bitter, and it is faid to b( ifpecific 
againft fevers. 

The faflafras, the nameof which is familiar t botanifts 
on t count of its itiedicinal qualities, is a large ai tall tree. 
Its bark is thick, and cracked here and there j . ^ wood is 
fomewhat of the colour of cinnamon, and has an agreeable 
fmell. It will not burn in the fire without the mixture 
of other wood, and even in the lire, if it ihould be fepa- 
rated from the flaming wood, it is immediately extinguifli- 
ed as if ii' were dipped in water. 

The'maple grows upon declivities in cold climates, and 
is much more plentiful in the northern than fouthern parts 



of the colony., fiy boring it they draw from it a fweet fy- 
rup which I have drunk of, and whidi they alledge is an 
excellent flomachic. 

The myrtle wax- tree is one of the greateft blefHngs with* 
which nature has enriched Louiflana, as in this country 
the bees lodge their honey in the earth to fave it from the 
ravages of the bears, who are very fond of it, and do not 
value their flings. One would be apt to take it at firft 
fight, both from its bark and its height, for that kind of 
laurel ufed in the kitchens. Itrifes in feveral ilems from 
the root; its leaf is like that of the laurel, but not fp 
thick nor of fuch a lively green. It bears its fruit in bun* 
ches like a nofegay, rifmg from the fame place in various 
ftalks about two inches long : at the end of each of thofe 
ftalks is a little pea, containing a kernel in a nut, which 
laft is wholly covered with wax. The fruit, which is 
very plentiful, is eafily gathered, as the ihrub is very ' 
flexible. The tree thrives as well in the ihade of other 
trees as in the open air } in watry places and cold countries, 
as well as in dry grounds and hot climates ; for I have 
been told that fome of them have been found in Canada, 
a country a? cold as Denmark. 

This tree yields two kinds of wax, orie a whitifh yel- 
low, and the other greerl. It was a long time before they 
learned to feparate them, and they prepared the wax at firft 
in the following manner. They threw the grains and 
the flalks into a large kettle of boiling water, and when 
the wax was detached from them, they fcummed off the , 
grains. When the water cooled the wax floated in z 
cake at the top, and being cut fmall, bleached in a fhorter 
time than bees .wax. They now prepare it in this manner j 
they throw boiling water upon the flalks and grains till 
they are entirely floated, and when they have flood thus a 
few minutes, they pour off the water, which carries the 
finefl wax with it. This wax when cold is of a pale 
yellow colour, and may be bleached in fix or feven 

R days. 



days. Having feparated the beft wax, they pour thtf 
water again upon the ftalks anc^ grains, and boil all to- 
gether till they think they have feparated all the wax. 
Both kinds are exported to our fugar iflands, where the 
firft is fold for a hundred fols the pound, and the fecond 
for forty. 

This w^x is fo brittle and dry that if it falls it breaks 
into feveral pieces ^ on this account however it lafts longer 
than that of France, and is preferred to it in our fugar 
iflands, where the latter is foftened by the great heatS) and 
confumes like tallow. I would advife thofe who prepare 
this wax to feparate the grain from the (hort ftalk before 
they boil it, as the flalk is greener than the grain, and 
(eems to part eafily with its colour. The water which 
fervcs to meltahd feparite the wax is far from being ufe- 
lefs. l^he fruit communicates to it fucfa an aftringent 
virtue, as to harden the tallow that is melted in it to fuch 
a degree, that the candles made of that tallow are as firm 
as the wax candles of France. This aftringent quality 
likewifb renders it an admirable fpecific againft a dy- 
fentery or loofenefs. From what I have faid of the 
myrtle wax-tree, it may well be believed that the French 
of Louifiana cultivate it carefully, and miake plantations 
of it. 

The cotton-tree (a poplar) is a large tre6 which no wife 
d^ferves the name it bears, unlefs for fome beards that it 
throws out. Its fruit which contains the grain is about , 
the fiie of a walnut, and of no ufe ; its wood is yellow, 
fmooth, fomewhat hard, of a fine grain, and very proper 
for cabinet work. The bark of its root is a fovereign re- 
medy for cuts, and fo red that it may even ferve to dye that 

The acacia (locuft) is the fame in Louifiana as in 
France, much more common, and lefe freight. The na- 
tives call it by a name that fignifies hard wood, «and they 
make their bows of it becaufe it id vfery tt[&\ They looic 
2 upon, 


upon it as aa incorruptible wood, which induced the 
French fettlers to build their houfes of it The pofts 
fixed in the earth muft be entirely ftripped of their bark, 
for notwithftanding their hardncfs, if the leail bark be 
left upon them thej will take root. 

The holm-oak grows to a furprifing bulk and height 
in this country ; i have leen of them a foot and a half 
diameter, «od about 30 feet from the ground to the 
kmeft branches. 

The mangrove is very common all over America. It 
grows in Lomiiana near the fea, even to the bounds of 
low water mark. It is more prejudicial than ufeful, in- 
afmuch as it occupies a great deal of good land, prevents 
failors from Uiulifig, aod affords flicker to the hOk from the 
iiihermen. ' 

Oak-trees abovnd in Louifiana ; there are fomt rec}, 
fome white, and fome ever-green. A (btp-buitder of St. 
Maloes afTured me that the red is as good as the ever-green 
upon which we fet fo high a value in France, i 1 he ever- 
green oak is moft common toward the fea-coafts, and 
near the banks of rivers, coniequently may be tranfported 
with great eafe, and become a great refource for the 
navy of France *. I forgot to mention a fourth kind of 
oak, namely the black oak, fo called from the colour of 
its bade. Its wood is very hard, and of a deep red* It 
grows upon the declivities of hiUs and in the favannahs. 
Happening after a fkower of rain to examine one of thefe 
whicii I cut down, I obferved fome water to come from it 
as red as blood, wiiieb made me think that it might be 
ufed for dying. 

R 2 ' The 

• Eleven leagues above the mouth of the Miflifippl, on the weft fidr, 
flMre It greit plenty of evcNgrecn oaks, the wood of vrhich i* vcry-proper 
for the tiinben xf ihips, «a it dees oot tot in mutt. Dumont, 1. & 50. 

According}/ Vhe b«ft ihips buik i? America are well known to be tbflfe 
that have their timbers of ever-grwa oak, anxl their plank of ci^ar, pf 
both which there are great plenty on all the coafts of Looiriana. 


The afl) is very common in this country ; but more and 
better upon the fea-coafts than in the inland parts. As 
it is eafy to be had, and is hafder than the elm, the 
wheel-wrights make ufe of it for wheels, which it is need- 
lefstoring with iron in a country where there are neither 
ftones nor gravel. 

The elm, beech, lime, and hornbeam, are exa^ly the 
fame in Louifianaas in France; the laft of thefe trees is 
very common here. The baric of the lime-tree of this 
country is equally proper for the making of ropes, as the 
bark of the common lime j but its leaf is twice as large, 
and (haped like an oblong trefoil leaf with the point 

The white woods are the afpen, willow, alder and 
liart. This laft grows very large, its wood is white and 
light, and its fibres are interwoVen; It is very flexible and 
is eafily cut, on which account they make their large 
petty augres 'of it. 

^ CHAP. IV. 

Of Shrubs and Excrefiences, 

THE ayac, or ftinking-wood, is ufually a fmall tree, 
feldom exceeding the thicknefs of a man's leg ; its 
leaf is of a yellowiih gr^n, glofly, and of an oval form, 
being about three inches in length. The wood is yellow, 
and yields a water of the fame colour, when it is cut in the 
fap : but'both the wood and the water that comes from it 
have a difagreeable fmell. The natives ufe the wood for 
dying ; they cut it into fmall bits, pound them, and then 
boil them in water. Having drained this water, they 
dip the feathers and hair into it, which it is their cuftom 
to dye firft yellow, and then red. When they intend to 
ufe it for the yellow dye, they take care to cut the wjud in 


' OF LOUrSIANA. 245 

the winter, but if they want only a flight colour they 
never mind, the feafon of cutting it. ' . 

The machonchi, or vinegar-tree, is a flirub with' 
leaves, fomewhat refembling thofe of the afh; but the 
foot-ftalk from which the leaves hang is much longer. 
When the leaves are dry the natives mix them with their 
tobacco to weaken it a little, for they do not love ftrong 
tobacco for fmoaking. The wood is of an aftringent 
nature, and if put into vinegar makes it ftronger. 

The caffine, or yapon, is a fhrub which neVcr grows 
higher than 15 feet; its bark is very fmooth, and the 
wood flexible. Its leaf is very much indented, and when 
lifed as tea is reckoned good for the ftomach. The natives 
make an intoxicating liquor from it, by boiling it in water 
till great part of the liquor evaporate. 

The toothach-tree does not grow higher than 10 or jt 
feet. The trunk, which is not very large, is wholly co- 
vered over with fhort thick prickles, which are eafily rub- 
bed off. The pith of this flirub is almoft as large as that 
of the elder, and the form of the leaf is almoft the fame in 
both. It has two barks, the outer almoft black, and the 
inner white, with fomewhat of, a pale reddifh hue. 
This inner bark has the property of curing the tooth-ach. 
The .patient rolls it up to the fize of a bean, puts it 
jupoii the aching tooth, and chews it till the pain 
ceafes. Sailors and other fuch people powder it, and ufe 
it as pepper. r 

The paflion-thorn does not rife above the height of a 
ihrub ; but its trunk is rather thick for its height. This 
flirub is in great efteem among the Natches ; but I never 
could learn for what reafon. Its leaf refembles that of 
the black thorn ; and its wood while it is green is not very 
hard. Its prickles are at leaft two inches long, and gre 
very hard and piercing; within half an inch of their root 
two other fmall prickles grow out from them fJo as to form 

R 3 N acrofs. 


a cmfs. The wh^le trunk is covered with thefe prk" 
kles, fo that you muft be very wary how you approach it^ 
or cut it. 

The ddar-tree i« ex»Et\j like tha^ of France, only 
that its leaf is a Htde more indented. The juice of its 
leaves mixed with hog's lard is a fpeciftc againft the 

The palmetto has its leaves in the form of an open fan, 
fcolloped at the end of each of its folds. Its bark is more 
rough and knotty than that of the palm-tree. Althbugh 
ft is tefs than that of the £aft Indies, it may however 
fcTve to the fame purpofes. Its wood is not harder than 
that of a cabbage^ and its trunk is £b ibft that the leaA 
wind overturns it, (b that i never &w any but what were 
lying on the ground. It is very common in Iit)wer 
[Louifiana, where there are no wild oxen y for thofe ani- 
mals who love it dearly, and ^re greatly fattened by it, 
devour it wherever they can find it. The Spanifli women 
inake hats of its leaves that do not weigh an ounce, riding-* 
hoods, and othec curious works. 

The birch-tree is the fame with that of France. Ia 
the north they make canoes of its bark large enough to 
hold eight perfons* When the fap rifes they ftrip off the 
hark from the tree in one piece with wedges, after whkh 
they few up the two ends of it to f^rve for flem and ftern^i 
and anoint the whole with gum. 

I make not the lead: doubt but that there are great num- 
bers, of other trees in the forefts of Louifiana thatdeferve 
to be particularly defcribed j but I know of none, nof 
have I heard of any, but what I have already fpoken of. 
For our travellers, from whom alone we can get any in- 
telligence of thofe things, are more intent upon di(cover- 
ing game which they ftand in need of for their fubfiftence, 
than in obferving the productions of nature in the vegeta* 
hie kingdom. To what I have fatd of ti-ees, I ihaU only 

■ add. 


add, from my own knowledge, an account of two lingular 

The firft Is a kind of agaric or mu(hroom, which grows 
from the root of the walnut-tree, efpecially when it is 
felled. The natives, whq are very careful in the choice 
of their food, gather it with great attention, boil ir in 
water, and eat it with their gruel. I had the curiofity 
to tafle of it, and found it very delicate, but rather inftpid, 
which might eafily be corrected with a little feafbning. 

The other excrefcence is commonly found upon trees 
near the banks of rivers and lakes. It is called Spanifh 
beard, which name was given it by the natives, who, 
when the Spaniards firft appeared in their country about 
240 years ago, were greatly furpriAsd at their muftachios 
and beards. This excrefcence appears like a bunch of hait 
hanging from the large branches of trees, and might at 
firft be eafily miftaken for an old perruque, efpecially 
when it is dancing with the wind. As the firft fcitlers of 
Louifiana ufed only mud walls for their houfes, they 
commonly mixed it with the mud for ftrengtbening the 
building. WKen gathered it is of a grey colour, but 
when it is dry its bark falls ofF, and difcovers black iila- 
ments as long and as ftrong as th.e hairs of a horfe^s tail. 
I dreffed feme of it for ftuffing a mattrafs, by firft laying 
it up in a heap to viake it part with the bark, and after- 
wards beating it to take ofF fome fmall branches that re* 
jfemble fo many little hooks. It is afiirmed by fome to be 
incorruptible : I inyfelf have Ceen of it under old rotteti 
treeg that was jpcrfedlly frelh and ftrong. 


G H A P. 



C H A P. V. 

, Of Creeping Planti, 

THE great fertility of Louifiana renders the creeping 
plants extremely confimon, which, exclufive of the 
ivy, are all different from thofe which we have in France. 
1 fhall only mention the moft remarkable. 

The bearded-creeper is fo called from having its whole 
ftalk covered with a beard about an inch long, hooked at 
the end, and fomewhat thicker than a horfe*s hair. There 
is no tree which it loves to cling to fo much as to the 
fweet gum j apd fo great is its fympathy, if I may be 
allowed the expreffion, for that tree, that if it grow bc^ 
tween it and'any other tree, it turns folely towards the 
fweet gum, although it (hould be at the greateft diftance 
from it. This is likewfife the tree upon which it thrives 
^eft. It ha$ the fame virtue with its balm of being a fe- 
brifuge, and this I affirm after a great number of proofs. 
The phyficians among the natives ufe this f^mple in the 
followhig manner. They take a piece of it, above the 
length of the finger, which they fplit into as many threads 
as poffible ; thefe they boil in a quart of water, till one 
third of the deco6tion evaporate, and the remainder is 
Arained clear. They then purge the patient, and the 
next day, upon the approach of the fit, they give a third 
of the decoction to drink. If the patient be not cured 
with the firfl dofe, he is. again purged and drinks anotheir 
third, which feldom fails of having the wifhed-for efFeii. 
This medicine is indeed very bitter, but it ftrengthens 
the ftomach; a flngular advantage it has over the 
Jefuits bark, which is accufed of having a contrary 

There i$ another creeper very like falfaparilla, only 
that it bears its leaves by threes. It bears a fruit fmooth 


on one fide like a filbert, and on the other as rough as the ' 
little fhells which ferve formoney on the Guinea coaft. I 
(hall not fpeak of its properties ; they are but too well 
known by the women of Louifiana, efpecially the girls, 
who very often have recourfe to it. 

Another creeper is called by the native phyHcians the 
remedy againft ^ifoned arrows. It b large and verf 
beautiful} its leaves are pretty long, and the pods 
it bears are narrow, about an inch broad, and eight in- 
ches long. 

The falfaparilla grows naturally in Louifiana, and it it 
not inferior in its qualities to that of Mexico. It is £> 
well known that it is needlefs to enlarge upon it. 

The efquine partly refembles a creeper and partly a 
bramble. It is furnifhed with hard fpikes like prickles, 
and its oblong leaves are like thofe of the common creeper 
(lianej) its ftalk is ilraight, long, (hining, and hard, 
and it runs up along the reeds : its root is fpungy, and 
fometimes as large as one's head, but mort long than 
round. Befides the fudorific virtue which the efquine 
poflefles in common with the falfaparilla, it has the pro- 
perty of making the hair grow, and the women among 
the natives ufe it fuccefsfuUy with this view. They cut 
the root into fmall bits, boil them in water, and wafli 
their heads with the decdftion. I have feen feveral of 
them^ whofe hair came down below their knees, and one 
particularly whofe hair came lower than the ankle bones. 

Hops ^row naturally in the gullies in the high 

Maiden>hair grows in Louifiana more beautiful, at 
leaft as good as that of Canada, which is in fo great repute. 
It grows in gullies upon the fides of hills, in places that 
areabfolutely impenetrable to the moll ardent rays of the 
Cuo. It feldom rifes above a foot, and it bears a thick 



Ihaggy head. The native phyAcIans know more of its 
virtues than we do in France. 

' The canei or ree^s which I have mentioned fo often 
may be divided into two kinds. One kind grows in moift 
places to the height of eighteen feet, and the thicknefs 
of the wrift. The natives makes matts, fttves, fmall 
boxes, and other works of it. Thofe that grow in dry 
places are neither fo high nor fo thick, but are fo hard, 
that before the arrival of the French, the natives ufed 
fplits of thofe canes to cut their visuals with. After a 
certain number of years, the large canea bear a great 
abundance of grain, which is fomewhat like oats, but 
about three times as large. The natives OarefuUy gather 
thefe grains anJ make bread or gruel of them. This 
ilour fwells as much as that of wheat. When the reeds 
have yielded the grain they die, and none appear for 
a long time after in the fame place, efpecially if fire has 
been fet to the old ones. 

The flat-root receives its name from the form of its 
root, which is thin, flat, pretty often ini^ented, and 
fometimes even pierced through ; it is a line or fometimed 
two lines in thicknefs, and its breadth is commonly a foot 
and a half. From this large root h^g feveral other fmall 
ftraight roots, which draw the nourishment from thiP 
earth. This plant, which grows in meadows that are' 
not very rich, fends up from the fame root feveral ftraight 
ftalks about eighteen inches high, which are as hard as 
wood, and on the top of the ftalks it bears fmall purplifli 
flowers, in their figure greatly refembling thofe of heath ; 
' its feed is contained in a deep cup clofed at the head, and 
in a manner crowned. Its leaves are about an inch 
broad, and about two long, without any indenting, of a 
^ark green, inclining to a brown. It is fo ftrong a fuSori- 
fic, that the natives never ufe any other for promoting 
fweating, although they are perfectly acquainted with 
iaflafras, falfaparilla, the efquine and others. 




The rattle-fnake-herb has a bulbous root, like that of 
the tuberofe, but twice as large. The leaves of both 
have the fame Ihape and the fame colour, and on the 
under fide have feme flame- coloured fpots ; but thofe of 
the rattle-fnake plant are twice as large srs the others, end 
in a very firm point, and are armed with very hard 
prickles on both ftdes. Its ftalk grows to the height of 
about three feet, and from the head rife five or fix fprigs 
in different directions, each of which bears a purple 
flower an inch broad, with five leaves in the form of a 
cup. After thefe leaves are fhed there remains a head 
About the fixe of a fmall nut, but fhaped like the head of 
a poppy. This head is feparated into four divifions, each 
of which contains four black feeds, equally thick through- 
out, and about the fize of a large lentil. When the head 
is ripe, it will, when (haken, give the fame found as the 
tail of a rattle-fnake, which feems to indicate the property 
of the plant.; for it is the fpecific remedy againft the bite 
of that dangerous reptile. The perfon wlio has been bit 
ought immediately to take a root, bite off part of it, chew 
it for ibme time, and apply it to the wound. In five or fix 
hours it will extraiSl the whole prnfon, and no bad confe- 
quences need be apprehended. 

GroUnd-ivy is faid by the natives to pofTeis many more 
virtues than are known to our botanifts. It is faid to eife 
women in labour when drank in a decodion ; to cure 
ulcers, if bruifed and laid upon the ulcered part; to bea fo- 
vereign remedy for the head-ach ; a confiderable quantity 
of its leaves bruifed, and laid as a cataplafm upon the head, 
tquickly removes the pain. As this is an inconvenient ap • 
plication to a perfon that wears his hair, I thought of 
taking the GdU of the plant, and I gave fome of them in 
vulnerary viratcr to a friend of mine who was often attacked 
with the head-ach, advifing him likewi/e to draw up fome 
drops by the nofe : be feldom prat^ifed this but he was re- 
lieved a few moments after. 




. The Achechy is only to be found in the (hade of a 
wood, and never grows higher than fix or feven inchea. 
It ba^ a fmall (lalk, and its leaves are not above three 
lines long. Its root conAfts of a great many fprigs a line 
in diameter, full of red juice like chickens blood. Hav«i 
ing tranfplantcd this plant from an overlhadowed place 
into my garden, I expe(fled to fee it greatly improved } but 
it was not above an inch taller, and its head was only a 
little buibier than ufual. It is with the juice of this plant 
that the natives dye their red colour. Having firft dyed 
their feathers or hair yellow or a beautiful citron colour 
with the ayac wood, they boil the roots of the achechy in 
water, then fqueeze them with all their force, and the ex> 
prefTed liquor ferves for the red dye. That which was na- 
turally white before it was dyed yellow, takes a beautiful 
icarlet ; that which was brown, fuch as buffalo's bair, 
which is of a chefnut colour, becomes a rcddifh brown. 

I (ball not enlarge upoii the ftrawberries, which arc of 
an excellent flavour, and fo plentiful, that from the be- 
ginning of April the favannahs of meadows appear quite 
xed with them. I (hall alfo only juft mention the tobacco^ 
which I refefve for the article of agriculture ; but I ought 
not to omit to take notice, that hemp grows naturally on 
the lands adjoining to the lakes on the weft of the MifH- 
fippi. The ftalks are as thick as one's finger, and about 
fix feet long. They are quite like ours both in the wood, 
«the leaf, and the rind. The flax which was fown in this 
country rofe three feet high, 

I cannot affirm from my own knowledge that the foU 
in this province produces either white mufhrooms or truf- 
fles. But morelles in their feafon are to' be found in 
the greateft abundance, and round mufiirooms in the 

When I confider the mild temperature of this climate, 
I am p^rfuaded that all our flowers would fucceed ex- 
tremely well in it. The country has flowers peculiar to 



itfelf, and in fuch abundance, that from the month of May 
till the end of fummer, you can hardly fee the graft in thie 
meadows } and of fuch various hues that one is at a loft 
which to admire moft and declare to be the mod beautiful. 
The number an<1 diverfity of thofe flowers quite enchant 
the Aght. I will nut however attempt to give a particu- 
lar account of th^m, a. ^ am not qualified on this head to 
fotify the dcfireg of tfi* cariou., from my having neglected 
to confider tl>< various iiowers themfelves. I have feea 
fingle and fmall /'/es without i/iy fmell; and another 
kind of rofe with fout white petals, which in its fmelJ, 
chives, and pointal, differed in nothing from our damafk 
rofes. But of all the flowers of this country, that which 
ilruck me moi^, as it is both very common and lafls ii 
longtime, is the flower called Lion's^Iouth. The flow- 
ers which decorate its ftalk, its fhady colours, its blowing 
for more than three months, juftly entitle it to the pre- 
ference before all other flowers. It forms of itfelf an 
agreeable nofegay ; and in my opinion, it deferves to be 
ranked with the finefl flowers, and to be cultivated with 
attention in the gardens of our kings. 

As to cotton and indigo, I defer fpeaking of them till 
I come to the chapter of agriculture. 

» i 




nfthe ^adrupedis, 

BEFORE I fpeak of the animals whidi the firft fettkrs 
found in Louifiana, it is proper to obferve, that aH 
tadk which were brought hither from France, or from 
New Spain and Carolina, fuch as horfes^ oxen, fhee^ 
goats, dogs, cats, and others, have multipli«d and thriven 
perfoflly well. However it ought to be remarked, that 
in Lower Louifiana, where the ground ie motft and much 
covered with wood, they can neither be i« good nor fo 
beautiful as in Higher Lourfiana, where the foil is dry, . 
where there are mbft extenlive meadows, and wiiere the 
fun warms the earth to a much greater degree. 

The buffalo is about the fize of one of our largefl: 
oxen, but hs appears rather bigger, on account of his 
long curled wool, which makes him appear to the eye 
much larger than he really is. This wool is very fine and 
very thick, !<; of a dark chefnut colour, as are like- 
wife his hairs, which are alfo curled, and fo long, 
that thc^ bufli betwieen his horns often fails over his eyes, 
and hinders him from feeing before him ; but his fenfe of 
hearing and fmelling is fo exquifite as in fome meafure to 
fupply the want of the other. A pretty large bunch rifes 
6n his (houlders in the place where they join to the neck. 
His horns are thick, (hort, and black; and his hoof is 
alfo black. The cows of this fpecies hav^ fmall udders 
like thofe of a mare. 

This buffalo is the chief food of the natives, and of 
the French alfo for a long time pafl } the beft piece is the 
bunch on the (houlders, the tafte of which is extremely 
delicate. They hunt this animal in the winter } for which 
purpofe they leave Lower Louifiana, and the river Mifli- 
fippi, as he cannot penetrate thither on account of the 
thicknefs of the woods; and befides loves to feed on long 




grBfs, which is only to be found in the meadows of the 
high lands* In order to get near enough to fire upon 
him, they go againft the wind, and they take aim at the 
hollow of the flioulder, that they may bring htm to the 
ground at once, for if he is only flightly wounded, he 
runs againft his enemy. The natives when hunting fel- 
dom choofe to kill any but the cows, having experienced 
that the flelh of the male fmells rank; but this they 
might eafily prevent, if they did but cut ofF the tefticles 
from the beaft as foon as he is dead, as they do from ftags 
and wild boars. By killing the males there is lefs hazard 
of dimini(hing th"; fpecles than by killing the females; 
and beAdes, the males have much more taJlow, and their 
(kins are the largeft and beft. 

Thefe (kins are an obje£): of no fmall confideration. 
The natives drefs them with their wool on, to fuch great 
perfection, as to render them more pliable than our buff. 
They dye them different colours, and death themfelves 
therewith. To the French they fupply the place of the 
beft blankets, being at the fame time very warm and very 
light. - 

The flag is entirely the fame with that of France, only 
he is a little larger. They are only to be found in Upper 
Louifiana, where the woods are much thinner than in 
Lower liOuifiana, and the chefnuts vrhich the ftag gveatly 
loves arc very common. 

The deer is very frequent in this province^ notwith* 
(landing the great numbers of them that are killed by the 
natives. According to the hunters, he partly refembles 
the ftag, the rein-deer, and the roe^buck. As to myfelf, 
I can only fay what I have feen ; that he is about four 
feet high, has large horns bending forwards, and dtco" 
rated with feveral antlers, the ends of which arc formed 
fomewhat like a rofe ; that his fk(h is dry like that of 
ours, and when he is fat taftes like mutton. They feed 
in herds, and are not in the leaft of a fierce nature. They 




are exceffively capricious, hardly remain a moment in on6 
pFace, but are coming and going continually. The 
nati^^c;s drefs the (kin extremely well, like buff, and after- 
wards baint iti Thofe (kins that are brought ta France are 
, often called does (kins. 

The natives hunt the deer fometimes in companfes, and 
fbmetimes alonb. The hunter who goes out alone, fur- 
nifhes himfelf with the dried head of a deer, with part of 
the fkin of the neck faftened to it, and this (kin is ftretch- 
ed out with feveral hoops made of fplit cane, which arc 
kept in their places by other fplits placed along the infidel 
of the fkin, fo that the hands and arms may be eafily put 
within the neck. Being thus provided, he goes in queft 
of the deer, and takes ail neceifary precautions not to be 
difcovered by that animal : when he fees one, he ap- 
proaches it as gently as poifible, hiding himfelf behind a 
bufh which he carries in his hand, till he be within (hot 
of it. But if, before he can come near enough, the buck 
fiiakes its head, which is a fign that he is going to make 
fome capers and run away, the hunter immediately coun- 
terfeits the cries of thofe animals when they call • each 
dther, in which cafe the buck frequently comes up towards 
hfttn. He then ihews the head which he holds in his hand, 
andiby lowering and lifting his arm by turns, it makes 
the appearance of a buck feeding, and lifting his head 
from time to time to graze. 7 he hunter ft ill keeps him- 
felf behind the bu^, till the buck comes near enough to 
him, and the moment he turns his fide, he fires at the 
hollow of his (houlder, and lays him dead. 

When the natives want to make the dance of the deer ; 
or if they want toexercife thcmfelves merrily ; or if it fhould 
happen that the Great Sun inclines to fuch fport, they go 
about an hundred of them in a company to the hunting of 
this animal, which they muft bring home alive. As it is a 
diverting exercife, many young men are generally of the 
party, who difperfe themfelves in the meadows among the 



thickeb in order to difcbver the deer. They no foonei" 
perceive one than they advance towards him in a wide; 
crefcent, one point of which may be about a quarter of 
a league from the other. Part of the crefcent draws near 
to him, which frightens him away to another point ; that 
part like wife advancing, he immediately ftie$ back to the 
other ffdCi H"; is kept thus running from oiie fide to aii« 
other -a confiderable time, on purpofe to exercife the young 
menf arid afford diverfion to the Great Sun, or to another 
Little Sun, who is' nominated to fupply his place. The 
deer fometimes attempts to get out and efcape by the open- 
ings, of the crefcent, in which cafe thofe who are at the 
{Joints run forwards, and oblige him to go back* The 
creffrent then gradually forms a circle; and when they 
perceive the deer beginning to be tired, part of thena 
iioop almod to the ground, and remain in that pofture 
till he approaches them^ vvhen they rife and ihout : he 
inftantly flies off to the other fide, where they do the 
fame ; by which means he is at length fo exhaufted, that 
he is no longer able to ftaiid on his legs, dild iu^ers him- 
felf to be taken like a lamb. Sometimes, however, he 
defeiids himfelf on the ground with his antlers and fore-» 
feet; they therefore ufe the precaution to felze . upon 
him behind, and even in that cafe they are fometimes 
wounded. . 

The hunters having fcized the deer prefent it to the 
Great Sun, or in his abfence, to the perfon whom hefent 
to reprefent him. If he fays, welly the roe-buck is im- 
mediately opened, and its four quarters carried to the hut 
of the Great Sun, who gives portions of them to the chief 
men among the hunters. 

The wolf is not above fifteen inches high, and of a 
proportionable length. He is notfo brown as our wolves, 
nor fo fierce and dangerous ; he is therefore more like a 
dog tha^i a wolf, efpecially the dog of the natives, who 
differs from him in nothing, but that he barks. The 

S wol£ 



wolf is vary common in the hunting countries ; ^nd vfhttt 
the hunter makes a hut for himfelf in the evening upon 
the bank of a river, if he fees the wolf^ he may be confi- 
dent that the buffaloes are not at a very great diftance. It 
is faid, that this animal, not daring to attack the bufFalo 
when in a herd, will come and give notice to the hunter 
that he may kiH him, in hopes of coming in for the offals. 
The wolves are a£bually (o familiar, that they come and 
go on all fides when looking for fomething to eat, with- 
out minding in the leaft whether they be near or at si 
diftance from the habitations of men. 

In my time two very large black wolves were feen in 
Louifiana. The oldeft inhabitants, and thofe who travel 
to the remoteft parts of the colony, declared that they 
had never before feen any fuch ; fVom whence it was 
concluded, that they were foreign wolves which had loft 
their way. Fortunately thc^ killed them both; for one 
of them was a fhe-v/olf big with young. 

The bear appears In Louifiana in winter, as the fnows, 
which then cover the northern climates, hinder him from 
procuring a fubfiftence there, and force him fouthwards. 
If fome few are feen in the fummer time, they are only 
the flow young bears, that have not been ftrong enough 
to follow the herd northwards. The bear li^es upon 
roots and fruits^ particularly, acorns ; but his moft deli- 
cate food is honey and milk. When he meets with either 
of thefe laft, be will rather fiifFer himfelf to be killed 
than quit his prize. Our colonifts have fometimes diverted 
themfelves by burving a fmall pail with fome milk in it 
almoft up to the edge in the ground, and fetting two 
young bears to it. The conteft then was which of the 
two ihould hinder the other from tafting the milk, and 
both of them fo tore the earth with their paws, and pulled 
at the pail, that they generally overturned the milk, be- 
fore either of them had tailed of it. 




In 6pp6fitidn to the general opinion, wKlch fup'pofes 
the bear 'i tafhivorous khimkl, I affirm, with all the in. 
hJibitahts of this colony, and the neighbouring countries, 
thw he iievcr feeds upon ftefli. It is indeed to be lamented 
that thfe Tft^ travelfers had the impudence to publffll to 
the World k thoufand falfe ftbries, which werfe 'eafily be- 
lievied h<bci\i(e they were heW. People, fo far from wifii- 
ingAo be tindeceived, have even been offettded vvith thofe 
who attempted to deteft the gehcral errors ; but it is my 
duty to fpeak the triith, f6r the fake of thofe who are 
willing to hear it. What I maintain here is hot a mere 
conje^ural fuppofition, but a known fa6l over all North 
America^ which may be atteiled by the evidence of a 
grieat number of people who have lived there, and by the 
traders Who are going ahd corhi<ng continually. There is 
not one inftance can be given of their having devoured 
men^ nbtwithftanding their /great multitudes, and the ex- 
treme hunger which they muft fometimes have fuffered ; 
for even in that cafe they never fo much as touch the 
butchers meat which they meet With. , . 

The bears feldbm quit the banks of the Miflifippi, as 
it is there that they can beft procure a fubfift?nce ; but 
when 1 lived at the Natcheis there happened fo fevere a 
winter, that thoTe khimals came from the north in fuch 
numbers that they ftarved each other, and were very lean,. 
Tiieir great hunger obliged tfiem to ^u'lt the woods which 
line the banks of the river ; they were feen at ni atrun- 
ilihg atiibhg th6 retirements ; and they fometi es even 
"entferfed thofe cburt-y^rds that were not weH fliut; they 
thtth found butfcher^ tiieat cxpofed to the open air, but 
they neifct iibuched it, ahd eat only the corn or roots they 
could riicfet With. Certainly on fuch an occafion as this, 
^lid in fdch a preffing want, they would have proved car- 
nlvbtoiis, if it had been in the lead degree their natural 
^ifpbfitibh. ' ; 


S 2 



But perhaps one will fay, '* It is true they never touch 
dead flefli ; it is only living fleih that they devour/' That 
is being very delicate indeed, and what I can by no means 
allow them ; for if they were flefli eaters, I greatly fufpe6i 
that, in the fevere famine which I have fpoken of, they 
would have made a hearty meal of the butchers meat 
which they found in the court-yards } or at leaft would 
have devoured feveral perfons who fell in their way, 
which they never did. The following fadt however will 
be a more compleat anfwer to this obje^ion. 

Two Canadians, who were on a journey, landed on a 
fand- bank, when they perceived a bear crofling the river. 
Ai he appeared fat, and confequently would yield a great 
deal of oil, one of the travellers ran forwards and fired at 
him. Unhappily however he only flightly wounded him ', 
and as the bears in that cafe always turn upon their enemy, 
the hunter was immediately feized by the wounded bear, 
who in a few moments fqueezed him to death, without 
wounding him in the leaft with his teeth, although his 
muzzle was againft his face, and he muft certainly hav« 
been exafperated. The other Canadian^ who was not 
above three hundred paces diftance, ran to fave his com*^ 
rade with the utmoft fpeed, but he was dead before he 
came up to him ; and the bear efcaped into the wood. 
Upon examining the corpfe he found the place, where the 
bear had fqueezed it, prefled in two inches more than the 
reft of the breaft. 



Some perhaps may. ftill add, that the mildnefs of the 
climate of Louifiana may have an efFe<St upon the difpo- 
tion of the bears, and prevent them from being fo vora- 
cious as thofe of our continent } but I affirm that carnivo- 
rous animals retain the fame dlfpoAtion in all countries. 
The wolves of Louifiana are carnivorous as well as thofe 
of Europe, aJthough they differ in other particulars. 
The tigers of Africa, and thofe of America, are equally 
mtfchieyous animals. The wild>cats of Americss though 


O F L O U I S I A N A. 261 

,vtry difFerent from thofc of Europe, hayc however the 
/ame gppeti^e for mice when they are tamed. It is the 
fame with other fpecies, naturally inclined to live upon 
other animals ; and the bears of America, if fle(h-eatert, 
would not quit the countries covered with fnow^ where 
they would find men and other animals in abundance, to 
come fo far in fearch of fruits and roots ; which kind of 
nouriibment carnivorous animals refufe to tafte **. 

fiears are feen very frequently in Louifiana in the win- 
ter time, and they are fo little dreaded, that the people 
fometimes make it a diverfion to hunt them. When they 
are f;^t, that is about the end of Decenvber, they cannot 
run fo faft as a man; therefore the hunters are in no 
danger if they fhould turn upon them. The (he-bears 
are tolerably fat when they are big with young } but after 
they have littered they quickly become lean. 

The bears ufually arrive in Louifiana towards the end of 
autumn ; and then they are very lean, as th^y do not leave 
the north till the earth be wholly covered with fnow, and 
find often but a very fcanty fubfiftence in their way fouth^ 
wards.. I faid ^ibove, that thofe animals feldom go to any 
great diftance from the fjhcr ; and on both banks travel- 
lers meet with fuch a beaten path in winter, that to thofe 
who are not acquainted with it, it appears like the track 
of men. I myfclf, the firft time I obferved it, was de- 
ceived by it. I was then near two hundred miles from 
any human dwelling, yet the path at firft appeared to me 
as if it had been made by thoufands of men, who had 
walked that way bare-footed. Upon^a narrower infpeq- 
tion however, I obferved, that the prints of the feet were 
(borter than that of a man, and that there was the im- 
prefHon of a claw at the end of each toe. It is proper to 

33 obferve 

* Since I wrote the above account of the bean, I have been certainly 
informed, that in the mountains of Stvoy theie are two forts of bears. 
The one black, like that of Louifiana, and not carnivorous ) the other 
red, and no lefs carnivorous than the wolves. Both forts turn upon their 
|nim/ when wounded. 




obferve that in thofe paths the bear does not pique himfelf 
upon po^tcnefs, and will yield the way to nobody ; there- 
fore it is prudent in a traveller not to fall out with him for 
fuch a tricing affair. 

The bears, after they have been a fhort time in the 
country, and found abundance of fruits, liwn fat and 
lazy, and it is then the natives go out to hunt them. The 
bear, when he is fat, huts himfelf, that is, retires into 
the hollow trunk of fbme rotten tree that has died on end. 
The natives, when they meet with any of thofe trees, 
which they fufpedl contains a bear in it, give two or three 
ftrong blovirs againft the trunk, and immediately run be- 
hind the next tree oppofite tpthe loweft breach. If there 
be a bear within, he appears in a few minutes at the breach, 
to look out and fpy the occafion of the difturbance j but 
upon obferving nothing likely to annoy him, he goci 
down again to the bpttppi of his caftle. 

The natives having once feen their prey, gather a heap 
of dried canes, which they bruife with their feet, that 
they may burn the eafier, and one of them mounting 
upon a tree adjoining to that in which the bear is, fets 
fiile to the, reeds, and darts them Sks after another into the 
breach ; the other hunters having planted themfelves in 
ambufcade upon other trees. The bear is quickly burned 
out of his habitation, and he no fooner appears on the 
outftde, than they let fly their arrows at him, and often 
kill him before he gets to the bottom of the tree. 

He is no fooner dead than fome of the hunters are dif- 
patched to look for d deer, and they feldoni fail of bring- 
ing in one or two. When a deer is brought, they cut off 
the head, and then take off the (kin whofe, beginning at, 
the neck,*and rolling it down, as they cut it, like a ftock- 
ihg. The legs they cut off at the knee-joints, and 
having cleaned and wafl^ed the fkin, they, fipp all the 
holes except the neck, with a kind of pafle made of the 
fat of the deer mixed with afhes, over which ^ they tie 



fevcral bindings with the hark of the lime-tree. Having 
thus provided a kind of calk, they fill it with the oil of 
the bear, which they prepare by boiling the flefli and fat 
together. This Deer of Oil, as it is called, they fell to 
the French for a gun, a yard of cloth, or any other thing 
of that value. The French, before they ufe it, purify it, 
by putting >t into a large kettle, with a handful of laurel 
leaves ; and fprinkling it when it begins to be hot with 
iome water, in which they have diflblved a large quantity 
of fait. The fmoke that riies upon this fprinkling carries 
off with it any bad fmell the fat may have ; they next 
pour it off into a veiTel, and eight days after there is found 
on the top of it a clear oil which ferves all the purpofesof 
olive oil ; what remains below is a fine kind of lard, proper 
for the kitchen, and a fov^reign remedy for all kinds of 
p^ins. I myfelf was cured of the rheamatifm in my 
iboulder by it. 

The Tiger is not above a foot and a half high, and 
long in proportion : his hair is fomewhat of a bright 
bay colour, and he is brifk as all tigers naturally are. 
His flefh wheii boiled taftes like veal, only it is not ib 
infipid. There are very few of them to be feen ; I never 
faw- but two near my fettlement ; and I have great reafon 
to think that it was the fame beafl J faw both times. The 
firfttime he laid hold of my dog, who barked and howled; 
but upon my running towards him, , the tiger left him. 
The next time he feized a pig ; but this Llikewife refcued, 
and his claws had gone no deeper than the fat. This 
animal is not more carnivorous than fearful ; he flies at 
the fight of a man, and makes off with greater fpeed, if 
you fhout and halloo as he runs. 

The Cat-a-mount is a kind of wild cat, as high as the 
tiger, but not fo thick, and his fkin is extremely beauti- 
ful. He is a great deilroyer of poultry, but fortunately 
\ik fpeciesr is rare. 




Foxes arc To numerous, that uprMi the woody height! 
pu frequently fr« nothing but their holcii. As the woodi 
jifforH ihcm plenty; of gimc, they do not molcfl the poultryi 
which lire alw«y« Allowed to run at large. The hxtB are 
cxadlly Hmpcd Ijkc ours but their (kin is much more 
|t»cftutiful. Their hair is fine flnd thick, of a deep brown ' 
colour, and over this rife fevcrul long filver-coloured 
hairs, which have a fine c^c(^» 

The Wild Cat has been lmprop»^r1y fo called by the firft 
French Icttlcrs in Louifianat for it has nothing of the cat 
but its nimble n«Slivlty, and rather refcmbles a monkey. 
It is not above eight or fen Indies l»igh, and about fifteen 
long. Its head ismkc that of a fox ; it has long toes, but 
vcr)* (hort cUws, not made for fei*inggair»ei accordingly 
it lives upon fruit, bread, and other fuch things. This 
pnimni may be tamed, and then becomes very froUck- 
fomc and full of tricks. The hair of thofe that r»rt tame • 
is grey j but of the wild Is roddifli \ neither of rjiem is fo 
)bcaullfi|l as that of the fox i It grows very fatv nnd Its 
flcfti Is good to cat. I (hall not dcfcribe the real wild cat, 
fts It Is entirely like ours. \ 

The Rabbit is extremely common over all Louifiana i 
it is particular in this, that its pile is like that of the hare, 
•nd it never burrows. Its flefh is w^^ae and delicate, and 
has the ufual tafte, without any ranknef?. There Is no 
other kind of rabbit or hare, If yuu pleafc to call it, in 
•II the colony, than that above dcfcrlbed. 

The Wood-Rat ha^ the head and tail of a common rat, 
but ha? the bulk and length y}( a cat. Its legs arc (hort. 
Its -paws long, and its toes arc armed with claws : its tail 
is almoft without hair, which ferves for hooking Itfclf to 
any thing \ for when you take hold of It by that part, it . 
immediately twifts itfelf round your fingeV. Its pile Is 
grey, and though very fine, yet is never fmooth. The 
women among the natives fpin It and dye it red. It 
hunts by night, and makes war upon the poultry, only 




Tucking their blood and leaving their fleOi. It Ii very rtre 
10 fi'O any creature wulk fo flow ) and I have often catched 
them when walking my ordinary pace. When he feet 
himrdf upon the point of being caught, Inftindl prompts 
him to counterfeit being dead i and in this he pcrfeverei 
with fuch conftancy, that though laid on a hot gridiron, 
he will not make the leaft ftgn of life. He never movei, 
unlefs the perfon go to a diflance or hide himfelf, in which . 
cafe he Chdeavoura as faft ai poflible to efcape into foms 
hole or buOi. 

When the fhc-one ia about to litter, fhe choofcs a place 
!n the thick bufhcs at the foot of a tree, after which flie 
and the male crop a great deal of fine dry grufs, which ii 
loaded upon her belly, and then the male drags her and 
her burden by the tail to the litteriiig-place. She never 
quits her young a moment ) but when (he is obliged to 
change her lodging, carries them with her in a pouch or 
double fkin that wraps round her belly, and there they 
may flecp or fuck at their eafc. The two fides of this 
pouch lap fo clofc that the joining can hardly be ob- 
i'crved } nor can they be feparated without tearing the 
(kin. If the fhc-one be caught carrying her young thus 
with her, fhe will fufFer herfelf to be roafted alive, with- 
Qut the lead fign of life, rather than open the pouch and 
expofe her young ones. The flefh of this animal is very 
good, and taflcs fomcwhat like that of a fucking pig, 
when it is f^rft broiled, and afterwards roafled on the 
fplt. ' 

The Pole-cat or Skunk Is about the fizc of a kitten 
eight months old. The male is of a beautiful black, but 
the female has rings of white intermixed with the black. 
Its ear and its paw nre like that of a moufe, and it has a 
very lively eye. I fuppofe it lives upon fruits and feeds. 
j.t is mofi juflly called the Stinking Beaft, for its odour 
is fo ftrong, that it may be purfued upon the track twenty- 
foi^r hours after it has palTcd. It goes very flow, and 
^hcti the hunter approaches it, it fquirts out far and wide 



Aich a (linking urine, that neither man nor beaft can 
hardly approach it. A drop of this creature's blood, and 
probably fome of its urine, having one day fallen upon 
niy coat when I was hunting, I was obliged as fad as pof- 
fible to go home' and change my c(oaths j and before I 
couM uie my coat, it was fcoured and expofed for feveral 
days to the dew. 

'^he Squirrels of Louifiana. are like thofe of France, 
excepting one kind, which are called Flying-Squirrels, 
becaufe they leap from one tree to another, though the 
diftance between them be twenty- five or thirty feet. It ia 
^bout the fize of a rat, and of a deep aih-colour. Its 
two fore-legs are joined to its two hind-legs by two menv 
branes, Co that when it leaps it feems to fly, though it 
always leaps fomewhat downwards. This animal may be 
very eafily tamed ; but even then it is beft to chain it. 
There is another fort, not much bigger than a moufe, 
and of a bright bay-colour. Thefe are fo familiar that 
they will come out of the woods, will enter the houfes, 
and fit within two yards of the people of the houfe, if 
they do not make any motion ; and there they will feed 
on any maiz within their reach. I never was fo well 
diver;ted in my life with the frolics of any aoinnal). as 
I have been with the vivacity and attitudes of thi& little 

Thp Porcupine is largie apd fine of his kind ; butra,» he 
lives only upon fruit, and loves cold, is moft common 
about the river Illinois, where thei climate is fomewhat 
cold, and. there is plenty of wild fruits. The flcin, when 
ilripped of the quills, is white and brown. The natives 
dye part of the white, yellow and red, and the brown 
they dye biaclc. They have likewife the art of fplitting 
the, fkin, ar^d applying it to many curious works, particu- 
larly to trim the edges of their deer-ikin, and to line fmall 
hark-boxjps, which are very neat. 



The Hc<lg«-hog of Louii^ana is in evety refpeiSl the 
Oiip.v' with that of Europe. 

I fhall not enlarge upon the Beavers, which are uni- 
verfally known, from the many djefcriptions we have of 

The Otters are the fame with thofe of France, and 
there are but few of them to be feen. 

Some '1^'urtle are f<;en in this country ; but very rarely. 
In the many h,undred leagues of country that I have pafTed 
oyer, I have hardly feen above a hundred. 

Frogs are very common, efpecially in Lower Louifiana, 
notwithibnding the great number of fnakes that deftroy 
them. There are fome that grow very large, fometimes 
above a foot and an half long, and aftonifh Grangers at 
firft by their ci;oaking, efpecially if they are in a hollow 

The Crocodile is very common in the river Miififippi. 
Although this amphibious animal be almoil as well known 
as thofe I have juft mentioned, I cannot however omit 
taking foi;ne notice of it. Without troubling the reader 
with a d^fcriptioi^ of it, which he will meet with every 
where, I {l)aU obferve that it ihuns the banM of the river 
frequented by men. It lays its eggs in the month of 
May, when the fun is already hot in that country, and it 
dqpQllts them in the moft concealed place it can find 
afnong grafs exj^ofqd to the heats of the fouth. The eggs 
are abputithe fae^f thofe of a goofe, but longer in pro- 
portion. Upon br/?aking them you will find hardly any 
thing but white, the yolk bf:ing about the fize of that of 
a, young hen, I never faw any tj>at were new hatched. 
The fnialleil I ever met with, which I conqli^ded to be 
about tl^ec; months old, was as long as a middle-fized 
eel, and' an inch and a half thipk. . I have killed one 
nineteen ft;et Ipng, and three feet and a half in its greateii: 
4^rj^4>b. A frifnd of mj^f. killed one twenty-two feet 




long, and the legs of both thefe, which on land feemed 
to move with great difficulty, were not above a foot in 
length. But however fluggifh they be on land, iti the 
water they move with great agility. 

, This animal has his body always covered with flime, 
which is the caf^ with all fiflies that live in. muddy waters. 
When he comes on 0)ore his track is covered with that 
flimc, as his belly trails on the ground, and this renders 
the earth very flippery in that part, efpecially as heretu«'ns 
by the fame path to the water. He never hunts the iiih 
upon which he fubdfts j but places himfelf in ambufcade, 
and catches them as they pafs. For that purpofe he digs - 
a hole in the bank of the rivtr, below the furface of the 
water, where the current is ftrong, having a fmall en- 
trance, but large enough within to t rn himfelf round 
in. The fifl], which are fatigued with the ftrong cur- 
rent, arc glad to get into the fmooth water in that corner, 
and there they are immediately feized by the crocodile. 

I (hall not contradidl the accounts of venerable anti- 
quity about the crocodiles of the Nile, who fall upon 
inen and devour them \ who crofs the roads, and make a 
flippery path upon them to trip paflengers, and make 
them Aide into the river ; who counterfeit the vpice of an 
infant, to draw children into their fnares ; neither fhall 
I contradidl the travellers whr. have confirmed thofe (lories 
from mere hearfays. But as I profefs to fpeak the truth, 
and to advance nothing but what I am certain of from 
my own knowledge, I may fafely affirm that the croco- 
diles of Louifiana are doubtlefs of another fpecies than 
thofe of other countries. In fad, I never heard them 
imitate the cries of an infant, nor is it at all probable that' 
they can counterfeit them. Their voice is as ftrong as 
that of a bull. It is true they attack men in the water, 
but never on land, where they are not at all formi- 
dable. Befides, there are nations that in great part 
fubfift upon this animal, which is hunted out by the 



fathers ^nd mothers, and killed by the children^ What 
can we then believe of thofe ftorics that have been told us 
of the crocodile ? I myfelf killed all that ever I met of 
them ; and they ar« fo much the lefs to be dreaded, in 
that they can neither run nor rife up againft a man. In 
the water indeed, which is their favourite element, they 
are dangerous ; but in that cafe it is eafy to guard againft 

The largeft of all the reptiles of Louifiana, is the 
Rattle-Snake: fome of them have been feen fifteen inches 
thick, and long in proportion ; but this fpecies is naturally 
fhorter in proportion to their thicknefs than the other 
kinds of ferpents. This ferpent gets its name from 
feveral hollow knots at its tail, very thin and dry, which 
make a rattling noife. Thefe knots, though inferred into 
each other, are yet quite detached, and only the firft of 
them is faftened to the flcin. The number of the knots, 
it is faid, marks the age of the ferpent, and I am much 
inclined to believe it ; for as I have killed a great number 
of them, I always obferved, that the longer and thicker 
the ferpent was, it had the more knots. Its (kin is almoil 
black } but the lower part of its belly is ftriped black and 

As foon as it hears or fees a man, it roufes itfelf by 
(baking its tail, which makes a rattling noife that may be 
heard at feveral paces diftance, and gives warning to the 
traveller to be upon his guard. It is much to be dreaded 
when it coils itfelf up in a fpiral line, for then it may 
eafily dart upon a man. It (huns the habitations of men, 
and by a fingular providence, wherever it retirco to, there 
the herb which cures its bite, is likewife to be found. 

There are feveral other kinds of ferpents to be feen 
here, fome of which refemble thofe of France, and at- 
tempt to flip into the hen-houfes to devour the eggs and 
new-hatched chickens. Others are green, about two feet 
long, and not thicker thaji a gooil-quill 3 they frequent 

, the 

A70 THE Hist on Y 

the tn^adowi^ niitl nmy \jk (km\ Running bver th« Tptrett of 
grtHi) fuch is their lightnef^ ah^ tiliftblcneni. 

Vi[5<Jrt rtit very 1-alfe iivLoW^i* Louiftana, its fhat i^ptili 
loVes rtbtiby grounds. In Ithe higlilands they Are now- 
sind-theti to be met with, ind there thby quite refenible 

Li*ards arfe very common: there is n fmall Icind of thefc 
that arc called Camclcons, becaufe they change their 
cblbut according to thai or the pkce they pftfs bvcr ♦. 

Among the fpiders of Louinana there is one kinci 
that will appear very extraordinary. It is as large, but 
rather longer than a pigeon's egg, black, with gold- 
coloured fpccks. It3 claws are pierced through above the 
joints, it does not carry its eggs like tlic reft, but en- 
clofes them in a kind of cup coverrd with its filk. It 
lodges itfclf in a kind of nut made of the fame fitk, and 
hung to the bratiche: of the trees. The web which this 
infed weaves is To ftrong, that it not only ftops birds, but 
cannot even be broken by men without a confidcrablc 

I nevfef faw any Mole« in Louifiana, lior heard of any 
being feen by others. 

* When the C«mcIeon U^ngry, a nerve rifeg urch-wift ffrtm hts mouth 
It) tlu> mldiUeof ins throAt ; Ahd ihc Iktn which cbVeri !t \i fa {lietvhed lb 
l« leittAin ml, wh4t*vcr colour the rtft of the body lie. H« fttvfet do«» my 
hurt^ and tl^Stys run; aw«y when obferrcd. 




1 Of Birdi^ andjiyihg hfefJt* 

BIRDS arc fo vofy tiui^ei >\ii in Louinana, th^t If all 
the different kinds of th^m Were known^ which )• 
far from being the cafe at prefcnt, the defcrijjtion of them 
alone would require an entire volume. I only undertake 
the defcription of all thofe which have come within my 
knowledge, the number of which, I am perfuadcd, will 
be fullicient to fatisfy the curious reader. 

The Eagle, the king of birds, is fmaller than th<J 
eagle of the Alps ) but he is much more beautiful, being 
entirely white, excepting only the tips df his wing;9, which 
are black* As he is alfo very lare, Ihis is another reafon 
for heightening his vbluc to the natives, who purchafo at 
a great price the large feathers of his wings, with which 
they ornament the Calumet, or Symbol of Peace, as I have 
el fe where defer i bed. 

When fpeakin^ ef the king 6f birds, I fhall take f\6\.\tt 
of the Wren, called by theFrcnch Roitclct (Petty King) 
which Is fhe iaftie in Louifiana afs in France. The rtafon 
of its name in French will plainly enough appear from 
the following hiilory. A magiftratc, no lefs remarkable 
for his -^robity than for the rank he holds in the law, 
afTured me that, when he was at Sables d'Olonne in 
Poltou, on account of an> eR^tc which he had in the 
neighbourhood of that city, he had the curiofity to go 
and fee a white eagle which was then brought from Ame- 
rica. After he had entered the houlb a wren was brought, 
and let fly in the hall where the eagle was feeding, 'i he 
wren perched upon a beam, and was no fooner perceived 
by the eagle, than he left off feeding, flew into a corner, 
and hung down his head. The little bird, on the other 
hand, began to chirp and appear angry, and a moment 
after flew upon the neck of the eagle, and pecked him 
4 with 


with the grcateft fury, the eagle all the while hang-* 
ing his head in a cowardly manner, between his feet. 
The wren, after fatiafying its animoftty, returned to the 

The Falcon, the Hawk, and the Taflcl are the famt 
as in France ^ but the falcons are much more beautiful 
than ours. 

The Carrioh-Crow, or Turky Duftard, is of the fiae 
and (hape of a Turky>cock i his head is covered with red 
flefli, and his plumage is black : he has a hooked beak, 
but his toes are armed with very fmall talons, and arc 
therefore very improper for feizing live game, which in- 
deed he does not chufe to attack, as his want of agility 
prevents him from darting upon it with the rapidity of a bird 
of prey. Accordingly he lives only upon the dead beads 
that he happens to meet with, and yet notwithflanding 
this kind of food he fmclls of mufk. Several people main, 
tain, that the Carrion-Crow, or Carancro, is the fanic 
with our Vulture. The Spaniards forbid the killing of 
it under pain of corporal punilhment j for as they do not 
life the whole carcafe of the buffaloes which they kill, thofe 
birds eat what they leave, which othcrwife, by rotting on 
the ground, would, according to them, infcdt the air. 

The Cormorant is flianed very much like a duck, but 
its plumage is different and much more beautiful. This 
bird frequents the fhores of the fea and of lakes, but 
rarely appears in rivers. Its ufual food is fifli; but as it 
is very voracious, it likewife eats dead fleih } and this it 
can tear to pieces by means of a notch in its bill, which 
is about the fize of that of a duck. 

The Swan of Louifiana are like thofe of France, only 
they are larger. However, notwithftanding their bulk 
and their weight, they often rife fo high in the air, that 
they cannot be diflinguilhed but by their ihrill cry. 
Their flefh is very good to eat, and their fat is a fpecific 
againft cold humours. The natives ftt a great value 



upon the fetcheri of the Svran. Of the large onei they 
make the diademi of their fovereigni, hats, and other or- 
namenti ) and they weave the fmall ones as the peruke- 
makers weave hair, and make coverings of them for their 
noble women. The young people of both lexes make 
tippets of the (kin, without, ftripping it of its down. 

The CamLda-Ooofe is a water-fowl, of the fliape of a 
gobfe I but twice as large and heavy. Its plumage is afli- 
coloured ) its eyes are covered with a black fpot ^ its cries 
are different from thofe of a goofe, and flirillerj its flefli 
is excellen :. 

The Pelican is fo called from its large head, its large 
bill, and above all for its large pouch, which hangs from ita 
neckf and has neither feather nor down . It fills this pouch 
with fifh, which it afterwards difgorges for the nouriih- 
ment of k» young. It never removes from the (hores of 
the fea^ and is often killed by failors for the fake of the 
pouch, which when diied ferves them as a purfe for their 

The Geefe are the fan>e with the wild geefe of France. 
They abound upon the (bores of the fea and of lakes, but 
are rarely feen in rivers. 

In this country there are three kinds of Ducks ; firft, 
the Indian Ducks, fo called becaufe they came originally 
from that country. Thefe are almoft entirely white, 
having but a very few grey feathers. On each flde of their 
h^ad they have fle(h of a more lively red than that of the 
Turky-cock, and they are larger than our tame ducks. 
They are as tame as thofe of Europe, and their flefh when 
young is delicate, and of a fine flavour. The Wild Ducks 
are fatter, more delicate, and of better taile than thofe of 
France } but in other refpedls they are entirely the fame. 
For one you fee in France you may here count a thoufand^ 
The Perch ing-Ducks, or Carolina Summer«Ducks, ai^e 
fomewhat larger than our teals. Their plumage is quite 
beautiful, and fo changeable that no painting can imitate 

T it. 


it. Upon their head they have a beautiful tuf^ of tilt 
moft lively colours, and their red eyes appear like flames^ 
l*he natives ornament their calumets or pipes wVlh tbt 
ikin of their neck. Their flefli is very good, but when 
it ia too fat it taftes orly. Thefe ducks are to be met 
with the whole year rou^d j^ithey perch upon cheibranchea 
of trees, which the ot|i€;rs do not, and it is from thit 
they have their name. 

The Teal are found in every fea(bn ; and they differ 
nothing from thofe of France but in having a finer 

The Divers of Lonifiana are the fame wi^ thofe of 
France : they no iboner fee the fire in the pan, than they 
dive fo fuddenly *Hat the Ihot cannot touch them, and 
^ey are therefore called Lead -Eaters. 

The Saw-bill has the infide of its beak indented like 
the edge of a faw : it is faid to live wholly upon ihrips, 
the fhtlls of which it can eafily break. 

The Crane is a very common water- fowl ; it is larger 
than a turkey, very lean, and of an excellent tafte. It 
cats fomewhat Hke beef, and makes very good loup. 

The Flamingo has only ^ little down upon its head j it» 
plumage is grey, and its flfeih good. 

The Spatula has its name from the form of its bill, 
which is about feven or eight inches long, an inch broad 
towards the head, and two inches and a half towards the 
extremity ; it is not quite fo large as a wild goofe ; its^ 
thighs and legs are about the height of thofe of a turkey. 
Its plumage is rofe-coloured, the wings being brighter 
than any other part. This, is a water-fowl, and its flefli 
is very good. 

The Heron of Louiftana is not in the Icaft different 
£rom that of Europe. 

The Egret, or White Heronj is fo called from tufts of 
feathers upon the wings near the body, which hinder it 



ir^ flying high } it ii a water-fowl with white plumage | 
but its AtCti taftcs very oily. 

( The Bec-croche, or Crook-bill, has indeed a crooked 
bill, with which it feizes the cray-iifli upon which it rub- 
fids, hi flefli has that tafte, and is red. Its plumage 
Is a whitifli gfey } and it is about the fize of a capon. 

The Indian Water-Hen, and the Green-Foot, are the 
fame as in France. 

The Hatchet-Bill is fo called on account of its bill, 
which is red, and formed like the edge of an ax. Its feet 
fttt alfo of a beautiful red, and it is therefore often called 
Red-Foot. As it lives upon (hell-filh, it never removes 
from the fea-coaft, but upon the approach of a ftorm^ 
which is always fare to follow its retiring into the inland 

The King'Fiflier excels ours in nothing but in the 
beauty of its plumage, which is as various as the rainbow. 
This bird, it is well known, goes always againft the 
^ind ; but perhaps few, people know that it preferves the 
fame property when it is dead. I myfelf hung a dead 
one by i* Alk thread diretS^Iy over a fea-compafs, and I can 
declare it as a fa£l;, that the bill was always turned to« 
wards the wind. 

The Sea-Lark and §ea-Snipe never qifit the fea } their 
jlefh may be eat, as it has very little of the oily tafte. . 

The Frigate-Bird is a large bird, which in . the day- 
time keeps itfelf in the air above the fhore of the fea.^ Ic 
pften rifes very high, probably for exercife} for it feeds upon 
fiih, and every night retires to the coaft. It appears larger 
than it really is, as it is covered with a great many fea- 
thers of a grey colour. Its wings are very long, its tail 
forked, and it cuts the air with great fwiftnefs. 

The Draught-Bird is a large bird, not much unlike the 
Frigate-Bird, as light, but not fo fwift. The under-part 
of its plumage is chequered brown and white, but the 
upper-partis of greyift) brown. 

T 2 TTic 


The Fool is of a yellowifli colour, and about the fixe 
of a htn i it is fo calied, becaufe it will fuflfer a man to 
approach it fo near as to feize it with his hand : but even 
then it is tdo foon to cry vi^ory ; for if the perfon who 
feizes it does not take the greateft precaution, it will fnap 
off his finger at one bite. * 

When thofe three laft birds are obferved to hover very 
low over the (hore, we may moft certainly expert an ap- 
proaching ftorm. On the other hand, when the failora 
fee the Halcyons behind their veflfel, they expert and gene- 
rally meet with fine weather for fome days. 

: Since I have mentioned the Halcyon, I (hall here de^ 
fcrtbe it. It is a fmall bird, about the fize of a fwallow, 
but its beak is longer, and its plumage is violet-coloured. 
It has two flreaks of a yellowiih brown at the end of the 
feathers of its wings, which when it fits appear upon its 
back. When we left Louifiana, near ah hundred hal- 
cyons followed our veflel for near three days : they kept 
at the diftance of about a ftone>caft, and Teemed to fwim, 
yet I could never difcover that their feet were webbed, and 
was therefore greatly furprifed. They probably live upon 
the fmall infers that drop from the outfide of the vefTel 
when failing ; for they now-a:id'then dived, and came up 
in the fame place. I have fome fufpicion that, by keep-* 
ing in the wake of the fhip, they float after it without 
fwimming j for when they happened to be out of the wake 
of the (hip, they were obliged to fly, in order to come up 
with the (hip again. This bird is (aid to build its nefl of 
the glutinous froth of the fea clofe upon the fhore, and 
to launch it when a land breeze arifes, raiflng one of its 
wings in the form of a fail, which receiving the wind, 
helps to carry it out to fea. 

I fhall now proceed to fpeak of the fowls which fre- " 
quent the woods, and fhall begin with the Wild-Turky, 
which is very common all over the coiony. It is finer» 
larger, and better than that in France. The feathers 



of the turky are of a dufkifh grey, edged, with a fireak of 
gold colour, near half an in^h broad. In the fmall 
feathers the gold-coloured (Ireak *s not above one tenth 
of an inch broad. The natives make fans of the tail, 
and of four tails joined together, the French make an 
umbrella. The women among the natives weave the fea- 
thers as our peruke-makers weave their hair, and faften 
them to an old covering of bark, which they likewife line 
with them, fo that it has down on both ftdes. It» fleih is 
more delicate, fatter, and more juicy than that of ours. 
They go in flocks, and with a dog one may kill a great 
inany qf them. I never could procure any of the turky's 
eggs, to try to hatch them, and difcover whether they 
were^as difficult to bring up in this country as in France, 
fince the climate of both countries is almoft the fame. 
My flave told me, that in his nation they brought up the 
young tujrkies as /eafily as we do chickens. 

The Pheafant is the moft beautiful bird that can be 
painted, and in every refpe^t entirely like that of Europe. 
Their rarity, in my opinion, makes them more efteemed 
than they deferve. 1 would at any time prefer a flice off 
the fillet of a buffalo to any phsafant. 

The Partridges of Louif'^na are not larger than a wood- 
pigeon. Their plumage is exadly the fame with that of 
our grey partridges ; they have alfo the horfe^ihoe upon 
the breaft j they perch upon trees, and are feldom feen in 
flocks. Their cry confifts only of twoftrong notes, 
fomewhat refembling the name given them by the natives, 
who call them Ho-ouy. Their fiefh is white and delicate, 
but, like all the oth^r game in this country, it has no 
fumeU And only excels in the fine tafte. 

The Woodcock is very rare, becaufe it is only to be 
met with in inhabited countries. It is like, that of France ; 
its flefh is white, but rather plumper and more delicate 
than that of ours, which is owing to the plenty and good- 
nefs of its fruit. ~ 




7'he Snipe it much more common than the woodcockt , 
and in this coun^yy is far from being fhy. Its fleO^ U., 
white, and of a much better reliih than that of ours. 

I am of opinion that the Quail is very rare ii^ Loul- 
fiana; I have fometimes heard it, hu% n^y^ (f^v|f,it»,n)^ 
know any Frenchman that ever did. ' '- • • . , 

Some of our colonifts have thought proper to give the 
ii;»me of Ortolan to a fmall bird which has the (unt 
plumage, but in every other xcCpeik does not in the Icoft 
refemblcit. ^tr: K 

The Corbijeau is as large as the wooddock, and very 
common. Its plumage is varied with feveral fhady colours, 
and is different from that of the woodcock } its feet and 
beak are alfo longer, which laft is crooked and of a red-, 
difh yellow colour } its ilefh is likewife firmer and better 

The Parroquet of Louifiana is not quite fo large as 
thofe that are ufually brought to France. Its plumage is 
ufually of a fine fea-green, with a pale rofe-col6ured fpot 
upon the crown, which brightens into red towards the 
beak, and fades off into green towards the body. It is 
with difHculty that it learns to fpeak, and everi then it 
rarely pra6tifes it, refembling in this the natives theih- 
felves, who fpeak little. As a filent parrot would never 
make its fortune among our French ladies, it is doubdefs 
on this account that we fee fo few of thefe in France. 

The Turtle-Dove is the fame with thai of Eurbpe, but 
few of them are f6en here. 

The Wood- Pigeons are feen in fuch prodigious numbers, 

that I do not fear to exaggerate, when I affirm that tliey 

foiijetimes cloud the fun. One day on the banks of the 

MifTifippi I met with a flock of them which was fo large, 

that before they all pafled, I had leifure to fire With 

the fati^e piece four times at them. But the rapidity of 

their ffight was fo great, that though I do not fire ill,, with 

mv four (hots I brought down but two. 

, TJjefc 


Thefe birds come to Louifiana only in th« winter, ani 
remain in Canada during the fuinmer, where they devour 
the corn, it they eat the acorns- in Louifiana. The Cana- 
dians have ufed every art to hinder them from doing 
(0 much mirchief, but withoujt fuccel^. But if the inhabi- 
tants of thofe colonies were, to go afowlins for thofe birds t 
in the manner that I have done, they would infenfibly d|B- 
flroy them. When they^ walk ahiong the high foreft trees, 
they ought to remark under what trees the largeft quantity 
6f dung is to be feen. Thofe itets being once difeovered, 
the huhicrs ought to go oiit when it begins to grow dark,' 
and carry with them a quantityof brimftone which theylnuft 
fet fire to in To many earthen plates phccd at regular di-' 
fiances under the trees. In a very ihort time tbey. !vi^jil.bear 
aihower of wood-pigeons falling to the ground, whiph, by^ 
the light of fome dried canesr, t^ey m9>y gathers inti^Ctcks^t 
as foon as the brimftone is e:|ctinguiihed. , , ,,:^-^,^, ^ , . 

I fhall here give an inftance that prove^ not ^i^y thcK 
prodigious number of thofe tpi/ds, but al/b ^hfjif .iji^gulaf ' 
inftindl. In one of my journeys at land, when I happened 
to be upon the bank of the riV6r, I lieard aconfjiiied noife 
whieh feemed 'to come a(long the river from a conj(iderable 
diftance below us. A,Sthe^ fduhd continued uniformly t 
eitibarked, ^ faft as I could, pti board the pettyaugre, 
with four either men, and jflefii'ed'ciown the river, keepings 
in the middle, that I might go to any fide thaVbeft fuited' 
me. Bt^t hb*^' great was my (lirprife wheii I approached' 
the place Irdm whence the noife came, an4 obferyed i| to 
proceed froni a* thick fllort pillar on the bank of thi river,. 
When I drtfw' ftill riearer to it, T perceived that it was 
formed by a lejgion of wood-pigeons, who kept continu- 
ally fly iiig ' upland down fucciefflvely among th^ bi-anchc$ 
of an ever-green oak, in order to beat dowii the acorpf 
with their 'wings. Every noW Artd; then^lbftiearfghted to 
' eat the acoms which they thehifelves or thfe others had beat 
dawn ^ for they 9II a£ted in conimon, and eat' iii'conimon ; 
■ T 4 • ' •■ ^-' -' • no' 



no avarice nor private tntereft appearing aniong them, but 
each labouring at much for the reft as for himfelf. 

Crows are common in Louifiana, and as they eat no 
carrion their flefli is better tafted than that of the crows of 
France. Whatever their appetite may be, they dare not 
for the carrion crow approach any carcafs. 

I never faw any Ravens in tbia country, and if there be 
any they muft be very rare«v 

The Owls are larger and whiter than in France, and 
their cry is much more frightful. The Little Owl is the 
fame wi^h ours, but much more rare. Thefe two birds 
kre more comnaon in Lower Louifiana than in the higher. 

The Magpye refembles thofe of Europe in nothing but 
its cry (it is more delicate, is quite black, has a different 
manner of flying, and chiefly frequents the coafts. ' *' 

The Blackbirds are black all over, not excepting their 
bills rjoi^ their feet, and are almoft as large again as ours. 
Their notes are different, and thei)rfle(h is hard. "'^ 

There aire two forts of Starlings in this country.} one 
grey and fpotted, and the other black. In both the tip 
of the itboulder is of a bright red. They are only to be 
feen in winter } and then they are fo numerous, that up- 
wards of three hundred of them have been taken at once 
in a net. A beaten path is made near a wood, and after 
it is cleaned and fmoothed, it is ftrewed wjth rice. On 
each fide of this path is fhetched a long narrpvv filken net, 
with, very fmall mefhes, and made to turn over at once by 
firings faftened to the ftick that ftretches the end of it. 
The ftarlings no fooner alight to pick up the grain, than 
the fowler, who lies concealed with the (brings in his haindy 

pulls the net over them. 

, • ■ , • f, ■ 

The Wood-pecker is much the fame as in France ; but 
here there are two kinds of them } one has grey feathers 
fpotted with Mack ; the other has the he^d and the neck 
of a bright red, and the reft of the body as the former. 



Thb bird Hvtt upon the worms which it finds in rotten 
wood, tnd not upon ants, as a modern author would have 
us believe, for want of having confidered the nature of 
the things which he relates. The bird, when looking for 
its food, examines the trunks of trees that have loft their 
bark $ it clafps by its feet with its belly clofe to the tree, 
and hearkens if it can hear a worm eating the wood ; in 
this manner it leaps from place to place upon the trunk 
till it hears a worm, then it pierces the wood in that part, 
pricks the worm with its hard and pointed tongue, and 
draws it out. The arms which nature has furnrfhed it 
with are veiy proper for this kind of hunting} its dawa 
are hard and very (harp; its beak is formed like si 
little ax,, and is very h^rd ; its neck is long and flexible, to 
give proper play to its besdc i and its hard tongue, which 
it can extend three or four inches, has a moil iharp point 
with feveral beards that help to hold the prey. 

' The Swallows of this country have that part yellow 
which ours have white, and they, as well as the martins, 
live in the woods. ... 

The Nightingale differs in nothing from ours in refpe^ to 
its fliape or plumage, unlefs that it has the bill a little lon- 
ger. But in this it is particular that it is not fhy, and fings 
through the whole year, though rarely. Is is very eafy to 
entice them to your roof, where it is imppflible for the cats 
to reach them, by laying fomething for them to eat upon 
a lath, with a piece of the fhell of a gourd which ferves to 
hold their neft. You may in that cafe depend upon their 
not changing their habitation. 

The Pope is a bird that has a red and black plumage. 
It has got that name perhaps becaufe its colour makes it 
look fomewhat old, and none but old men are promoted 
to that dignity; or becaufe its notes arefoft, feeble, and 
rare; or laftly, becaufe they wanted a bird of that name in 
the colony^ having two other kinds named cardinals and 


Iff THE ffia.TJQRT 

Tk^ Qardiual owes ksnstmtfi Ithf brigi>thW4(o£|be|bt-" 
thcrs, aa4 tQ a< Uttl,? cpwl QH the hind pyi^f fhs bead», 
iRftktch retobles tb&t of th« biAiQp*s crwHn«iM;» jc»Ued a 
CMnail. It! i»as large a«,a b]a<;l&<biifd, bat il«tipn long. 
Its bjll.afid, toes are li^ge> ftfj^g^ and biaoli* It<i>notot ; 
are Jq ilroog and piercing that they ire elnl3riagceejib^e irii 
t1^ woQds. If is remarkable , for hy'inf^ up its wiiltev prm* 
vi^n inthefununeT) and near a Pavis bwfl^l of maJOLbaSi 
beei^ found in its fetreat^ s^rtfiUJy covered, Bxtk withdeavte ^ 
and then with fmall branches,,: with only a little opening 
fi^ t^Kf^di^felfta enter. . i . • )i 

' tIc Bifhop is abird ffnaller than the linflfet ; lbs t>}ttmage'' 
19 a vtoleti>co)oured blue, and its wings, which fen^e it for 
acope,' areentirely violM-colouri Its noted -are fo fWcet, 
fo variable^ and tender^ that tboife whoi have bqcr htaid it^ < 
^treap^ taabate in their praiics of the ni^tiii^ide; " I had = 
fuch great pleafure in heariiig t^ cl)amaing.bit)d^ that I 
l^t aij p^ ftanding very m^XJfxy a]^ajrtinent,,.iipjpii» which 
he ufed to con^e and percb^.thoug^h I very well IcpeviV' 
that the tree, which ftood iingle, might be overturned 
by a blaft of wind, ahd fall uppn my houfe tp n(iy great 

Thel|umming-6ird is not lar^r even with its fishers 
tban, a^lacge beetle. The cplo^r of its feat)ifr% i§i yj^riable, 
according, to the light they areexpofed m j in the (m» they 
appear )ikc enamel upon a gold grou,nd, which delights (ha 
€fts*, The longeft feathers of the wings of this, bird are 
not i^ucb more than half ai|. inch long ; its bjU i^ abcrtit the 
iame length, and pointed like an awl} and its tof>gue> re« 
fembles a fQwing needle ; it$ feet are like thofeof a large 
fiy. Notwithftanding its little fize, its flight is fo rapid, 
that it is always heard before it be feen. Although like 
the bee it fucks the fiowers^ it never refts upon, them, 
but fupports itfelf upon its wings, and pad^s from 
one flower to another with the rapidity of ligbtenjiig. It 
isa rsre thing to catch a humming-bird alive ^ one of my 
I fKende 

0|P -LOUISIANA, ajj^ 

friends howfjver hgd thiQ bappinoTft to oatch otiet He;h%di 
obferved it enter the flower of a convolvubjs, and a»lt bant) 
quite b.uried^itfplf to get at tho bottono, he n^n forvtrardsy 
il^iit the flo\yer, cut it fropi the i^all^, a^d carried off i^p. 
bird a prifoner. He could not hQW^y^r jprevail uponijCto, 
eat, and it died four days after. 

The Troniou is a fmall bird about thcii^e Qf ^ fptj-t^^^v 
its phimage is> lilce;wire the fame j but i(s beak is Qfi^^^^, 
Its notes feem to exprefs its name, ., 

The French fettl^rs raife in this provlnqe turkl^of tjbe 
fam^ kind with thole of France, fowls, capons./&c» of , 
an excellent taf^e. The pigeons for their fine flavour agd 
delicacy arepreTerred b^ Eurqpe^s to^thofeof a|7y ^ptlier. 

country. Inie 'Ouin<^ ^<^v^ i^ here deli<;ious. 

^^, , r. ;. •, ' ..^•! -, ., . , i.},j\'i-J 7J'-.' ' .>nw .K»f 

In Louifiana we have two kinds' of Silk- worms ; om^rj 
w^s. brought froni France, th^ qthf r Isn^tMr^l ^o th^ coun- 
try . I iha^l enlarge upon thei^ tender the article of agrj^- 

cj^iture. ^^^^.^,^^.- ., . • _ -.,H -jo v^ifi .. o:; cuT 

The Tobacco-worm isa caterpillar of the fize and i^gurf< 
of a filk-worm. It is of a Hne fea-gre^n colo^ur, with 
rings of a filver colour ; on its rump it has a fting n^ a 
quarter of an inc)^ Ibhg* Thefe infers quickly do a great 
deal of mifchief, th^fore care is taken every day, while 
the tobacco is rifing, to pick them o^T and kill theVh., ', ' 

la fumtnef ,C^;»t(erpiI)lar9 a^c fonietiipes found upon t^e 
plants, but thefc infers are very wr^ In .^he cplopy, Qlov^r 
Mforms are her^ the (ame as in I'rance. 

Butterflies are^ not near fo cpnuifion as. in France; th% 
confequenc^ ^ there bjeing fi^wer caterpillars ; but they.^ 
are of incomparable beauty, and have the moft brilliaiiC 
cplours. 1(1 the meadows are to be feen black gifalhop- 
pcrs, which almoft always walk, rarely leap, andftillfeU 
domer fly, T|iey are about the fi^ of a finger or thumh^^ 
|ind their head is (haped fomewhat like that of a horfe^^ 

, Th«ir 


Their four rmall wings ini of « mod beautiful purplffi"*' 
Cam »rt very fond of gra(hopperft, ••'.>, 

' The fieeti of Louiflftrtfi Wge in the eArth, to fecure their 
h6n):y fh^m the nvngti of the bean. $oitie few indeed 
budd their combs rn the trunki of trees, as in Europe } but 
by far the greatcft number in the earth in t\\t iotiy forefts, 
where the bean feldom go* 

' The Fifes are of two kinds, one a yetlowiih brown^ a^ 
in France, and the other black. '^'' ' ' "' *' ^ 

The Wafps in this country take up ^heir abode near the 
h^iMdet where they rmetl visuals. Several' French fettlera 
chd mVoured to root them out of their neighbourhood ; but 
I a^ed otherwife ; for rcAeAing, that no JUiei are to be 
feen where the wafps frequent, 1 invite^ them by hanging 
«p « piece of fleih iri the atri ^ ^w mmhi l ' 

The Qutck-ftingeris a long and yelldWifhfly, ^ndit 
re^eti^es its namein-om {tii Ringing the moment it lights. 
The common flies of France are very common alfo in 
tbttMiana.' >■'-''-■-'". > -/r < 

,^h^ Cantharidet, or Spanifli flies, are very numeroui/ 
and larger than in Europe ^ they are of fuch an acid na- 
t^lfe, that if they butHightly touch the Iniin as they pats, 
a^pretty la^rge blifter in(|tantly ri(et. Thefe flies live upon 
the leaves of the oak. . - • , 

TheGreen-flies appeal^ Only every other year, and the 
natWes fuperftitioufly look upon their appearance as a prti*^^ 
fage of a good crop. It is a pity that the cattle are fb 
grditly moleftcd by them, that they cannot remain in the 
fields ) for they are extremely beautiful, and twice as large 
as bees. ^ -^'i^inqi-:,-: ■ . / 

Fine flies are very common ; when the rirgh^ is ferene 
thty are fo very numerous, that if the tight they dart out 
were con(hint, one might fee 'as clearly ai in fine moon- 

The Fly-'antSt which we fee attach themfelves to the 
flower of the acacia, and which difappear when that 



flower 11 gone, do not proceed from the common anti. The 
fly antiy though ihaped like the other kind, are however 
longer and larger. They have a fquare head } their colour 
it a brownilh red bordered with black » they have four 
red and grey wings, and fly like common flies, which the 
other ants do not even when they have wiiigs. 

The DragoH'-flies are pretty numerous t they do not 
want to deftr<^ them becaufe they feed upon moflcitos, 
which ii one of the moft troublefome kind of infects. 

The Moflcitos are famous all over America, for their 
multitude, the troublefomenefs of their buzzing, and the 
venom of their ftings, which occafion an infupports^ble 
itching, and often form fo many ulcers, if the perfon 
(lung does not immediately put fome fpittle on the wound. 
In open places they are Icfs tormenting } but ftill they 
arc troublefome ( and the befl: way of driving them out 
of the houfes is to burn a little brimftone in the morn- 
ings and evenings. The fmoke of this infallibly kills 
them, and the fmell keeps others away for feveral days. 
An hour after the brimftone has been burnt, the apart- 
ments may be fafely entered into by men. 

By thic fame means we may rid ourfelves of the flies 
and moflcitos, whofe fling is fo painful and fo frequent 
during the fliort time they fly about } for they do not rife 
till about fun-fet, and they retire at night. This. is not 
the cafe with the Burning-fly. Thefe, though not much 
larger than the point of a pin, areinfupportable to the people 
who labour in the fields. They fly from fun-rifing to fun* 
fetting, and the wounds they give burn like fire. 

The Lavertis an infetS); about an inch and aquarterlong, 
a little more than a quarter broad, and but a tenth part 
of an inch thick. It enters the houfes by the fmall- 
eft crevices, and in the night-time it falls upon difhei 
that are even covered with a plate, which renders it very 
troublefome to thofe whofe houfes are only built of wood. 
But they are fo relifhing to the cats, that thefe lad quit 


tViry thing t6 fall up6h th^hi whct^r thtfyi^tfXlifeiiS^, 
Witeh la new ktt\dc}izi once cltSlt^'tYih ^rouAd ^bbut his 
Itdttfc, "aiKd is ^t f»ine diftahce firom the w^^ he is qulclc- 
iy frttd fr6m them. ^ ; . ., 

In Louifiana there are white ants,- which feem to love 
dead wood. Perfons who have been in the Eaft- Indies 
hav* alTared m^, that they are quite like tHoie which in 
that country are c^kd taHcarlay aiid ^aft they wbutd eat 
throtfgh glaft, which 1 hev^r had ^e experience b^. 
There are in LoufUiana^ as in France, i«d, black, and ifly^ 
ftiigants. .,..'■:. ' ■ :'.;p 

■' ■ C H A P.^ VIII. 

Of Fijhes and Shell'Fi/b. 

THOUGH there is an incredible quantity of fiibea 
in this country, I (hall however be very concife in 
my account of them; becaufe during my abode in the 
country they were npt fufficiently known j and the peo- 
ple were not experienced enough in the art o( catching 
them. The rnoft of the rivers being very deep, and the 
Miffifippi, as I have mentioned, being between thirty- 
eight and forty fathbihs, from its mouth to the fall of St, 
Anthony, it Aiay be eafily conceived that the inftrumehta 
ttfed for fifhing in France, Cannot be of any ufe in Loui- 
fiana, becaufe they cannot go to the bottom of the rivers, 
or at leaft fo dee^ as tb prevent the fifh from efcaping. 
The line therfeforccah be tonlyufed, and it is with It they 
catch ail the fiih that are eaten by the ibttlers upon the ri- 
ver. I proceed to an account of thofe fifh. 

The fiarbel is of two ibrts, the lai-gfc and the fmall. 
The firft is about four feet lohg, and the fmalleft of this 
fort that is ever feen is two feet long, the young ones doubt- 
lefs keeping at the bottom of the water. This kind has a 
very large head, aild a rouiid body, which gradually \kU 


01!' LOUIS^IAMA, j«^ 

fens t6\^i:^ tke tail; The filh has no fcales, nor any 
bones, ^a^epting that of the middle: its flefli is very 
good anil delicate, hut m a (Vnall degree very infiptd^ 
t^teh is eaidly remedied } in other refpefls it eats very 
like the freih cod of the country. 

The 'finalt is from a foot to two in length. Its head is 
fliaped Hke that of the other kind ; hut its body k not lb 
rounds «or ib pointed at the tail. .i.^ 

The Carp of the river Miffifippi is monftbus. Nonft 
are feeh uiider two fe^t long ; and many are met witti 
three and four feet in length. 'I'he carps are not fo very 
good in the lower part of the river ; but the higher one 
1^ the ftner they are, on account of the plenty of fand in 
thofe parts. A great number of carps are carried mto the 
lakes l!hac are filled by llie overflowing of the river, and 
in thofe lakes diey are found of all fizes, in great abuit* 
d^nce, and, of a better relifii than thoie of the river. , 

The Bti]rgo-Break«i< is an excellent fifli ; it is ufually % 
fbot aiid a fbot and a half long : it is round, with gold** 
coloured fcales. In its throat it has two bones with m 
furface like that of a file to break the ihell-fifli named 
Burgo. Though delicate, it is neverthelefs very^rm. it 
is beft when not much boiled. 

't'he Ring-Skate is fouhd in the river up as far as Nc\y 
Orleans, but no higher. It is very good, and no way 
tough. In other refpe£ts it is exatSlly like that of France. 

The Spatula is fo called, becaufe from its fnout a fub' 
fiance extends about a foot in length, in the form of an 
apothecary's fpatula. This fiih, which is about two feet 
in length, is neither round or flat, but fquare, having ac 
its fides and in the under part bones that form an angle 
like thofe of the back. 

Np Pikes are caught above a foot and a half long. As 

this is a voracious fifli, perhaps the Armed-fiih purfues it, 

both from jeafoufy and appetite. The pike, befyJes being 

ihiall, is very rare, 

' The 



The Choupic is a very beautiful fifh ; many' people 
miftake it for the trout» as it takes a fly in the fame man- 
ner. But it is very different from the trout, as it prefert 
muddy and dead water to a clear ftream, and its flefli is ibi 
foft that it is only good when fried. 

ThiQ Sardine or fmall Pilchard of the river ^iffifippi^ 
is about three or four fingers in breadth, and between fi^ 
and feven inches long ; it is good and delicate. One year 
1 falted about the quantity of forty pints of them, and 
all the French who eat of them acknowledged them to be 
Sardines from their flefh, their bones, and .their tafte. 
They appear only for a (hort feafon, and are caught by 
the natives, when fwimming againft the ftrongeft current, 
with nets made for that purpofe only. 

The Patafla, fo called by the natives for its flatnefs, it 
the roach or freih-water mullet of this country. 

The Armed>Fiih has its name from its arms, and its 
fcaly mail. Its arms are its very fliarp teeth, about the 
tenth of an inch in diameter, and as much diftant from 
each other, and n^ar half an inch bng. .The interval or 
the larger teeth is filled with fliorter teeth. Thefe arms 
are a proof of its voracity. Its mail is nothing but itt 
fcales, which are white, as hard as ivory, and about the 
tenth of an inqh in thicknefs^ They are near an inch 
long, about half as much in breadth, end in a point, 
and have two cutting fides. There are two ranges of 
them down the back, ihaped exactly like the head of a 
fpontoon, and oppofite to the point of the fcale has a lit- 
tle (hank, about three tenths of an inch long, which the 
natives infert into the end of their arrows, making the 
fcale ferve for a head. The flefh of thi$ fifh is hard and 
not relKhing. 

There are a great number of Eels in the river Miflifippi, 
and very large ones are found in all the rivers and creeks. 

The whole lower part of the river abounds in Cray- 
fifli. Upon my firft arrival in the colony the ground waa 



covtnd with little hillocks, about fix or fe\^en inches 
fiigh, which the crayfiih had made for taking the air out 
of the water j but fmce dikes have been raifed for keep- 
ing off the river from the low grounds, they no longer 
ihew themfelves. Whenever they are wanted, they fi(h 
for them with the leg of a frog, and in a few moments 
they will catch a large dilh of them. - 

The Shrimps are diminutive crayfifh ; they are ufually 
about three inches long, and** of the fize of the little 
finger. Although in other countries they are generally 
found in the fea only, yet in Louifiana you will meet with 
great numbers of them more than an hundred leagues up 
the river. In the lake St. Louis, about two leagues from 
New Orleans, the waters of which, having a communica* 
tion with the fea, are fomewhat brackifh, axe founvl feve- 
ral forts both of fea fifb, and frefh water fiih. As the 
bottom of the lake is very level, they fifh in it with large 
nets lately brought from France. 

- Near the lalfe, when we pafs by the outlets to the fea, 
and continue along the coafls, we meet with fmall oyfters 
in great abundance, that are very well tailed. On the 
other hand, when we quit the lake by another lake that 
communicates with one of the mouths of the river, we 
«ieet with oyfters four or five inch.^s broad, and fix or 
feven long. Thefe large oyfters eat beft fried, having 
hardly any faltnefs, but in other refpeds are large and 

Having fpoken of the oyfters of Louifiana, I (hall take 
fome notice of the oyfters that are found on the trees at 
St. Domingo. When I arrived at the harbour of Cape 
Francois in my way to Louifiana, I was much furprized 
to fee oyfters hanging to the branches of fome fhrubs ; 
but M. Chaineau, who was our fecond captain, explained 
the phaenomenon to me. According to him, the twigs 
of the ihrubs are bent down at high water, to the very 
bottom of th^ (hore, whenever the fea is any v/ays agitated. 

U ^ The 


The pyfters in thAt place 110 fooner feel the t\yigs ihaA 
they lay hold of thera, and wh^n the Tea rfstires tl^ey 1^- 
pear fufpended upon then). 

. Towards the mouths of the river we meet with mufliela 
fto falter than the large oyfters above mentioned ; and this 
is owing to the water being only J)racki£h in thofe parftA* 
as the river there empties ttielf by three large mouths^ 
and Hve other fmall ones, befides feveral (hort creeks, 
which all together throw at once an immenfe quantity of 
water into the fea } the whole marfhy ground occupies aa 
extent of ten or twelve leagues. 

There are likewtfe excellent muflels upon the northern 
0iorc of the lake St. Louis, efpecially in the rivef of 
Pearls i they may be about fix or feven inches long, and 
fometimes contain pretty large pearls., but of no grea( 

. The largeft of the Aell-fifli on the ooaft is the Biirj^ 
well known in France. There is another fiflimuch fmaller 
and of a di£Ferent £bape. Ijcs hollow ihell is ^ong and 
dutiful, and the flat one is gene^^ally black ; fome l^ue 
ones are €bun4, and are mu jh efteemed. TJieie ibellt 
J^ave long b^n in requeft for t^Hacco- boxes. 


[ ^91] 


H I S T O R Y 


.Uiv/J f 



B O O |C IV. 


' MH ' I 'I . 

C H A p. I. 
7^ Origin rf tht Ammctn9» 

THE remarkable differehce I obfervcd behireea the 
Natchez, including in that name the nationsr 
whom they treat as brethren, and the other. peoplvi 
of Louiiaana, made me extremely defirous to know whence 
both of th^m might origioaJiiy cqme. We had not then 
that full information which we have fince received from^ 
the voyages and difcoveries of M* De Lille in the eaftern^ 
paF(9 of the Ruffian empire. I therefore applie^.myrelf 
one day to put the keeper of the temple in good humour^ 
and having fucceeded in that without inuch diftculty, 
I then told him* that from the little reifemblance lob- 
fcrved between the Natchez and the neighbouring nations^' 
I w^ inclined to believe that they, were not originally 
of th« country which they then inhabited ; 4ind that if* 
the ancient ipeech taught him any thing on that Aibjeft, 
hr fTouB do me a great pleafure to inform me pf it. At 

U 2 thefe 


thefe words he leaned his head on his two hands, with 
^ich he covered his eyes, and having remaiiied in that 
pofture about a quarter of an hour, as if to recoiled! him- 
fclf, he anfwered to the following tffe& : 

*< Before we came into this land we lived yonder under 
the fun, (pointing with his finger nearly fouth-weft, hy 
which I underftood that he meant Mexico i) we lived in 
a fine country where the earth is always pleafant ; there 
our Suns had their abode, «nd our nation maintained it- 
felf for a long time againft the ancients of the country, 
who conquered fome of our villages in the plains, but 
never could force us from thie mountains. Our nation 
extended itfelf^ along the great water where this large river 
lofes itfelf i but as our enemies were become very nume- 
rous, and very wicked, our Suns fent fome of their fub- 
je&a who lived near this river, to examine whether we 
could retire into the country through which it flowed. 
The country on the eaft fidfi of the river being found 
extremely pleafant, the Great Sun, upon the return of 
thofe who had exs^nined it, ordered all his fubjedts who 
lived in the plains, and who ftill defended themfehres 
againft the antients • of the country, to remove into 
this land, here to build a temple, and to preferve the eter- 
nal fire.'- -''o^n: :.■■..■ .'....,....,,.. 

*< A gr#at part of oui* nation accordingly fettled here, 
where they lived in peace and abundance for feveral gene- 
rations. The Great Sun, anil thofe who had rertiiined with 
him, njever thought of joining us, being tempted to con- 
tinue where they were by the pleafantnefs of the countryj 
which was very warm, and by the weaknefs of their ene- 
mies, who had fallen intd civil dfffentions, in confequencc 
of the ambition of one of their chiefs, who wanted to 
rkife himfelf from a ftate of equality with the other chiefs 
of the vijla^^', and to treat all the peofde of his nation 
.'as flavesi' During thofe difcords among our enemies, 
fome of them even entered into an alliance with the Great ' 
gun, who ftill remained in our old country^ that^ he might 




conveniently a/fift our other brethren who had fettled oa; 
the banks of the Great Water to the eaft of the large ri- 
ver, and extended themfelves fo far on the coaft and 
among the iflet, that the Great Sun did not hear of them 
fometimes for five or fix years together. 

** It was not till after many generations that the Great ' 
Suns came and joined us in this country,' where, ftom the 
fine climate, and the peace we had enjoyed, we had mul- 
tiplied like the leaves of the trees. Warriors of fire, who 
made the earth to tremble, had arrived in our old coun- 
try, and having entered into an alliance with our bre* 
thren, conquered our ancient enemies } but attempting 
afterwards to make flaves of our Suns, they, rather than ' 
fubmit to them, left our brethren who refufed to follow 
them, and c^me hither attended only with their flaves.'* 

Upon my aflcing him who thofe warriors of fire were, 
he replied, that they were bearded white men, fomewhac 
of a brown i(h colour, who carried arms that darted out 
fire with a great noife, and killed at a great diftance; that 
they had likewife heavy arms which killed a great many 
men at once, and like thunder made the earth tremble; 
and that they came from the Ain-rifing in floating villages. 

The antients of the country he faid were very nume- 
rous, and inhabited from the weftern coaft of the great 
water to the northern countries on this fide the fun, and 
very far upon the fame coaft beyond the fun. They had 
a great number of lar^e zn^ fmall villages, which were 
all built of ftone, and in which there were houfes large 
enough to lodgtf 9 whole village. Their temples were 
built with great liabour and art, and they made beautiful 
works of all kinds of materials. 

But ye yourfelves, faid I, whence are ye come? The 
ancient fpeech, he replied, does not fay from what land 
we came; all that we know is, that our fathers, to come 
hither, followed the fun, and came with him from the 
place where he rifes ; that they were a long time on their 

U 3 journey, 



JDumcy, wferc all on the point of perilhing, and were 
brought into this country without fecking it. 

To thii account of tfie keeper of the temple, which 
Wa^ afterwards confirmed to me by the Great Sun, I (hall 
add the following paflage of Diodorus Siculus, which feemi 
to confirm the opinion of thofe who think the eaftern 
Americans are defcended from the Europeans, who may 
have been driven by the winds upon the coafts of Guiana 
or firaill. 

^< To the weft of Africa, he fays, lies a very large* 
ifland, diftant many days fail from that part of our con- 
tinent. Its fertile foil is partly plain, and partly moun- 
uinous. The plain country is moft fweet and pleafant, 
being watered every where with rivulets, and navigable 
rivers;} it is beautified with many gardens, wlych are 
planted with all kinds of trees, and the orchards parti- 
cularly are watered with pleafant ftreams. The villages 
are adorned with houfes built in a magnificent tafte, hav- 
ing parterres ornamented with arbours covered with flow- 
ers. Hither the inhabitants retire during the fummer tO; 
enjoy the fruits which the country furniihes them within, 
the greateft abundance. The mountainous part is cover- 
ed with large woods, and all manner of fruit trees, and 
in the vallies, which are watered with rivulets, the inha- 
bitants meet with every thing that can render life agree- 
able. In a word, the whole ifland, by its fertility and 
the abundance of its fprings, furniihes the inhabitants 
not only with every thing that may flatter their wifhes» 
but with what may alfo contribute to their health and 
firength of body. Hunting furniflies them with fuch an 
infinite number of animals, that in their feafts they have 
nothing to wifh.for in regard either to plenty or delicacy. 
Befides, the Tea, which furrounds the ifland, fupplies them 
plentifully with all kinds of fiih, dnd indeed the Tea in 
general is very abundant. The air of this ifland is fo 
temperate that the trees bear leaves and fruit almoft the 

^^''■■^ ■ ' "- whole. 

,'m- ;:. ■ ■ / • ' 


whole year round. In a word» this iflaiid is (6 deliciouVi 
that h feemi rather the abode of the goda than of men. 

•' *' AfKtently, on aceonnt of its remote fituatlon, it wa« 
SItoeether unknown ; hut afterwarda it was difcovercd by 
iecfdefit. It H Well known, that from the earlieft agei 
<h6 Phenicians undertook long voyages in order to extend 
their commerce, and in confequence of thofe voyagei 
Hlabliflied feVeral colonies in Africa and the weilern parts 
of Europe. Every thing fucceeding to their wi(h, and bein^ 
become very powerful, they attempted to pafs the pillar^ 
tf Hercules and enter the ocean. They accordingly v 
JNifled thofe pillars, and in their neighbourhood built a 
city upon a peninfula of Spain, which they named Gades* 
There, amongft the dther buildings proper for the placed 
they built a temple to Fferciiles, to whom they inftituted^ 
fplendid facrificcs after the manner of their country. 
This teiiiple is in great veneration at this day, and feveral 
Romans who have rendered themfelves illudrious by their 
Exploits, have performed their vows to Hercules for the 
fucceii of their entcrprizes. 

" •• The Phenicians accordingly having pafTed the Streights 
of Spain,' failed along Africa, when by the violence of 
the winds they were driven far out to fea, and the ftorm 
continuing feveral day», they were at length thrown oii 
this ifland. Being the firft who were acquainted with its 
beauty and fertility, they publiflied them to other nations. 
The Tufcans, when they were maflers at fea, defigned to 
ftnd a colony thither, but the Carthaginians found means 
t6 prevent them on the two following accounts; Hrft, 
they were afraid left th6ir citizens, tempted by the charms 
of that ifland, fhoufd pafs over thither in too great num- 
t)ers, and defert their o\^h country ; next they looked 
upbn it as a fecure afylum for themfelves, if ever any ter- 
rible difafter ihould befal their republic." 

This defcription of Diodorus is very applicable in many 

circamftanccs to America, particularly in the agreeable 

' U 4. teniperatuie 

temp«r«tut« or th« clim«i« to AfVieatiii tht pMlgioUt 
f\ertility of th« ettrtht the t«ll fbr«(H, th« Urge riviM« 
ani) the muliituile of rivuliti And n^Hngi. The Natchet 
mii;^ then jul^iy be (Vippottd to be ttclbended (Vom lbm« 
l*hei\ici«ni or C*rthAgii\i«ni| who had been wuBcked en 
the (hores of South AmericAt (n which c«l% the^ mi|ht 
well be imnit^i^^ ^'^^ ^^^ve but liute acqudintttnce with tne 
«rtit u thotb who firft Unded would be obliged to ip[)ly *tt 
their thoughts to their immedifite lUbtliteitcei nod confl»4 
i)uently Would (bon become rude and b(ub«roui. Their 
v^)i(hio uf the eternal Rre likewife imptiei their defbent 
fVom the t^heniciAui i for every body knows that this 
Ibperftition, which fiiiV took its rife in Kgypt^ was intro- 
duced by the l^henicians into all the countries that they 
viUted. The figurative (iile« and the bold and ^yriae 
exprtfnona in the language of the Natchee, is likewilk 
another pmof of their being delcendf^d from the Phe^ 

Ai to thoft whom the Natehett long after their flrfl 
eftablifhmentt (bund inhabiting the weflein coafl<i of Amet- 
rica* and whont we name Mejticans, the arts which they 
podVftM and cultivated with (bccef^t obliged nte to give 
them a difH^rent origin^ 1 heir tentidi>% their (kerii- 
ficest their buildings, their form of government, and 
their manner of making war, all denote a |ieo)de who 
have tranHnigrated in a body, and bmught with them thp 
arts, the fciences, and tlte cufVoma of their countryt 
Thoft^ peo(de had the art of writing, and alib of paint- 
ing. Their archives conAlVhl of cloths of cottoUi whereon 
they had paiiued or drawn all thofe tranfa^ions which 
they thought worthy of being tranfinitted toporterity. It 
were greatly to be wlfhed that the firft conquerors of thii 
new \wrld had piefeivevl to us the figures of thofe draw- 
ings I for by compAring them with the chara^lers uled by 


* The tuiKAr mi|ht h«t« mcntUncd • Anguliir ruanm, in which hotH 
nttioni tfrec { A)t \t •|sp««ti fV»m f»^iai, I I. c. fl. thtt ih« C|iHha||ini» 

C^f tout I IAN A. i^ 

•ther iiAtldnit wt might tf«rh«tii have dlftsovtrtoil th^urigift 
of tha iHhAbltintit The knowltdgti which w hsve tt 
tH« ChiHeRi chflrtiSlerii which ira ri^ther irrrguUi' drnw- 
Ihii thin charflAten, would prbhubly h«y6 r«Qillt«t«d Aj6h 
tt difbovet-y t attd perh«pi thnlb af }ipM would have he«K 
f^iutid greatly tn have reOimbled the Mfrxitati t ht 1 am 
ilrongly uf opihioii that the Mexicans are defcended ftom 
one of thuib two natleni . 

tn faAt where It the irtipoinhilltyi thdt fbme prince In 
one of thoHi cnuntri«8< upon Falling in an attempt to raifli 
himniir tn the fhvereign power, Ihould leave his natl¥t 
country with all hli partitant, and lotik For (boiei ne# 
landi where, after he had eitablKhed himft^lf, he mighf 
drop all foreign correl^inndence i The (£«iy navigation (if 
the Routh Hea renderi the thlhg probable i and the tte# 
map of the eaftern boundi of Afla, and the we(l«rn df 
North Ameriiai tttelypubiifhed by Mr. De Lille, make* 
it fllll mure likely. Thli map makes it plainly appear/ 
that between the illands of Japan, or northern coa/li of 
China, and tholb of AmeHca, there are other lahds| 
which to this day have remained unknown » and who wUl 
take upon him to fliy there is no land, becaulk it hai 
never yet been dlfbovered f I have therefbre good groutidi 
to believe^ that the McMlcans came originally from Chltitt 
or Japan* ef^utially when I confider their referved and 
uncommunicative dllpofltion, which t| this dav prevaill 
among the people of the eailern parts of AHa. The great 
antiquity of the ''hinel^ nation likewife makes It podRbk 
that a colony nti^ht have gone from thence to AmeriiSa 
early enough tn be Inoked upon as tht Anthnh «f the c9un^ 
Ityt by the flill of the Phenicians who could be fuppofed 
to arrive there. As a further corroboration of my coO'' 
)e£tures, I was informed by a man of learning in I7)l» 
that in the king's library there is a Chinefe manufcript, 
which pofttively afflrmi that America was peopled by the 
Inhabitants of Corea^ 



When tht NiMhts ittifttl to thil |Hirt •{ Amettott 
wliert I faw th^itti ihtf)r t)i«r« rmmd fevtntl nitibiwi m 
imW the rtntdtM bf ianttA fHMlottKi ftmit on tK« iftft^ 
«(li«ls on tht #eft of thte Mifllfi^i^ ^Mt nH thtf peo» 
ipit #Ko iN dii^ingyifliH Mtidttg the nttiVei hf tht itli^tf 
«r Kifed Men i And theit- 6rif in (s (b much the mortf ^* 
§bK^n ii they have not Td diUlntA a traditbn, iii th« 
Matches, nor arts and fciences tike tht Mvxicanft, rrom 
wience we nii|i;ht draw feme fatiafaiSlorjr inferenceii. All 
ilMt I could team from tht m wa^i ihai th^y came from 
letween the north and the lun-fetting i And this acc^oiint 
they uniformly aidhfrad to whenever they gave any aeeouni 
i^ their origin. This lame tradition no ways fatiefying 
the deftre I I*ad to be informed on this point, t madt 
gl^at inquiries to know if there was any wile old ma* 
ftmong the neighbouring r<ationsi, who could give me fur* 
ijicr iuteltigence about ihe origin of the natives. 1 wav 
liappy enough to difcover one« named Moncacht-ap^ 
iitiong the Yasous, a nation about forty leaguca nortb 
frtim the Natchee. 1'his man was remarkable for bit 
l^id underftunding and elevation of fenthnents } and I 
may juAty compare him to thofe (lr(l Greeks, who tra-** 
celled chiefly into the eaft to examine the manners and 
c;ttftoms, of difierent nations, vand to communicate to 
their fcllow-cititens, upon their return, the knowledge^ 
which they had acouircd. Moncacht-ap^, indeed, never 
ewecuted fo noble a plan i but he had however conceived 
it» and had fparctl no labour and pains to eflfe^uate it* 
He was by the French called the Interpreter, becaufe t\fa 
undcrftood fcveral of the Korth American langung|es» 
but the other name which I have mentioned was given 
him ^y his own nation, and fignifies the kiiUr if pmn and 
fitigiu. This name was indeed moft judty applicable to 
him i fur, to fatisfy his curiofity, he had made light of 
the n\o{\ dangerous and painful journeys, in which ht 
had fpcnt fcveral years of his life. He lUyifd two or three 
days with mc ^ and upon my defiring him to give me an 

a account 

Of liOUIStANA. i^ 

account of hts trAwlni he vory nMy ttomplittd with my 
tequeft« and Tpoke to tht fbtloWing efft£l i 

«' 1 hid \t»fk \r\y wtf^, ind till the childi^n whbni t hil^ 
by htr« wHttt I und«rlOfdt my jourtitry tbWMrdi th(* fun<« 
fiflfigi t (bt out fVom my vllliige cfiHtrflt-y to th« inetina^ 
tion of ill my relAtioni, Mtid went firft t« th« Chk«fiiwl« 
our frh»iidi nftd neighbourit I eontitiued «motig th«tfl 
fevtral dtyi to inform myOilf whether they IcndW whenee 
we all c«mf| or it leift whenee they themfelvei cithe $ 
they, who were our elders ) fuice from ihcm cimie the 
language of the country. As they could not Inform mff# 
I proceeded on my journey. I reached the country of tbo 
ChaouanouR, and afterwards went up the Wabaih off 
Ohio, almoft to its fource, which is in tlie country of tho 
Iroquois or Five Nations, t left them however towardt 
the north ) and during the winter, which in that country 
is very l^vere and very long, t lived i < a village of tho 
AbenaquiSfWhere Icontra£led an acquaintance with amii» 
fomewhat older than myfelfi who promifed to condu6l mo 
the following fpring to the Great Water. Accdrdiftgly 
when the fnows wereVnehed, and the weather was fettled^ 
we proceeded eaftward, and, nfter feveral days journey* 
I at length faw the Oreat Water, which filled me witti 
fuch joy and admiration that I could not fpeak. Night 
drawing on, we took up our lodging on a high bank above 
the water, which was forely vexed by the wind, and mado 
fo great a noife that I' could not flecp. Next day tho 
ebbing and flowing of the water filled me with great ap^ 
prehenfion ) but my companion qui«t«d my fears, by 
afluring me that the water obfcrvcd certain bcundii^ both 
in advancing and retiring. Having futlsficd our curiofity 
in viewing the Great Water, we returned to the village of 
the Abenaquis, where I continued the following winter i 
■ltd after the fnows were melted, my companion and I 
went and viewed the great fHli of the river 8t. Laurence 
at Niagara, which was dillant from the village feveral 
days journey. The view of this great fall at firfl made 



my hair ftaiild on fend, and my heart almoft leap out of itt 
place ; but afterwardi, before I left it, I had the courage 
to walk under it. Next day we took the ihorteft road to 
the Ohio, and my companion and I cutting down a tree 
on the banks of the river, we formed it into a ptttiaugre^ 
which ferved to conduct me down the Ohio and the Miffi^ 
fippi, after which, with much difficulty, I went up our 
fniall i^iver { and at length arrived fafe among my rela* 
tions, who were rejoiced to fee me in good health. 

** This journey, inftead of fatisfying, only ferved to 
txcite my curioftty. Our old men, for feveral years, 
had told me that the antient fpeech informed them that the 
Red Men of the north came originally much higher and 
much farther than the fource of the river Miflfouri } and 
ts I had longed to fee, with my own eyes, the land from 
whence our firft fathers came, I took my precautions for 
my journey weft wards. Having provided a fmall quantity 
of corn, I proceeded up along the eaftern bank of the 
river Miffifippi,' till I came to the Ohio. I went up along 
the bank of this laft river about the fourth part of a day's 
journey, that I might be able to crofs it without being 
carried into the Miffifippl. There I forriu^ a Cajeux or 
raft of canes, by the affiftanceof which I paflTed over the 
river ; and next day meeting with a herd of buffaloes in 
the meadows, I killed a fat one, and took from it the 
fillets, the bunch, and the tongue. Soon after I arrived 
among the Tamaroas, a village of the nation of the Illi- 
nois, where I refted feveral days, and then proceeded 
northwards to the mouth of the Miflburi, which, after it 
enters the great river, runs for a confidcrable time without 
intermixing its muddy waters with the clear ftream of the 
other. Having eroded the Miffifippi, I went up the Mif- 
fouri along its northern bank, and after feveral days jour^ 
ney I arrived at the nation of the Miflburis, where I ftaid 
a long time to learn the language that is fpoken beyond 
them. In going along the MiiTouri I pafled through mea- 


dowi a whole day's journey in length, which were quite 
covered with buffaloes* , 

•* When the cold was paft, and the fnows were melted, 
I continued my journey up along the Miflburi till I came 
to the nation of the Weft, or the Canzas. Afterwards, 
in confequence of directions from them, I proceeded in 
the fame courfe near thirty days, and at length I met with 
fome of the nation of the Otters, who were hunting in 
that neighbourhood, and wei^e furprifed to fee me alone^ 
I continued with the hunters two or three days, and then 
accompanied one of them and his wife, who was near her 
time of lying<^in, to their village, which lay far off be- 
twixt the north and weft. We continued our journey, 
along the MifTouri for nine days, and then we marched 
directly northwards for five days more, when we came to 
the Fine River, which runs weftwards in a direction con* 
trary to that of the MifTouri. We proceeded down this 
river a whole day, and then arrived at the village of the 
Otters, who received me with as much kindnefs as if I 
had been of their own nation. A f(^w days after I joined 
a party of the Otters, who were going to carry a calumet 
of peace to a nation beyond them, and we embarked in a 
pettiaugre, and went down the river for eighteen days, 
landing now and then to fupply ourfelves with proviftons^ 
When I arrived at the nation who were at peace with the 
Otters, I ftaid with them till the cold was pafled, that ^ 
might learn their language, which was common to moft 
pf the nations that lived beyond them. ' 

- «* The cold was hardly gone, when I again embarked 
on the Fine River, and in my courfe I met with feveral 
nations, with whom I generally ftaid but one night, till 
I arrived at the nation that is but one day's journey from 
the Great, Water on the weft. This nation live in the 
woods about the diftance of a league from the river, from 
their apprehenfion of bearded men, who come upon their 
QOftfts in floating villages, and carry off their children^to 


S6t THE fefIS TORY' 

ftiftke flaves of them. Tbeife men were defcribed to be 
white, with long black beards that came down to their 
breads ( they were thick and (hortt had large heads, 
W^ich were covered with cloth i they .were always dreifed, 
even (n the greateft heats ; their cloatfaa fell down to tho 
middle of their legs, which with their feet were covered 
with red or ydlow ftuflF.' Their arms made a great firs 
and a great noife j and when they faw themfclves out- 
iHunbcred by Red Men, they retired oh board their large 
pettiaugre, their number fometimes amounting to thirty, 
but never more. 

^ Thofe ftrangers came from the fun-fettlng, in fearch 
of a yellow ftinking wood, which dyes a fine yellow 
colour} but the people of this nation, that they might 
not be tempted to vifit them, had defljroyed all thofe kind 
of trees. Two other nations in their neighbourhood 
however, having ^ no other wood, could not deilroy the 
trees, and were flill vifited by the ilrangers ; and being 
greatly incommoded by them, had invited their allies to 
affifl them in making an attack upon them the next time 
they n^ould return: The following fummer I accordingly 
joined in this expedition, and aifter travdiing five long' 
dajTB journ^, we came to the place where the bearded men 
ufually landed, where we waited feventeen days for their 
arrival. The Red Men, by my advice, placed themfelvei 
in ambufcade to furprize the ftrangers, and- accordingly 
when they landed to cut the wood, we were fo fuccefsfut 
as to kill eleven of them, the refl immediately efcaping on 
board two large pettiaugres, and flying weft ward upon die 
Great Water. 

:,*^ Upon examining thofe whom we had killed, we 
found them much fmaller than ourfelves, and very w^ite ; 
they had a large head, and in the middle of the crown the 
hair was very long } their head was wrapt in a great many 
folds of ftuft, and their cloaths feemed to be made neither 
of wool nor filk ; tliey were very foft^ and of different 



0,F hQVl^lA^ h. ^f 

Wourt. Two obI/ of the tl4v«ii wdo mtm iUm li^i 
fiM-armi wit^ powder and ball, I tfiied thfirpmicm imi, 
(psm4 that they were mud) heavtifir thM y9urffr Wid^ 
not kill at To great a diftance. ,, , , , •> - !i> 

<( After tKw exipedition I thoii^ 9f nothii^ liwtpro- 
«9iBding on my journey, ai»4 wUh fha^ deTign-Ui^t, (}if 
Red Men return home, and joined myfelf to tMe wiN> 
inhahited more weftward on the icoa(i^ with whom I ^ih 
Yelled aUng tihe (hove of the Gieat Water, which bund* 
direi611y hetwiMt the north And the {Tun^fctfeing. When 2 
arrived at the villages of nay feUoW'traveUerj^, whoif 
I liaund the daya viery long and ^e nightt very flicwt^ I 
waa Advifed by the old men to ^veover.aU thoiig^ta.iiyr 
continuing my journey. They told me that the lao^ 
extended ftill a long way in a dire&ion heftwcen the floclih 
and fun-fetting, after which it ran dire£ily weft, and at 
length wascut by the "Great Water from north to fowtu 
One of them added, that wh^n ,he was young, he knew 
a very old man who had feen that diftant land before it 
was eat away by the Great Water, and th^t v/kua the 
Great Water was low, many rocks ftill appeared in tbofs 
parts. Finding it theiiefore impn^icable to proceed much 
further, oo account Qf the feverity of the climate^ and 
the want of game, I returned by the fame route by which 
I had fct out J and reducing my whole travels weftward to 
days journeys, I compute that they would have employed 
me thirty-ilx moon^j but on account of my frequent 
delays, it was iive years before I returned 
among the Yazous." 

Moncacht-ap£, after giving me an account of has tra»* 
rVelsj fpent four or five .days, vifiting among the Natoh^z, 
and then returned to take leave of qne, when I n)ade him 
a prefect of feyeral wares of no great vsdue, amon^ whi<;h 
was a. concave mirror about two inches and a halC diame- 
ter, which had coft me about three halfpenceo As this 

ipa^niiiqd th^ (ace 'to fo^r M |«M»<??L»R?«^M5alfis«jr 1>« 

^ • ' was 


WMi wonderfully deligkfed with it, and vrould n6t htftf 
exchange it with ^he ^beft mirror in France. After ex^ 
pfdBng his regret at parting with me, he leturned highly 
iatiffied to his own nation. ^^-'1 ' 

- Moncacht-tfp6'8 account of the jun£Hon bf America 
with the eaftern parts of Afia (eems confirmed from the 
following remarkable fai&. Some years ago the (keletona 
of two large elephants and two fmaU ones were difcovered 
hi a marfl^ near the rim Ohio ; and as they were not 
much confumed, it is fuppoied that the elephants came 
from Afift not many years before. If war alfo confider the 
farm of government, and the manner of living among 
tiie' northern nations of America, there '^ill appear « 
great refemblance betwixt them and- the Tartars in the 
nortb>eaft parts of Afia. • -^p 


C H A P. II. 
jtn Aetoittii $f thifnurd Natutu of Indians in Louifiaaa. 

- . ; .•■) 

SEC T. I. 

Of thi Nations inhabiting an the kaft of the Mi^fippi. 

IF to the hiftory of the dticoveries and c6nquefts of the 
Spaniards we join the tradition of all the nations of 
America, we (hall be fully perfuaded, that this quarter of 
the world, before it was difcovered by Chriftop^er Co- 
lumbus, was very populous, not only on the continent, 
but alfo in the iflands. 

However, by an incompreheniible fatality, the arrival 
of the Spaniards iif this new world feems to have been 
the unhappy epoch of the deftru£(ion of all the nations of 
America, not only by war, but by nature itfelf. As it is 
but too well known how many millions of natives were 
deftroyed by the Spaftiih fword, 1 (hall not therefoit pt v 


,0 F L O U I S I A N A. 305 

feht my readers with that hdrrible detail ; but perhaps 
many people do not know that an innumerable multitude 
of the natives of Mexico and Peru voluntarily put an 
end to their own lives, fome by facrificing themfelves to 
the manes of their (bvereighs who had been cut off, and 
whofe born victims they, according to their deteftable 
cuftoms, looked upon themfelves to be ; and others, to 
avoid falling under the fubje«Stion of the Spaniards, think- 
ing death a lefs evil by far than flavery. 

The fame efFe£^ has been produced among the people of 
North America by two or three warlike nations of the 
natives. The Chicafaws have not only cut ofF a great 
many nations who were adjoining to them, but have even 
carried their fury as far as New Mexico, near fix hundred 
miles from the place of their refidence, to root out a nation 
that had removed at that diftance from them, in a firm 
expectation that their enemies would not come fo far in 
fearch of them. They were however deceived an(^ cut 
off*. The Iroquois have done the fame in the eaft partsi: 
of Louifiana ; and the Padbucas and others have aAed in 
the fame manner to the nations in the weft of the colony.' 
We mayrhere obferve, that thofe nations could- not fuc- 
ceed againft their enemies without coiiiiderable lofs to 
themfelves, and that they have therefore greatly leflened 
their own numbers by their many warlike expeditions. 

'I mentioned that nature had contributed no lefs than 
war to the deftru£Hon of thefe people. Two diftempers, 
that are not very fatal Jn other parts of the world, make 
dreadful ravages among them ; I mean the fmall-poxand a 
cold, which bafRe all the art of their phyficians, who in 
other refpe£ts are very (kilful. When a nation is attacked 
by the fmall-pox, it quickly makes great havock i for as 
a whole family is crowded into a fmall hut, which has nor 
communication with the external air, but by a door about^ 
two feet wide and four feet high, the diftemper, if it feize9>' 
one, is quickly communicated to all. The aged die in- 
, 1.1 .' X confeqtiencc^ 

3oe T n i: H 1 8 1* O R Y 

roii(Vduvnc« of their tdviiicttl /•an ind (he hud qui^lU/ of 
thtir iuml I «iitl the young, If they in not iltM\f Witch" 
V(1, defttoy themA»lvei, rroiti an abhorrtitceof thtf blutohei 
iit their (kin. If they can but cfcnpe fbm thtir hut| they 
nni out aht) bath* thcmfdvei in the river, which ti cettdit 
death in that dil^emper. The Chatkai* beiitg naturally 
not very handfume, art; not To apt to regret thtlofii of thel( 
beauty i cnn(bquently luHcr Ufii Mtd are much mort numi- 
roui than the other nationi. 

Colds, which art very common In tht winter, likowiic 
deflroy great numbiera of tht natives. In that featbn thiy 
Keep firci in tkietr huta day and night t md af tkere ia no 
other opeulng^but the door, the air within tha hut ii kept 
cxccllive wi^rm Without any fret circulation ) fo that whca 
Ihcy have occalion, to gp out, the culd l^iiaea them, and 
ihc conlequcncfif of It art a^oft alwayi fatal* 

The ftrft nafeirma. thik the French wert acqaainttil witti 
In thia part of KortK Amarica, wara thofa on tht ea(t of 
tht colony I for tlit Arft ftnlamtttt wt madt ihtrt was at 
Fort Louia on tht rivtr Mobilfe. t (hall thercfert begin 
t)w account of tht difttmnt nationa of Indiana on (hit 
Tidt of tht colonyi and |iroccfid wcftwards in tht faint 
order aa thty art fituatadi 

Rut httwfvef eeatoua t may be in dl(l)laying not nnTy 
the btautiea, bUt tht rlchea and advantagea 6f Loulfiana, 
yet t am notitt all inclined to attribute to it what it dooa not 
pttfltfai theivlbft t wte^n my readtr not to bt furprifed, if 
I make mention of. a few nationi in thia colony, in com*i> 
parifon of tttt great number, which ht may perhapa hav# 
(ten in tlw &r(l mapii of this country. Thoie mapa wtr«< 
made from ntcmoira ftntby different travellera, who noted' 
down a\l tht names they heard mmtioned, apd then flxttl 
upmi a fpot for, their retidcnce ) fo that a map appeared 
ililcd with tha name* of natiom, niany of whom ware 
dc(lroy<d, and others were refugees among natiuiM who 
bad Adopted (hem and takea them undor thtir prottdlion* 
. , Thus, 


Tmii, ihniigH thi nitionion thji cbntintnt wcrt formerly 
both fliiitiferoui ii)d |iopuloui, they an now To ihiniieil 
«tid difnittifticd, thAt there doci notejtiANt prtfcnt ii third 
pift M the hadotii whofe ntthei art to he found in the 

The mod caAcrn nation of Louifiana li that called thi 
ApaUcheii which in a brunch of the great nation of the 
AptiUchei, who iiihuhitrd near the mountaini to which 
they have given th^ir fiiliitc. This great nation ii divided 
into ftvenl brAnchek, who ^akt ditferent namei. The 
branch in th« neiuhbourhodd of (hi river Mobile ii but 
Inconfldcrabl'e, And part of it li Koiiiian Catholic. 

On the ttorth of* the Apalachei arp the Alibamoui» •• 
pretty confiJerable nation t they love th« French* and 
receive the Knglint rather out of nccefllty than fricndAiip* 
On, the fir (I feullng of tl)o colony wa had fome commerce 
lyith them t but mice the main part of the colony hai 
fixed 0^1 thd river, we have fomewhat negtrdUd them, on 
account of the great didancc. 

Eaft from the Alibamoua art tht Caouittii whom M. 
do Uiainville* governor of Louifiana, wanted to diAinguKh 
above the other nationi« by giving tht title of tmperor to 
t|icir fovff-eign, who then would have been chief of all 
the neighbouring nationirbut thofe nationi rcfufitd to. 
acknowledge him ai fuch, and faid that it wai enough if 
each nation . obeyed iti own chief) that it wai improper 
for thechiefa themfelvei to be fub^tdk to other chicfi, and 
that fuch a cuftom had never prevailed among them, ai 
they choie rather to be dcftroyed by u great nation than to 
bf fubjcd.^ to them. Tiiti nation is one o^ the moA cori- 
fiderublc) the EngliAi trade with them, and they fufTer tht 
trader! to come among them from policy. 

To the north of the Alibamoua are the Abefkaa and . 
ConchacH, who, ai far as t can learn, are the fame peo- 
ple ) yet the name of Conchac rcemtt appropriated to one 
pjirt f^orc than another, l^h'ey are fituaUd at a diAance 

X 2 fruin 


from the great rivera, and confequently have no large 
canes in their territory'. The canes that grow amon^ 
them are not thicker than one*s finger, and are at 
the fame time fo very hard, that when they are fplit, they 
cut like knives, which thefe people call mchacs. The 
language of this nation is alitioft the fame vvith that of 
the Chicafaws, in which the word conchac fignifics a 
knife. ' '^ t.^.-UA-u^^**- 

The Abeikas, on the eai^ of them, have the Chcrokccs, 
divided into feveral branches, and fituated very near the 
Apalachean mountains. All the nations whom I have 
mentioned' have been ignited m a general alliance for along 
time paft, in order to defend themfelvcs againft the Iro- 
quois, or Five Nations, who, t)efbre this alliance Was 
formed, mrtcte (fdhtin'ual war upon them } but have ceafed 
to moleft them fincc they have fccn tliem uhited. All 
thefe nations, and fome fmall ones intermixed among 
them, have al^ys beeii looked upon as belongfhg io no 
colony, excepting the Apahches } but fince the bresiking 
out of the war with the Engii/H in 1756, it' is faid they' 
have voluntarily declared for us. \ ir nc », )- ■ 

The nations in thcf neighbburhbbd of the Mobile, are' 
firft the Ohatots, a fmall nation confifting of about forty 
huts, AdjowMnfe to the Hvef and the fta. Thiy' are Roman 
Catholics, or feputtd fuchj and areffricnds to'^htFrertch^^ 
whom they %it always ready- to ferve updn being paid fof - 
iti ' North fMm the 'Chat<]lt^,' and very near thekh^ H the' 
French fettltitt^Ht of t'ort IwUis on the MobiftJ.^"'^ ^j^^ 'H» 

A little north from For^ ^ouisare fituated tlieThomez,^ 
which are not ftibre numerous than the Chatbts, an^ are^ 
faid to be koman CathcJlliii. ' Th6y ar^ oiir ffierttls to.^ 
fach a degree as fcVen to teaze us With their ofliciourncf^.'^" 

Further north |ive the Taenfas^ who are a branch of the 
Natchfez, of Whom t (hall 6av|:^occafioh to fpeak mbrq^ 
at large. ' Bpth of thefe natioi^s keep the eternal fi^e with 
the utmoft Cafc ; ' but they trull' tne guard of it! tb'meif';^ 


from a perfuafion that none of their daughters would facri- 
fice their liberty^ for that office. The whole nation of the 
Taenfas confifls only of about one hundred huts. > 

Proceeding ftill northwards along the bay, we meet with 
the nation of the Mobiliens, near the mouth of the river 
Mobile, in the hay of that name. The true name of this 
nation is Moiivill, which the French have turned into 
Mobile, calling the river and the bay from the nation that 
inhabited near them. All thefe fmall nations were living 
in peace upon the arrival of the French, and Hill continue 
fo } the nations on the eaft of the Mobile ferving as a bar- 
rier to them againft the incuriions of the Iroquois. Be- 
fides, the Chicafaws look upon them as their brethren, 
as both they, and their neighbours on the eaft of the 
Mobile, fpealc a language which is nearly the fame with 
that of the Chicafaws. 

Returning towards the fea, on the weft of the Mobile, 
we find the fmall nation of the Pacha-Ogoulas, that is. 
Nation of Bread, fttuated upon the bay of the fame name. 
This nation confifts only of one village of about thirty 
huts. Some French Canadians have fettled in their' 
neighbourhood, and they live together like brethren, as 
the Canadians, who arc naturally of a peaceable difpofi- 
tion, know the character of the natives, and have the art 
of Living with the nations of America. But what chiefly 
renders the harmony betwixt them durable, is the abfence 
of foldiers, who never appear in this nation. 

Further northwards, near the river Pacha-Ogoulas, is 
fituated the great nation of the Chatkas, or Flat-heads. 
I call them the great nation, for I have not known or- 
heard of any other near fo numerous. They reckon in 
this nation twenty-five thoufand warriors. There may 
perhaps be fuel) a number of men among them, who take 
that name; but I am far from thinking that all thcfe have 
a title to the character of warriors. 



According to the tradition ot the natives, thii nation 
arrived fo fuddenlyr, and pa/Ted fo rapidly through the (cr- 
ritories of others, that when I aflced them, whence came 
^hf Chatl^as I they anfwered me, tM they fpirung out of 
the ground i hy which they meant to exprefi th^jr gr«at 
(urpri^Q at reeing tj^em appear fo fud(|en)y* Tl^tir gre^t 
fiumbers awed tqe ni^tivei near whom tf^ey pi^^^ i their 
chara£ter being but little inclined to war, dic| npt infpir^ 
them with ihe fury of conquei^i ; thus they 9,t length arrived 
in an uninhabited coMntry which nobody disputed with 
them. They have fince lived without any diCputei with 
their neighbours) who on the other hand hav^ never 
d^rcd to try whether they were brave or not. It is doubt- 
UU owing to this that they have incrcafed to their prefent 

They are called Flat-heads } but I do not know why 
that name has been givcp to them more than to others, 
£nce all the nations of Louiftana have their heads as flat, 
or nearly fo. They are fituated about two hundred and 
^(ty tildes north from th^ ft^a, and extend nnoif^ ffpin ^4(| 
IP weft than from fouth to north. 

Thofe who travel from the Chatkas to the Chicafaws, 
feldom go by the (Korteft road, which extends about one 
hundred and eighty miles, and is very woody and moun- 
tnilnous. They choofe rather to go along the river Mobile, 
which is both the eafieft and moft pleafant route. The 
nation of the Chicafaws is very warlike. The men have 
vfiry rtgular features, are large, well-ihaped, and neatly 
drefled » they are tierce, and have a high opinion ofthem- 
felvei. They feem to be the remains of a populous nation, 
whofe warlike difpofition had prompted them to invade 
feveral nations, whom they have indeed deflroyeJ, but 
not without diminiihing theifown numbers by thofe expe- 
dition's. What induces me to believe that this nation has 
been formerly very confiderable, is that the nations who 
border upon them, and whom I have juft mentioned, 



i^ak the Chicafa^v language, though fomtwhat cor- 
ni|>tted; and tholb who fpeak it heft value themfelyea 
upon it 

I ought perhaps to except out of thia number the 
Tacnfas, who being a branch of the Natchex, have dill 
prcferved their peculiar language ; but even thefe fpeak, 
}|) general, the corrupted Chicafaw language, v/hich our 
French fettlera call the Mobilian language. Af to the 
Chaikas, I fuppofe, that being very numeroui, they have 
been able to preferve their own language in a great mea- 
furc } and have only adopted fome worda of the Chica- 
faw language. They always fpo!;.e to me in the Chicafaw 

In returning towards the coaft next the river Miil^rippi, 
we meet with a ftnall nation of about twenty huts, named 
Aquclou-Piifat, that is, MtM who unditjtand dnd fte. 
This nation formerly lived within three or four miles of 
the place where New Orleans is built j but' they are fur- 
ther north at prefent, and not far from the lake St. Lewi^, 
or Pontchartrain. They ()>eak a language fomewhat ap- 
proaching to that of the Chicafaws. We have never had 
great dealings with them. 

Being now arrived at the river Miflifippi, I {hall proceed' 
upwards along its banks as far as to themc'^ diftant nations 
tWt are known to us. 

The ftrft nation that F meet with is the Oumas, wtiicll' 
itgnifiee the Red Nation. They are fltuatcd about twenty 
leagues from New Orleans, where I law fome of tiicm 
upon; my arrival in this province. Up6n the firn cibblini- 
ment of the colony, fome Frcikh Weilt alid fettled near 
them ; and they have been very fata! neigfih'clurs, by fur- 
niihing them with brandy^ which they' drink to great 

Crofling the Red River, and proceeding ftill upwards, 
we firitl the remains of tl^c nation of the I'orticas, who 

X A. have 

> . 


have always been very much attached to the French, ao^^. 
have even been our auxiliariec in lyar. The Chief of. 
this nation was out very zealous friend ; and as he was 
full of courage, and always ready to make war on the 
enemies of the French, the king fent him a brevet of bri-. 
gadicr of the red armies, and a blue ribbon, from whence 
hung a filver medal, which on one fide rcprefented the 
marriage of the king, and on the reverfe had the city of 
Paris. He likewife fent him a gold-heaut.J cane ; and the 
Indian Chief was not a little proud of wearing thofe 
honourable diftin6lions, which were certainly well be- 
flowed. .This nation fpcaks a language fo far different 
from that of their neighbours, in that they pronounce the 
letter R, which the others have not. They have likewife* 
different cuftoms. 

The Natchez in former times appear to have been one 
of the mod rcfpeiflablc nations in the colony, not only 
from their own tradition, but from that of the other 
nations, in whom their greatncfs and civilized cuftoms' 
raifed no lefs jealoufy than admiration. I could fill a 
volume with what relates to this people alone; but as I' 
am now giving a con<:ife account of the people of Lour-' 
fiana, I Ihall fpeak of them as of the re{V, only en- 
larging a little upon feme important tranfa6lions conceru* 
ing them. ,^ . ij 

When I arrived in 1720 among the Natchez, that' 
nation was fituated upon a fmall river of the fame name ^ 
the chief village where the Sun refided was built 
along the banks of the river, and the other villages were 
planted round it. They were two leagues above the con-ti 
iluence of the ri^r* r, which joins the Miflifippi at the foot 
of the great precipices of the Natchez. From thence are 
ib'ur leagues to its fourcc, and as many to fort Rofalie, 
jind they were fituated within a league of the fort. 

Two fmall nations lived a« refugees among the Natchez. 
The moft ancient of thcie adopted nations vytre the Gri- 


grU) who Teem to have received that name from the 
French, becaufe when talking with one another thejr' 
often pronounce thofe two fyllables, which makes them 
be remarked as ftrangers among the Natchez, who, as 
well as the Chicafaws, and all the nations that fpeak the 
ChicaLw language, cannot pronounce the letter R. 

The other fmall nation adopted by the Natchez, are 
the Thioux, who have alfo the letter R in their language. 
Thefe were the weak remains of the Thioux nation, for- 
merly one of the ftrongeft in the country. However, 
according to the account of the other nations, being of a 
turbulent difpofition, they drew upon themfelves the re- 
fentment of the ChicalWs, which was the occaflon of 
their ruin ; for by their many engagements they were at 
length fo weakened that they durft not face their enemy, 
and confequently were obliged to take refuge among the 

'The Natchez, the Grigras, and the Thioux, may to- 
gether raife about twelve hundred warriors ; which is but 
a fmall force in comparifon of what the Natchez could 
formerly have raifed alone ; for according to their tradi- 
tions they were the moft powerful nation of all North 
America, and were looked upon by the other nations as 
their fuperiors, and on that account refpecSled by them. 
To give an idea of their power, I (hall only mention, 
that formerly they extended from the river Manchac, or 
Iberville, which is about fifty leagues from the fea, to the 
river Wabafli, which is diftant from the fea about four 
hundred and fixty leagues ; and that they had about five 
hundred Suns or princes. From thefe fads we may judge 
how populous this nation formerly has been ; but the 
pride of their Great Suns, or fovereigns, and likewife of 
their inferior Suns, joined to the prejudices of the people, 
has made greater havock among them, and contributed 
more to their deftrudion, than long and bloody wars 
>vould have done. 



4U ^Mr (ovoreigaii immb dofpotic,. they bad fbr • Itmg 
tip9ff ft^l fftal^liflniBd ti>0 following inhiMnMi and impoKtie 
cifftflm» thai w^fn anjr of th«m died, n great nvmber off 
t^ ^iul4e^ both man and women, OottM Ulicwiiie bo 
pi^ tp death. A proportioaAble niunbar of ttkh^i&i wMt 
likewifi; liiM upon the dciatfa of any of tbo inferior Suni^^ 
9fid thj? people on thr other band had' imbibed a b^eC 
thfkt zVi thofe who followed their princes into the other 
worI<}, to ferve them there, would be eternall j b;^ppy. It 
iseafy to conceive hqw niii^Mis fuch sin Jinht^qian cufton» 
would be among a nat^ who had (o many p^iiikces aa tlnr 

|t, wpuld Asofp that fome of the SmM, more hmnane 
th^ the refl:, had difapproved of this barbarous arftom^ 
an4 hf>4 theieforia setircd to places at » remote dtftaince 
fcqm th^centre^ theif na^ti. For we have two branohies 
of this great nation fettled in other parts of the colony, 
who have preferved the greateft part^f the cufioms of the 
iCs^chez. One of thefe branches is the nation of the 
Xaenfas on the banks of the Mobile, whb preferve the 
eternal fire, and ieveral other ufages of the nation from 
whomi they are defceuded. The other branch is the nation 
cf the Chitimachas, whom the Natchez have alwayt 
looked upon as their brethren*^ 

Forty leagMfs narth from the Natohex is* the rivep 
Vaious, which runs into the Miffifippi, and is fo called 
iiaon a nation of the (ame name who had about a hundred 
buts^ on its banks. 

Near the Yazous, on the fame river, lived theCoroais, 
2 nation conii'iling of about forty huts. Thefe two nations 
pronounce the letter R. 

Upon the fame river Hkewife lived the Chacchi-Oumas, 
m^came which figniffes red Cray-fjh, Thefe people bad 
nor above fifty huts. 


OF LOU I 91 AH A. 31$ 

Kear iht fame river dwelt die Oufe-P|ou1as, or 
the Nation o^ the Dog, which night have Sbout fyttj 

huts.' " ''"^'■»'' ■ ■ ^ ' .oo...; :::/* 

The Tapwlla? Ijkewii^ in)i^bi$ed wppfj % Jp^^jf* of 
this river^ and had not above twenty-Uve huts. Thefe 
three laft nations do not pronounce the letter R, and feem 
to be branches of the Chicafaws, efjiecially as they fpeak 
their laiigui^ge. $in(:e the praafl^cre of the French fm^prs 
at the Natchez, thefe ^ve fmall nations, who had joined in 
th^ confpir^(^ againft us, have all rqtire^ ampn^ ^e Ch|<- 
cafaws, and make now but, one nation with th^. 

' To thf north of th^ Chip, r\^ far from thf \m^ of 
tjie Miffif\^^ ii^habit tl^f lllinpis, vfhp h^vc g|vw» thwf 
Uam^tQ^f tlv^TQfi th«; b;»n|^ pf whi^h t^ h^y^ l<^ 
tJ?4. Thcjf ar^^ divide4 i^to Ipv^ral vijls^ge^, (mcIi 9H th9 
Tamaroas^ the Calkaquias, the Caouquias, %hfi Pimitl^n 
ouis, and fon^e Qth^rSd Near the village of the T^iBa- 
rpas is a French ppft, wher(p feveral French C^a^i?^ 
have fettlej. 

^ This if oi;ie of tjie; mq^ ^ qtifidf rable po(l$ in all Loui* 
f^ana, wh>9M ^.IU appc;ar no^ at all furprillng, whcsn wft 
confider that the Illinois were one J the firft nationa 
vfhQn^ we.difcovered in tjie 9olon,y, s^nd that they h^ve 
always ren^ained. mod faithful ^\}'m of the French : aa 
advantage whjch is, in a ^reat ndeafure owing to the pro^ 
p^r mnnner of livine with th^ nafiye^ of America,, which 
the Cana|lians have always obfervetl* Xt is not thejr^ 
"^ant o^ coura^ tha^ ren4ei;s then^ fp peaceable, for their 
valour is well kinowj^. The letter R is pronounced by the 

Proceeding further northwards, yfe mee( with a pretty, 
large nation, kpown by the name, of the Fqx^s, with 
whom we haye beqn at war ne^r thefe forty ye^f?paft, yet- 
Ihave not heard that vy^e have, had any b],Qyf$ w^th theoj^ 
for a lonj^ time. 


31$ i e >: ; H I S T O R Y 

Fron^ the Foxes to the- Fall of St. Anthony, we meet 
with no nation, nor any above the Fall for near an hun- 
dred leagues. About that diftance north of the Fall, the 
Sioux are fettled, and are faid to inhabit feveral fc^ttcred 
villages both on the eaft and weft of the Mi/liflppi, , 

■ ' .It 
S EG T. n. 

Of the Nations inhabiting oti iblt Weft of the Mifl'^fippi. 

HAVING defcribed as exa(£lly as poffible all th<; 
nations on the eafl of the Miflifippi, as well thofe 
who are included within the bounds of the colony, as 
thofe who are adjoining to it, and have fome connection 
with the others ; ? fhall now proceed to give an account 
of thofe who inhabit on the weft of the river, from thq 
fea northwards. 

Between the river Miffiflppi, and thofe lakes which are 
filled b^ Its waters upon their overflowing, is a fmall 
nation named Chaouchas, or Ouachas, who inhabit fome 
little villages, but are of fo little confequcnce that they 
are no otherwife, known to our colonifts but by their 
name. ■ ■ ■■ ;^-;*;-. 

In th *. neighbourhood of the lakes abovementioncd live 
the Chi imachas. Thefe are the remains of a nation 
which w; s formerly pretty conAderable ; but we have 
deftroyed ^>art of them by exciting our allies to attach 
them. I have already obferved that they were a branch of 
the Natchez, and upon my Hrft fettling among thefe, I 
found feveral Chitimachas, who had taken refuge among 
them to avoid the calamities of the war which had been 
made upon them near the lakes. 

Since the peace that was concluded with them |n 17 19, 
they have not only remained quiet, but kept themftlves {q 
prudently retiied, that, rather than have any intercourfe 
with the French, or traffic with them for what they look 



upon as fuperfluities, they choofe to live i^ the manner 
they did an hundred years ago. * 

Along the weft coaft, not far from the fea, inhabit the 
nation named Attcapas, tfa%t is. Man-eaters, bdng fo called 
by the other nations on account of their detellable cuftom 
of eating their enemies, or fuch as they believe to be their 
enemies. In this vaft country there are no other cannibalar 
to be met with befides the Atacapas ; and fmce the French, 
have gone among them, they have raifed, in them fo great 
an horror pi i(hat abominabje praiSjtice of devoudf]^ crea«, 
tures of their own fpecies, that they have..pif^mi/ed tOr 
leave it o^;^ and accordingly for a long time paft we ^av«. 
heard of 110 fucl> barbarity among them. , ^ ,..,, .,j^ 

The Bayouc-Ogoulas were .formerly fituated in the 
country that ftill bears, their name. This nation is now 
Cpnfounded witlH't,^c others tow.^o^it is joined,, ;f. ;,- ' 

. The O^ue-lxMifljis are a;inaall nation, fitua'ted north- 
weft from the Cut Point. They live on the banks 6f two 
fmall lakes, th6. waters of which appear black by I'eafon 
of the greair number of leaves which cover the bottom of. 
them, and liave given name. to. the. nation^ Oque«Lou(faS' 
in their hnguagc figriifying Black Water. >Hi.*qHi^'y» " <i 

^ From the Oijue-Louffas to the Red Riv^r, we meet^ 
with no other nation ; but lipOii the'bahks'of (his river, iA' 
little above the. Rapid, is feated the Quail nation of the 
Avoyels. Thefe.are the people \^ho bring to: our fettlers' 
horfes, oxen', .and. cows. I ]cnow;not in what* fair thev^' 
buy them^ 'lior with what money they pay for them ; but,( 
the truth is, they fell them to us for about feventeeh ihri«-l 
lings a-plece. The Spaniairds of. New-Spaia have fuch' 
numbers ot them that they do not know what to do with 
them, and are obliged to thofe who will take them ofFl 
their hand». At prefent the French have a greater num»i 
ber of tbemthan they want, efpecially of horfes. ' "• 

About fifty leagues higher- up the Red River, live tbtf^ 
NachitochpSj neiir a French ^«ft of the fame name. They'' 



dred huts. They have zlnHifi B€»i ^^!y slhat^lifcd fd 
tte Fi%i«bH » but never w«re £rieftds t6 the Spmikfds. 
Thbrc are fome brandiM of this nation fitbattd forcher 
weilward } thit the hiiti arc not numerouv. r^^t'^ -^r*? —i 

'ThMeHMikM ihiiiEis «r<jft ^dfh fflfe Miffilij^pl, tl|J6h tl)^ 
K^ Ri^dr', m ffhd tfiii ^eiif tihi'ibh ^f thte (dladbda^i^. 
^M. It k dtti(k>d mi& fgi^M ktnehes mkh IJx^iiif 
iteiy vHd%. Thfe pWiIWi «* Welf M t«t Na(ihl^tt>^, 
tirf6 a Ifftb^dlr lah^gcfafge; hdim^fy ^t^U Mti Mz^4 
mtHmdrihUmmii, n^indl^ th z'tifAUm of LoaT.' 
Ifehiir, i^hdrd there are nbt fOihfc #)rd cah Q)&k d^^ Cllidir'i 
faw language, whJdfi h ciHIitfd th^d V\ilgaf tbh^tie, aftif i^ 
thfe fame htfm ai th« liin^sFranca iir iii the Let^iint. ' 1 

Rt#e«i!i ihfe Red Ri^i" ind tl^(^ Attslh^s' tttlsr^ i^ at* 
prefent no liathuf. PbyMrly the Oddtehic^ iivtd Mptxi 
tht Bhck River, and giive their namtt to \t ( b\it afl this 
time iher^ are no remaiiis of that nation f the GMtiillwv 
bavfng deftfoyled great pkrt of th<ni', and the tks^ iiso\t 
ftfagt aniong the CitMaqoioudlc, whfere their entihier 
diirfl niot mo)e{b them. TheTaenfat lived formerly iii 
this neighbourhood ujibh a riVer of thci!^ name { ISvtt they' 
topk refuge on the bankaof the Mobile near the alli^of 
the ChicafawS) who leave them undifturbed. 

The natfc^n df thte Arkonfat havd gtvldn thehr nrime W 
the rivfcr on* which thkf are fituated^ abdttt! lour lb(]^f 
froihi its confluence with' thfe Miffifippij This iiatioA i«! 
pretty confiderable, and its men sii'e n6 lefs diftjnguiiihed' 
for being, good hunters than ftbut v^^Hbrs. The Chica^ 
faiws^ who: are of a rdftleik dtTpofitibn,' have more than' 
once w^ted to make trial of the brafiery olP the Arkan- 
fabj but they wireopjiofed Whh fu^fli'mncft, that thejl' 
hatve now laid afide^ll thoughts of aittackiiig thiimi, t^sti- 
cially fmce thdy havb beeh' joined by the iCvpf^as; the 
Michigamias, and a'part of, the Illinois^ who have fettled 
among them. Accordingly there is no longer any mentiof)^' 



cither of cImi Kftppat or MichiguBiai, wbo tie mm^ 
440pce4 by tk0 J^rlunAi. 

I'ke r«(UI«r iiHiy iMive alreidy obihrvcd id this flctmrne 
of the natives of Louiftana, that feveral nations of tlMlSs \ 
pcopU bad joU^ (hflmiblvet to dtlMrs^ either Wortiftr tftcf 
CO lUd no iQagtf i efift thdr enemies, or becauA tk«f fMjHsl 
tQ improve ihcii* condition by intermixing with< anlMtftar' 
nation. I am gjad^to have this occafton of obfer^i^ 
that thofe ptople fe^cA the rights of hofpitalityv a^ 
that thoTe nights ahi^ys pre?ajl> notwIthftandiMg any 
fiiperiority tlkat ohe MUkm may hwt oi«r anothtr tHrhlf 
whom they are at war^ or oven over thoiifc peo|^ amon^g;' 
whom their enemies take reArg;s« For example, a nitibii 
of two thoufand warriors maket war upon, and violbAtlj^ 
purfuca another naiion of five htitldred WMtion, WHor rr- 
tire among a. nati^ inal^aiUe wiili tlleir enettffe^.' If 
thtt laft nation adopt the five hundred, tlie fii>ft iMtidh, 
though two thottfaiid in number^ i^mnedist^ly hfibv/nt 
their arms, and inftead of coatinuing hoftillties, tet^hiHtl' 
th^ Adopted nation among the nambtfr of their allfeii 

Befides the Atkanfas, fome authors place other Actions 
Upo» their riveri I cannot take upon me ib fay tliktilkrt 
never were any*, but I can pofitively affirm, fi^om my own 
obfervation upon the fpot, that no other nation is to '^.. 
met with at prefent on this river, or even^ as hlr as ^6 
Mtfiburi. . ^ [ , . 

ISTot far fie6iil the river MiflbuH is fituated die nation o^ 
the Ofages, upon a fmall river of the fame name. ThisK 
nation is Hiid to have been ptetty confidirable fQrnterly,r 
but at pr6(«ht they can neither, be faid to be ^eat hqr 

imaii* > , rtf^cTj ■ifi'j iff^t i 

The nation of theMi(fi>uris is very contideraliJe, Mdi 
has. given its name to the large river that empties itf^lf inttt- 
the Miflifippi. It is the firft nation we meet with ffom. 
the confluence of the two rivers, and yet it is fituated above 
forty leagues up the Miflburi. 1 he French had a fettle* 
2 mcDfi 


itttnt pretty netr thif nation^ at the time when M. tie 
Bourgmont was commandant in thofe parts } but fooir 
^ler iie left them, tl^e in|||||;!Jt{Uito mafliiaei} the French 
g^arcifon* . ; nV r ■ 

< The Spaniards, as. well as our other Heig^ibours, being 
qontinuaUy jealous of our Tuperiority over them, formed a 
defign of eftabli(bing:themfdves among the MiflburisV 
tJbout forty leagues frooii the Illinois, in order to limit 
our. boundaries weftwwr^,': They judged it neceflary, fot^ 
tjie fecurity of thehr icojony,- entirely to cut ofF the MifL' 
fouris, and for that purpofe .they courted the friendihip of 
the Ofages, whole aiB^n^e they thought would be of 
iervice to them ii) th^ir enterprize, and who were gene-, 
n^lly ^t enmity with, tl>e..JVI)ireMris. A company of Spa^ 
niards^.men, wome|i» and foldi^s, accordingly fet out 
from Santa Fe, haviAg a Dominican for their chaplain, 
anid an iiogincer for: their guide and commander. The; 
caravan Was' furdiflied with horfes, and all other kinds of 
bea^s ne^cei&ry ; for it is one of their prudent maxims, 
to fend 0ff. all thdfe things together. By a 6»tal miftake 
the Sp^iards arrived firft among the Miilpuris, whom 
theyroiflook for the Ofages, and imprudet^tly difcovering 
l^eir hoi^ile intentions* they were themfelves (urprifed and 
cut off by thofe whom they intended for .deftru£tion. 
ThiB Miin>uris fome time afterwards dreflfed themfelves 
with the ornaments of the chapel ; and carried them in a 
l^ind of triumphant proceilion to the French commandant 
amdng the Illinois. Along with the ornaments they 
Brought a Spanifh map, which feefned to me to be a 
better draught of the weft part of our colony, towards 
them,' than of the countries we are moft concerned with. 
From this map it appears, that we ought to bend the Red 
River, end that of the Arkanfas, fomewhat more, and 
place the fource of the Mifitdppi more wefterJy than our 
geographers do. 

»'5w«i Si.c- 



The principal nations who. inhabit upon the banki, 
or in the neighbourhood of the Miflburt, are, befidet 
thofe already mentioned, tlie Canzas, the Otbouef, the 
White Panis, the Black Panis, the Panimachas, the 
Aiouez, and the Padoucas. The moft nunoerous of all 
tliofe nations are the Padoucas, the rmalleft arc the Aiouez, 
the Othoues, and the Ofages } the others are pfetty con- 

• To the north of all thofe nations, and near the river 
Miflifippi, it is pretended that a part of the nation of 
the Sioux have their refidence. Some affirm that they 
inhabit now on one fide of the river, now on another^ 
From what I could learn from travellers, lam inclined 
to think, that they occupy at the fame time both fides 
of the Miififlppi, and their fettlements, as I have elfe- 
where obferved, are more than an hundred leagues above 
the ^all of St. Anthony. But we need not yet difquiet 
ourfelves about the advantages which might refult to us 
from thofe very remote countries. Many ages muft pafs 
t>efore we can penetrate into the northern parts of LouL* 





■iilM 125 
1^ Itt 12.2 



■ 4.0 

















WEBSTER, N.Y. 14S80 




.THE H I S T O R Y > 

' V 


.r.m- ■"•■' ! 

yf Defcription of the natives of Louifiana ; of their mminers 
and cufiomsy particularly thoft of the Natchez : of their 
"' language y their religion, ceremoniesy Ruhrs or Suns, fea/lsy- 
** marriages, &c. 



jf defcription of the natives \ the different employments of the 
two f exes', aud their manner of bringing up their children, 

IN the concife hiftory which I have given of the people of 
Louifiana, and in feveral other places where I have 
happened to mention them, the reader may have obferved 
that thefe nations have not all the fame character, altho' 
they live adjoining to each other. He therefore ought not 
to expe6t a perfect uniformity in their manners, or that I 
fliould defcribe all the different ufages that prevail in 
different parts, which would create a difagreeable medley, 
and tend only to confound his ideas which cannot be too 
clear. My defign is only to fhew in general , froijl the 
character of thofe people, what cOurfe we ought to ob- 
ferve, in order to draw advantage from our intercourfc 
with them. I (hall however be more full in fpealcing of 
the Natchez, a populous nation, among whom I lived the 
fpace of eight years, and whofe fovereign, the chief of 
war, and the chief of the keepers of the temple, were 
among my moft intirr.atc friends. Befides, their manners 
were more civilized, their manner of thinking morcjuft 
and fuller of fentiment, their cufloms more reafonable, 
and their ceremonies more natural and ferious ; on all 
which accounts they were eminently diftinguiflied above 
the other nations. 

All the natives of America in general are extremely 
well made ; very few of them are to be feen under five 
feet and a half, and very many of them above that^ their 


, leg feems as if it was fafhioned in a mould ; it is nervous, 
and the calf is firm; they are long waifted.; their head 
is upright and fomewhat flat in the upper part, and their 
features are regular; they have black eyes, and thick black 
hair without curls. If we fee none that are extremely fat 
and purfy, neither do we meet with any that are fo lean as 
if they were in a confumption. The men in general are 
better made than the women ; they are more nervous, and 
the women more plump and flefhy ; the men are almoft all 
large, and the women of a middle fize. I have always 
^been inclined to think, that the care they take of their 
children in their infancy contributes greatly to their fine 
fhapes, tho' the climate has alfo its (hare in that, for the 
French born in Louifiana are all large, well (haped, and of 
good flefh and blood. 

When any of the women of the natives is delivered, 
(he goes immediately to the water and waflies herfelf and 
the infant ; fbe then comes home and lies down, after 
having difpofed her infant in the cradle, which is about 
,two feet and a half long, nine inches broad, and half a 
foot deep, being formed of ftraight pieces of cane bent up 
at one end, to ferve for a foot or ftay. Betwixt the cahes 
and the infant is a kind of matrafs of the tufted herb called 
Spanifh Beard, and under its H^ad is a little (kin cufhion, 
fluffed with the fame herb. The infant is laid on its back 
in the cradle, and faflened to it by the fhoulders, the arms, 
the legs, the thighs, and the hips ; and over its forehead 
are laid two bands of deer-fkin which keeps its head to the 
'^ cufhion, and renders that part flat. As the cradle does 
not weigh much above two pounds, it generally lies on the 
mother's bed, who fuckles the infant occafionally. The 
infant is rocked not fide- ways but end-ways, and wheh 
it is a month old they put under its knees garters made of 
buflFalo*s wool which is very foft, and above the ankle 
bones they bind the legs with threads of th»/ame wool for 
the breadth of three or four inches. And thefc ligatures 

the child wears till it be four or five years old. 

Y2 The 


fi The infants of the nati\ es are white when they arehorit, 
but they fopn turn brown, as they are rubbed with bear's 
oil and expofed to the fun. They rub them with oil, both 
to render their nerves more flexible, and alfo to prevent 
the flies from ftlnging them, as they fufFer them to roll 
about naked upon all fours, before they arc able to walk 
upright. They never put them upon their legs till they 
are a year old, and they fuffer them to fuck as long as 
they pleafe, unlefs the mother prove with child, in which 
cafe {he ceafes to fuckle. 

*' When the boys are about twelve years of age, they 
give them a bow and arrows proportioned to their ftrength", 
and in order to exercife them they tie feme hay, about 
twice as large as the Rflr, to the end of a pole about ten 
feet high. He who brings down the hay receives the prize 
from an old man who is always prefent : the beft (hooter 
is called the young warrior, the next heft is called the ap- 
prentice warrior, and fo on of the others, who are prompted 
to excel more by fentiments of honour than by blows. 

t As they are threatened from their moft tender infancy 
with the refentment of the old man, if they are any ways 
refrailory or do any mifchievous tricks, which is very 
rare, they fear and refpe£l him above every one el fe. This 
old mai\ is frequently the great-grandfather, or the great- 
great-grandfather of the family, for thofe natives live to 
a very great age. I have feen fome of them not able to 
walk, without having any other diftemper or infirmity 
than old age, fothat when the neceffities of nature required 
it, or they wanted to take the air, they were obliged to 
be carried out of their hut, an afliftance which i& always 
readily offered to the old men. The refpedl paid to them 
by their family is fo great, th^t they are looked upon as 
thcjudges of all differences, and their counfels are decrees. 
An old man vvhp is the head of a family is called father, 
even by his grand-children, and great-grand-children, 
who to diftinguiih their immediate father call him their 
true father. 


» •: 



If any of their young people happen to fight, which I 
never faw nor heard of during the whole time I refided in 
their neighbourhood, they threaten to put them in a hut 
at a great diftance from their nation, as perfons unworthy 
to live among others ; and this is repeated to them fo 
often, that if they happen to have had a battle, they take 
care never to have another. 1 have already obferved that 
I (ludied them a confiderable number of years ; and I ne-,, 
ver could learn that there ever were any difputes or box- 
ing matches among either their boys or men. 

. , As the children grow up, the fathers and mothers take 
care each to accuftom thofe of their own fex to the labours 
and exefeiie&Tuited to them, and they have no great trou- 
ble to keep them employed ; but it muft be confefled that 
the girls and the women work more than the men and the 
boys. Thefe lad go a hunting and fi(hing, cut the wood, 
the fmalleft bits of which are carried home by the women ; 
they clear the fields for corn, and hoe it ; and on days 
when they cannot go abroad they jimufe themfelves with 
making, after their fafliion, pick-?.xes, oars, paddles, and. 
other inftruments, which once made laft a long while. 
The women on the other hand have their children to bring 
up, have to pound the maiz for the fubfiftence of the fa- 
mily, have to keep up the fire, and to make a great many 
utenfils, which require a good deal of work, and laft but 
a fhort time, fuch as their earthen ware, their matts, their 
clothes, and a thoufand other things of that kind. 

When the children are about ten or twelve years of age 
they accuftom them by degrees to carry fmall l.:)ads, which 
they increafe with their years. The boys are from time to 
time exercifed in running ; but they never fufFer them to 
exhaufl themfelves by the length of the rac^, left they 
fiiould overheat themfelves. The more nimble at that, 
eiercife fometimes fportfully challenges thofe who are 
more flow and heavy j but the old man who prefides 
hinders the raillery from being carried to any excefs, carc- 

'^' Y 3 fully 


fully avoiding all rubje6Vs of quarrel and difpute, on which 
account doubtlefs ic is that they will never fuffer them to 

Both boys and girls are early accudomed to bathe every 
morning, in order to ftrengthen the nerves, and harden 
them againft cold and fatigue, and likewife to teach them 
to fwim, that they may avoid or purfue an enemy, even 
acrofs a river. The boys and girls, from the time they 
are three years of age, are called out every morning by an 
old man, to go to the river ; and here is fome more em- 
ployment for the mothers who accompany them thither to 
teach them to fwim. Thofe who can fwim tolerably 
well, make a great noife in winter by beating the water 
in order to frighten away the crocodiles, and keep them« 
fclves warm. 

The reader will have obfcrved that moft of the labour 
and fatigue falls to the (hare of the women ; but I can 
declare that I never heard them complain of their fatigues, 
unlefs of the trouble their children gave them, which com- 
plaint arofe as much from maternal atfctSiion, as from tny 
, attention that the children required. The girls from their 
' infancy have itinllilled into them, that if they are fluttifli 
or unhandy they will have none but a dull aukward fel- 
low for their hu(band ; 1 obferved in all the nations I 
vifitcd, that this threatning was never loft upon the 
young girls. 

I would not have it thought however, that the young 
men are altogether idle. Their occupations indeed are 
not of fuch a long continuance ; but they ore much more 
laborious. As the men have occafion for more ftrength, 
reafon requires that they Ihould not exhauft themfelves Jn 
their youth } but at the fame time they are not exempted 
from thofe exercifes that fit them for war and hunting. 
The children arc educated ■-vjthout blows} and the body 
is left at full liberty to grow, and to form and ftrengthen 
itfdf with their years. The youths accompany the men 


t I 

O F L O U I S I A N A. * 327 

in hunting, in order to learn the wiles and tricks ncccflary 
tobc pradlifed in the field, and acpudom themfelves to 
fuffcring and patience^ When they arc full grown men, 
they drcfs the field or wade land, and prepare it to receive 
the feed ; they go to war or hunting, drcfs the fkins, cut 
the wood, make their bows and arrows, and aflift each 
other in building their huts. 

'^, They have flill I allow a great deal of more fparc time 
than the women ; but this is not all thrown away. As 
thcfe people have not the affiftance of writing, they are ' 
obliged to have recourfe to tradition, in order to preferve 
the remembrance of any remarkable tranfacStions ; and 
this tradition cannot be learned but by frequent repetitions, 
confequcntly many of the youths are often employed in 
hearing the old men narrate the hiftory of their anceflorsj 
which is thus tranfmittedfrom generation to generation. 
In order to preferve their traditions pure and uncorrupt^ 
they are careful not to deliver them indifferently to all their 
young people, but teach them only to thofe young men of 
whom they have the beft opinion. 


Of the kmguagty government ^ religion^ ceremonies, and feajis 

of the natives. 

DURING my refidence among the Natchez T con-, 
trailed an intimate friendihip, not only with the 
chiefs or guardians of the temple, but with the Great Sun, 
or the fovereign of the nation, and his brother the Stung^ 
Serpent, the chief of the warriors j and by my great iflti». 
macy with them, and the refpe6l I acquired among the 
people,,.! eafily learned the peculiar language of the, 

' This language is eafy in the pronunciation, and ex- 
pref&ve in the terms. The natives, like the Orientals, 

Y 4 . Ipeak 


fpeak much in a figurative f^ile, the Natchez in particular 
more than any other people of Louiftana. They have 
two languages, that of the nobjcs and that of the people, 
and both are very copious. I will give two or three ex- 
amples to Oiew the difference of thefe two langui^gcs. 
When I call one of the common people, I f^jiy to hitn 
aquenan^ that is, hark ye : if, on the other hand, I want 
to fpeak to a Sun, or one of their nobles, I fay to him, 
magani^ which fignifies, hark yt. If one of the common 
people call at my houfe, I fay to him, tachte-cahanq^et 
ttrt you there, or I am glad to fee you, which ic equiva- 
lent to our good-morrow. I exprefs the fame thing to a 
Bun by the yfotA apapegouaiche. Again, according to their 
cuftom, I fay to one or the common people, petchl,/tt you 
siown 'f but to a Sun, when I dcfire him to fit down, I fay, 
taham* The two languages are nearly the fame in all other 
)efpe6ts ; for the difference of exprcflion feems only to 
t;ike place in matters relating to the perfons of the Suns 
and nobles, in diftindlion from thofe of the people. 

"Tho'thc women fpeak the fame language with the 
men, yet, in their manner of pronunciation, they foften ■ 
^nd (J3|ooth the words, whereas the fpeech of the men is 
more grave and ferious. The French, by chiefly frequent- 
ing the women, contracted their manner of fpeaking, 
which was ridicule^ as an effeminacy by the wonpen, as, 
well as the men, among thp natives* 

From my converfations with the chief of the guardian^ 
of the temple, I difcQvered that they acki;iowledg^d | 
fupreme being, whom they, called Coyococop-Chill, or Great 
Spirit. The SpiiHf infinite^ IT"'^'* ^^. ^^^ ^pii'if hy way of 
excellence. 'Thn, word c^///^ in their la^iguage,^ fignifiea 
th^ moft fup<|rktive degree of perfection, and,is ad^ed by 
them to the word which fignifies /r^, whcij th^y want- 
to mehtion the Sun j thus OuaUfre, and Oua-chiit is the 
fupreme fire^ or the Sun i therefore, by the word Coyeiop^ 
^ ■ :..: .::.■■ • ^ ; ' ■" ' ■•-■ ' " ChiU 




CJjill they mean a fpirit that furpafles other fpirits as much 
as the fun docs common fire. 

" God," according to the definition of the guardian of 
the temple, ** was fo great and powerful, that, in compart- 
ion with him, all other things were as nothing ; he had 
made ail that we fee, all that wc can fee, and all that we 
cannot fee ; he was fo good, that he eould not do ill to 
any one, even if he had a mind to it. They believe that 
God had mudc all things by his will j that neverthelefs the 
little fpirits, who are his fervants, might, by his orders, 
have made many excellent works in the univerfc, which we 
admire ; but that God himfelf had formed man with his 
own hands." 

The guardian added, that they named thofe little fpirits, 
Coyocop-techouj that is, a free fervant, but as fubmiffive 
and as refpe6tful as a flave ; that thofe fpirits were always 
prefent before God, ready to execute his pleafure with an 
extreme diligence; that the air was filled with other fpirits, 
fome good fome wicked; and that the latter had a chief, 
who was more wicked than them all ; that God had found 
him fo wicked, that he had bound him for ever, fo that 
the other fpirits of the air no longer did fo much harm, 
efpecially when they were by prayers entreated not to do 
it ; for it is one of the religious cufloms of thofe people 
to invoke the fpirits of the air for rain or fine weather, ac- 
cording as each is needed. I have feen the Great 3un faft 
for nine days together, eating nothing but maiz-corn« 
without meat or fifh, drinking nothing ^' " water, and 
abftaining from the company of his wives d^ ' ' ^ the whole 
time. He underwent this rigorous fafl out of complaifance 
tofom? Frenchmen, who had been complaining that it had 
not rainpd for a long time. Thofe inconfiderate people had 
npt remarked, that notwithflanding the want of rain, the 
fruits of the earth had not fufFered, as the dew is fo plenti- 
ful, in fummer as fully to fupply that deficiency. 

JMi , 



The guarJjan of the temple having told me that God 
had made man with his own hands, I afkcd him if he 
knew how that was done. He anfwercd, ** that God had 
kneaded Tome clay, fuch as that which potters ufe, and 
had made it into a little man ; and that after examining it, 
and finding it well formed, he blew up his work, and 
forthwith that littlctnan had life, grew, a£l.'d, wa'Ved, and 
found himfclf a man perfectly well flinpcd.'* As he made 
no mention of the woman, I afked him how he believed 
ibe was made ; he told me, ** that probably in the fame 
manner as the man i that their antirnf fpeech made no men- 
tion of any difference, only told them that the man was 
made fiift, and was the flrongeftand moft courageous, bc- 
caufe he was to be the head and fupport of the woman, 
who was made to be his companion/* 

Here I did not omit to re^ify his notions on the fubjefts' 
wchad been talking about, and togivehim thofc jufl ideas 
which Kligion teaches us, and the facred writings have 
uanfmiited to us. He hearkened to me with great atten- 
tion, and promifcd to repeat all that I had told him to the 
old oncn of his nation, who certainly would not forget it ;, 
adding, that we were very happy in being able to retain 
the knowledge of fuch fine things by means of the fpeak- 
ing cloih, fo they name books and manufcripts. 

I next proceeded tbaikhim, who had taught them to 
build a temple; whence had they their eternal fire, which 
they prefcrved with fo much care; and who w^s the pcrfon 
that iirft inftituted (heir feads ? He replied, ** The charge 
I am entvufted with obliges^ me to know all thefe things you ' 
aik of me ; I will therefore fatisfy you : hearken t^ me. A 
great number of years ago ther^ appeared among us a man 
and his wife, who came down from the fun. Not that we 
believe that the fun had a wife who bore him children, or 
that thcfe were the defcendants of the fun j but when they 
firft appeared' among us they v^^re fo bright and luminous- 
that we had nodifficulty to believe that they came down from 
the fan. This man tok us, that having feeu from on high 




that we did not govern ourfcl ves well ^ that wc had no maftcr \ 
that each of us hoH prefumption enough to think hlmfelf 
capable of governing others, while he could not even con- 
duct hlmfelf} he had thought fit to come down among us 
to teach us to live better. 

•* He moreover told us, that in order to live in peace 
among ourfelves, and to plcafc the fupremc Spirit, we muft 
inriifpcnfably obfcrve the following points i we muft never 
kill anyone but in defence of our own lives; we muft 
never know any other woman befidcs our own j wc muft 
never take any thing that belongs to another ; we muft ne- , 
vcr lye nor get drunk ; we muft not be avaricious, but 
muft give liberally, and with joy, part of what we have to 
others who are in want, and generoufly ftiare our fubfiftencc 
with thofe who are in need of it." 

.,«* The words of this man deeply afFe£lcd us, for he 
fpoke them with authority, and he procured the refpeiSt; 
even of the old men themfelves, tho' he reprehended them 
as freely as the reft. Next day we offered to acknowledge 
him as our fovereign. He at firft rcfufcd, faying that he 
fhould not be obeyed, and that the difobedient would in- 
fallibly die ; but at length he accepted the offer that was 
made him on the following condition : 

*' That we would go and inhabit another country, bet- 
ter than that in which we were, which he would fliew us ; 
that we would afterwards live conformable to the inftruc-. 

• tions he had given us ', that we would promife never to ac- 
knowledge any other fovereigns but him and his defcen- 
dants } that the nobility ft)ould be perpetuated by the wo- 
men after this manner ; if I, faid he, have male and fe- 
male children, they being brothers and fifters cannot marry 
together ; the eldeft boy may chufe a wife from among the- 
people, but his fons ftiall be only nobles ; the children of 
the eldeft girl, on the other hand, ftiall be princes and 

' princeiTes, and her eldeft Ton be fovereign } but her eldeft 
daughter be the mother of the next fovereign, even tho* 

1J1 r rt r rt i n v n n v 

fllr llnMlltl MllUVtHtr of tlir rodUlloM pruplr » i»t)»l, ill ffr^ 
f»'«*A 111 till' vU\k'{\ ilwtnUUti (hi- i\fHi Uv\,\h' IflilfloM Ut 
lhi*j»»'»rnM M'Igiiing ih\]\ lit* »!»•• Miotlirr ui fin- fiiliiir Tm- 
Vr»ri(»ni thf loMn Ml ihr (ovriri^n mmiI mliurp Ihrtll loltf 
Ihfit iunk, tint the ilr1llfil»l»»i Ihidi pn-lirvr »hfi».</* 

•' \\v \)\v\\ toM tM, «l«;tf in iMiIrt |»i |i»r(tMVf llw fiitrllrnt 
ptntptH lif IumI givf.ii IIS it wm nrt »ll«ty t»» Itiiild it t«*tti|ili', 
Into \\'\\W\\ it (IumiIiIIm* limOil fitt hnnc Init thi* |nin<ri« ntul 
fHmHU'i to rntt'i, to I'pruk in (hf S|)liii. I hut In ihr 
Iwnplif thfy fhtMilil rtiinnlly* |Hr(inve ii Fn-p, wliiih In? 
wonlil Ining ilown (i»»nt tlu- Inn, Itnni whtMnc \\v liintldf 
ht\\\ il»lt< «»iU'«l J that llvi' wood Willi wliM h tlo- liif wmi 
IVippliril thonlil l»p |MIH' wooil without |t;uk i th;<t • inht 
will' mvw ol thr ni\tion (lionM («• ihoU-ii loi nniinlinK llii* 
UtT nifilu nnd tijw i tinu ihoir pimlu imn liumM linvr A 
(thirl, who IhonUI Iri? thi'hulo tluii ilntv, >niil tliut il any ol 
Ihnu Irtlh-tl in U hp (hmiM hr put to »hinh. lit- llkt \vil« 
•Hiirm! ttnotluM tpmpio to \\v huilt in rt ifirtmit pttrl «tf oiif 
iiAtlon, vvhUh vtAK thn\ vnv pfiptilons rtnd the rliMnrtl Cut* 
U» ^0 krpt thpti* nllo, thrti lit crtii' it (lunthl hr rjitinj>ni(tnit 
ih tht» otvi» it tnl^ht lir hitnifvht \\\m\ th«» othf r j In whiih 
ril>» till <t Wrts rt^iftln lighted, {\w lulioit woutil hf nlflltneil 
with * RttrttiMotttuiiy/* 

•« Om nution hrtvlt^g rt^nllMiti'd tolhrle rtMutltluns he 
t^ytr^ tn W out- loveveittt^ i niul In prtltm r »>! nil tht* pro* 
\At \\t hwiight Oown tUf file tioiii the dm, upon fiMiie 
wrHvl iof thf Wrtlnnt-tner which hphml pirprticil, which fiie 
WAS df iH>(\tf<l in hnth thp t«m|)k». He IIvhI n long tlmr,' 
mul fsm' hi)« ihiKht»nS rhlldirn. To cihk lude> he InSltuted 
iHiv tt»titt« l\ioh «» ytui iWthem/* * 

Tho Nirttchpt. h*ve neither fitcrlRcen, lllvittlnnn, nor offer- 
ings : their whole wo»rt\ip conhrtu In pielei ving the eternal 
fie, tt»<^ this the Uir;U Sun wntchen over with « peculiar 
tittemicn. I he Sun, who lelgncti when I wns in thecouii*, 
t*yi WAS fxtt^inely (v>licitx>u» about it, aui) vlfueil tht tcm*/ 
|4« <ev«r)r iUy« Uis vi^iUncc had bc«a awakcncvi by a ter-* 
^ I ilbic 

fittii' Imrrlfwtie wlllrh ff>m»» yntn \it'(nf h^fl h^pp^mi^ )fl 
till* tiMMitiy, rtful Wrtfl lo«»k»«l miimh ji^ «n rKfrnMrfllfitt)^ 
rvrnf, till* rtir li»iM|ir |j>cMfri»lly riear nw\ fft^tif In fhut rli- 
tiiKti*. li tdtlisit (iiiMitiity /IkmiM hr JMlncil tliM>NfifiOiort 
ttl the rtcMiiil litP, lit* WMt iipprclif iilivr ilieir whoir nitiori 
wiiul«l tie (Jeilmycd. 

Ofi*' <lrty, whr^n fheHrMf Smii rsillrcl n|»f»fi m*, h«» |?n# 
trir flit itr-fMMtot of ii ilrfnilftil fnhmlfy (hnf hM<l fdmtffrff 
lirfrtllrM fhf HutJMn of fli»« Nn»< !»«f., hi rofifM|f»fnr««, «• hd 
li»«l)rv'r«l, nf Him »yfln<Tinii «f flif etrrhni Tiri'. He ln»ff»J 
<l(i< pil lil«i WMfMiiil ill llir f»illMWin|j niwriMPt • ** f liir nutlml 
will ffinfirfly VM'y ntimi'rfHM find v**ry prrwctfn) ) it fiK-* 
liMiilf'fl innrr ftnii iw»lv«* •hyi joMfUfy l>f»fti rnl\ fn w^f!# 
Hill) nuil-*" thrtti (ilhrii frmri roiifh tri tuitfh. Wr rfe'It^nf^ 
llil-tl (jMO K«iMi, nfid yoii mny j»i'1(jf hy tfmt whrtf Wni (h« 
nMfiitirr nf the fi(iM**i, ftf tlif ^HipifMif f«nk,Fiii(l fh**forti« 
nUMi pHijtlf. Nmw ill tllTir^ pni} \t h;»p(»rhr«l, iHflt ofi«? r»f 
tll»' twr> (i;«i itt1lrtii«», wHm wrff ilpnii ftiify Iti fhp frrnpit^, Irft 
M <Mi ftimc l)iinii»'r«i, ntul the nihff f<'ll nflrrp, and niffftrf'f 
tlir liii' hi ^tt (Mit, WliPii li«» rtWJiked nii'l faw that heh^d 
iiuiiirrti the pciuiliy nf drsith, hf. wrnt and j/ot fome pro-f 
faiie (ire, «N tho' he had hrrn g,'>in|r to light, hii pipe, nnd 
with thnt ho lenrwed the Ptprn^l lirn. Hin fraM(j|/rf0}ofl 
wan hy that iiiraiiii toiicraled ) hut a drradful ninrf jility im-* 
nirdiatrly rhHird, and lagcd for four yram, during which< 
many Huns nmt an infinite numhcr uf the pfropleditd« 

The guardian til length fickenrd, and found him felf dy- 
ing, upon whirh he fent for the (JrratSun, and confcfferf 
the heinoui crime he had hern guilty of. Tho old men 
were Inimedintoly allbmblcd, and, hy their advice, fire lic- 
ingfnfltt'hed from the other temple, and brought intothi^, 
the mortality quirkly ceafed." Upon tny afking him what he 
meant hy •• fnati hing the fire," he replied, ** that it fnufl 
alwayi be brought away hy violence, and that fomo blood 
muft be filed, unlrl's fomc tree on the road was fet on firft 
by lightnings and then the fire might be brought from 

thence J 



thence; but that the fire of the fun was always pre* 

It is impoffible to cxprefs his aftoni^ment when I told 
him, that it was a trifling matter to bring down fire from 
the fun, and that I had it in my power to do it whenever 
I pleafed. As he was extremely defirous to fee me perform 
that feemjng miracle, I took the fmalleft of two burning 
glafles which I had brought from France, and placing fome 
dry punk (or agaric) upon a chip of wood, I drew the focus 
of the glafs upon it, and witb a -tone of authority pro- 
nounced the word Caheuch, that is, come^ as tho' I had been 
commanding the fire to come down. The punk imme- 
diately fmoking, I blew a little and made it flame to the 
utter aftoniihment of the Great Sun and his whole retinue, 
fome of whom ftood trembling; with amazement and reli- 
gious awe. The prince himfelf could not help exclaiming, 
** Ah, what an extraordinary thing is here !" I confirmed - 
him in his ideas by telling him, that I greatly loved and 
eileemed that ufeful inftrument, as it was moft valuable, 
and was given to me by my grand-father, who was a very 
learned m»n. 

Upon his alkingme, if another man could do thf fzmt 
thing with that inftrument that he had feen me do, . told 
him that every man might do it, and I encouraged hi \to 
make the experiment himfeif. I accordingly put the gla in 
his hand, and leading it with mine over another piec of^ 
agaric, I defired him to pronounce the word Cah 'ch^ 
which he did, but with a very faint and diffident tone ,; ae> 
verthelefs, to his great amazement, hefaw the agaric bw^iv 
to fmoke, which io confounded him that he dropt both 
the chip on which< it was laid and the glafs out of hia 
bands, crying out, " Ah, what a miracle !" 

Their curiofity being now fully raifed, they held a con- 
fultation in ijiy y^fd, and refolvtd to piirchale at any rate 
my wonderful glafs, which would prevent any future mor* 
tality in their nation, in confequence of the ext nction of 

• the 


the eternal fire. I, in the ipean time, had gone out; to my 
field, as if about fome budnefs; but in reality to have & 
hearty laugh at the comical fcene which I had juft occa- 
iloned. Upon my return the Great Sun entered my apart- 
ment with me, and laying his l>and upon mine, told qijc, 
that tho' he loved all the French, he was more my friend 
than of any of the reft, becaufe moft of the French car* 
ried all their undcrftanding upon their tongue, but that t 
carried mine in my whole head and my whole body. After 
this preamble he offered to bargain for my glafs,and deflred 
me to fet what value I pieafed upon it, adding that he woul4 
not only caufe the price to be paid by all the families of the 
nation, but would declare to them that they lay under an ob^ 
ligation to me for giving up to them a thing which. faved 
them from ageneral mortality. I replied, that tho' I bore his 
whole nation in my heart, yet nothing made me part with 
my glafs, but my afFedtion for him and his brother ; that, 
befides, I aflced nothing in return but things neceflary for 
my fubGftencc, fuch as corn, fowls, game, and filh,. when 
they brought. him any of thefe. He offered me twenty 
barrels of maiz, of 150 pounds each, twenty fowls, twenty 
tuxkies, and told me thajt he would fend me game and fiih 
every time his warriws brought him any, and his promife 
was punctually fulfilled. He engaged likewife not to fpeak 
any thing about it to the Frenchmen, left they ihould be 
angry with me for parting with an inflrument of fo great 
a value. Next day the glafs was tried before a general 
alTembly of all the Suns, both men and women, the nobles^ 
and the men of rank, who all met together at the temple; 
and the fame effeifl being produced as the day before, the 
bargain was ratified ; but it was refolved not to mention^ 
the affair to the common people, who, from their curiofity 
to know the fecrets of their court, were afTembied in great 
mimbers not far from the temple, but only to tell them, 
that the whole nation of the Natchez were under great ob- 
ligations to me. 


316 THE HI St OR V 

The Natchez arc brought up in a moft pcrfeft fubmif- 
iiem to their ibvereign } the authority which their princes 
nctrcifeover them isabfolutely defpbticj and can be com- 
piared to nothing but tliat of the firft Ottoman emperors. 
Likethefe, the Great Sun is abfohtte mafter of the lives 
and eftates of his fubjeds, which he dfifpofes of at his 
pleafnre, his will being the only law ; but he has this 
finrgular advantage over the Ottoman princes, that he has 
lio occafion to fear any fedittous tumults, or any confpi- 
racy againft his perfon. If he orders a man guilty of a 
capital crime to be put tb death, the criminal neither fup- 
plicaties, nor procures interceffion to be made for his life, 
nor attempts to run away. The order of the fovereign i» 
^ecuted on the fpor, a:nd nobody murmurs. But how- 
<:ver abfdute the authority of the Great Sun may be, zndl 
although a number of warriors and others attach them- 
fcJves t6 him, to ferve him, M follow him wherever he 
goes, and to hunt for him, yet he raifes no ftated impofi- 
tions ;• and what he receives from thofe people appears^ 
given, not fo much as a right due, as 'a voluntary ho- 
ihage, and a teftimony of their love and gratitude. 

The Natchez begin their year in the month of March, 
as was the pradice a long time in Europe, and divide it 
into thirteen moons. At every new moon they celebrate 
a feaft, which takes its name from the principal fruits' 
leaped in the preceding moon, or from animals that are* 
then ufually hunted. I fhall give an account of one of 
fwo of thefe feafts as conciiely as I can. 

The firft moon is called that of the Deer, and begins 
their new year, which is celebrated by them with uni- 
verfal joy, and is at the fame time: an anniverfary. memo- 
rial of one of the moft interefting events in their hiftory. 
In former times a Great Sun, upon hearing a fudden 
tumult in his village, had left his hut in a great hurry, 
in order to appcafe it, and fell into the hands of his ene- 
mies ; but was quickly after refcued by his warriors, who 
repaired the invaders, and put them to flight. In order 




to prcfervc the rcmcmbrahcc of this honourable exploit, 
the warriors divide themfelves into two bodies, diftin- 
guiflied from each other by thfe colour of their feathers. 
One of thefe bodies reprefents the invaders, and aftet 
raifing loud Aiouts and cries, feize the Great Sun, who 
comes out of his hut undreft, and rUbbihg his eyes, as 
though he were juft awake. The Great Sun defends him- 
felf intrepidly with a wooden tomahawk, and lays a great 
many of his enemies upon the ground, without however 
giving them a fingle blow, for he only feems to touch 
them with his weapon. In the mean time the other party 
come out of their ambufcade, attack the invaders, and, 
after fighting with them for fome time, refcue their prince, 
and drive theny into a wood, which is reprefented by an 
arbour made of canes. During the whole time of the 
Ikirmiih, the parties keep up the war-cry, or the cry of 
terror, as each of them feem to be victors or vanquifhed*. 
The Great Sun is brought back to his hut in a trium-: 
phant manner ; and the old nen, women, and children, 
who were fpe£^ators of the engagement, rend the iky 
with their joyful acclamations. The Great Sun conti- 
nues in his hut about half an hour, to repofe himfelf 
after his great fatigues, which are fuch that an a£lor of 
thirty years of age would with difficulty have fupported 
them, and he however, when I faw this feaft, was above 
ninety. He then makes his appearance again to the peo- 
ple, who falute him with loud acclamations, which ceafe 
upon his proceeding towards the temple. When he is 
arrived in the middle of the court before the temple, he 
makes feveral gefticulations, then ftretches out his arms 
horizontally, and remains in that pofture motionlefs as a 
ftatue for half an hour. He is then relieved by the mafter 
of the ceremonies, who places himfelf in the fame atti- 
tude, and half an hour after is relieved by the great chief 
of war, who remains as long in the fame poflure. When 
this ceremony is over, the Great Sun, who, when he was 
relieved, had returned to his hut, appears again before the 

Z people 


people in the ornaments of his dignity, is placed upon htff- 
throne, which ii a large ftool with four feet cut out of 
one piece of wood, has a fine buffalo's fkin thrown over 
his ihoUlders, and feveral furs laid upon his feet, and re- 
ceives various prefents from the women, who all the 
while continue to exprefs their joy by their ihouts and 
acclamations. Strangers are then invited to dine with 
the Great Sun, and in the evening there is a dance in his 
hut, which is about thirty feet fquare, and twenty feet 
high, and like the temple is built upon a mount of earth, 
about eight feet high, and fixty feet over on the furface. 

The fecond moon, which anfwers to our April, is called 
the Strawberry moon, as that fruit abounds then in great 

The third moon is that of the Small Corn. This moon 
is often impatiently looked for, their crop of large corn 
never fufHcing to nouriih them, from one harveft to an- 

The fourth is that of Water-melons, and anfwers to 
our June. 

The fifth moon is that of the Fiflies : in this month 
alfo they gather grapes, if the birds have fuifered them to 

The fixth, which anfwers to our Auguft, is that of the 
Mulberries. At this feaft they likcwife carry fowls to the 
Great Sun. 

The feventh, which is that of Maiz, or Great Corn. 
This feaft is beyond difpute the moft folemn of all. It 
principally confifts in eating in common, and in a religi- 
ous manner, of new corn, which had been fown exprefsly 
with that defign, with fuitable ceremonies. This corn is 
fown upon a fpot of ground never before cultivated ; 
which ground is drefled and prepared by the warriors 
alone, who alfo are the only perfons that few the corn, 
weed it, reap it, and gather it. When this corn is near 
ripe, the warriors fix on a place proper for the general 






feaft» and clofe adjoining to that they form a round 
granary, the bottom and fides of which are of cane ; this 
they fill with the corn, and when they have finifhed the 
harveft, and covered the granary, they acquaint the Great 
Sun, who appoints the day for the general feaft. Some 
days before the feaft, they build huts for the Great Sun, 
and for all the other families, round the granary, that of 
the Great Sun being raifed upon a mount 6f earth about 
two feet high. On the feaft-day the whole nation fet out 
from their village at fun-rifmg, leaving behind only the 
aged and infirm that are not able to travel, and a few 
warriors, who are to carry the Great Sun on a litter upon 
their (houlders. The feat of this litter is covered with 
feveral deer (kins, and to its four fides are faftened four 
bars which crofs each other, and are fupported by eight 
men, who at every hundred paces transfer their burden to 
eight other men, and thus fucceifively tranfport it to the 
place where the feaft is celebrated, which may be near 
two miles from the village. About nine o'clock the Great' 
Sun comes out of his hut dreiled in the ornaments of his 
dignity, and being placed in his littei;, which has a canopy 
at the head formed of flowers, he is carried in a few 
minutes to the facred granary, ihouts of joy re-echoing 
on all fides. Before he alights he makes the tour of the 
whole place deliberately, and when he comes before the 
corn, he falutes it thrice with the words, hooy hooy ho$^ 
lengthened and pronounced refpe(Jtfully. The falutation 
is repeated by the whole nation, who pronounce the word 
hoo nine times di(lin£lly, and at the ninth time he alights 
and places himfelf on his throne. 

Immediately after they light a fire by rubbing two 
pieces of wood violently againft each other, and when 
every thing is prepared for dreffing the corn, the chief of 
war, accompanied by the warriors belonging to each 
family, prefents himfelf before the throne, and addrelFes 
the Sun in thefe words, ** fpeak, for I hear thee.'* The 
fovcreijn then rifes up, bows towards the four quarters of 

Z 2 the 


the world, and advancing to the granary, lifts his cy<is 
and hands to heaven, and fays, ** Give us corn :" upon 
which the great chief of war, the princes and princejles, 
and all the men, thank him feparatciy, hy pronouncing 
the word hoo. The corn is then diftributed, firft to the 
female Suns, and then to all the women, who run with 
it to their huts, and drefs it with the utmoft difpatch. 
When the corn is drefled in all the huts, a plate of it is 
put into the hands of the Great Sun, who prcfcnts it to 
the four quarters of the world, and then fays to the chief 
of war, (at ; upon this fignal the warriors begin to cat in 
all the huts } after them the boys of whatever age, ex- 
cepting thofe who are on the bread ; and laft of all the 
women. When the warriors have fini(hed their repaft, 
they form themfclves into two choirs before the huts, and 
iing war fongs for half an hour j after which the chief of 
war, and all the warriors in fucceflion, recount their 
brave exploits, and mention, in a boafting manner, the 
number of erfemies they have flain. The youths are next 
allowed to harangue, and each tells in the |;>eft manner he 
can, not what he has done, but what he intends to do ; 
and if his difcourfe merits approbation, he is anfwered by 
a general hoo i if not, the warriors hang down their heads 
and are filent. 

This great folemnity is concluded with a general dance 
by torch-light. Upwards of two hundred torches of 
dried canes, each of the thicknefs of a child, are lighted 
round the place, where the men and women often conti- 
nue dancing till day-light} and the following is the difpo- 
fition of their dance. A man places himfelf on the 
ground with a pot covered with a deer-fkin, in the man- 
ner of a drum, to beat time to the dancers; round him 
the women form themfelves into a circle, not joining 
hands, but at ibme dillance from each other ; and they 
are inclofed by the men in another circle, who have in 
each hand a chichicois, or calabaih, with a ftick thruft 
through it to ferve for a handle. When the dance begins, 



the women move round the men in the centre, from left 
to fight, and the men contrariwife from right to left, and 
they fometimcs narrow and fometimes widen their circles. 
In this manner the dance continues without intermiiTion 
the whole night, new performers fucceflively taking the 
place of thofe who are wearied and fatigued. 

Next morning no perfon is feen abroad before the Great 
Sun comes out of his hut, which is generally about nine 
o'clock, and then upon a fignal made by the drum, the 
warriors make their appearance diflinguiihed into two 
troops, by the feathers which they wear on their heads. 
One of thcfe troops is headed by the Great Sun, and the 
other by the chief of war, who begin a new divcrfion by 
tofling a ball of deer-(kin (luffed with Spanifh beard from 
the one to the other. The warriors quickly take part in 
the fport, and a violent conteft enfues which of the two 
parties (hall drive the ball to the hut of the oppofite chief. 
The diverfion generally lafts two hours, and the viftors are 
allowed to wear the feathers of fuperiority till the follow-^ 
ing year, or till the next time they play at the ball. Aftec 
this the warriors perform the war dance ; and laft of all 
they go and bathe j an '"xercife which they are very fond 
of when they are heated or fatigued. 

The rcfl: of that day is employed a$ the preceding ; foi^ 
the feafl; holds as long as any of the corn remains. When 
it is all eat up, the Great Sun is carried back in bis litter, 
and they all return to the village, after which he fends the 
warriors to hunt both for therofelves and him. 

The eighth moon is that of Turkics, and anfwers to, 
our OiSlober. 

The ninth moon is that of the Buffalo ; and it is then 
they go to hunt that animal. Having difcovered where' 
abouts the herd feeds, they go out in a body to hunt 
them. Young and old, girls and married women, except 
thofe who are with child, are all of the party, for there is 
generally work for them all. Some nations are a little 

Z 3 - later 


later in going out to this hunting, that they may find the 
cows fatter, and the herds more numerous. 

The tenth moon is that of Bears i at this timeof hunt^ 
ing tiic feafts are not To grand and folemn, bccaufe great 
part of the nations are accompanying the hunters in theif 

The eleventh anfwers to our January, and is named 
the Cold-mcal Moon. The twelfth is that of Chefnuts. 
That fruit has been gathered long before, neverthelcfs ic 
gives its name to this moon. 

Viafliy, the thirteenth is that of Walnuts, and it is 
added to compleat the year. It is then they break the nuts 
to make bfead of them by mixing with them the flour of 

The fcafts which I faw celebrated in the chief village of 
the Natchez, which is the refidencc of the Great Sun, 
are celebrated in the fame manner in all the villages of 
the nation, which are each governed by a Sun, who is 
fubordinate to the Great Sun, and acknowledge his abfo- 
lute authority. . 

It is not to be* conceived how cxa(El thcfc people are in 
affigning the pre-eminence to the men. In every aflcmbly, 
whether of the whole nation in general, or of^ feveral 
families together, or of one fmgle family, the youngeft 
boys have the preference to the women of the moft ad- 
vanced age J and at their meals, when their food is diftri- 
buted, none is prefented to the women, till all the males 
have received their (hare, fo that a boy of two yearii pld is 
fcrvcd before his mother. 

The women being always employed, without ever be- 
ing diverted from their duty, or feduced by the gallantries 
of lovers, never think of objecSting to the propriety of a 
cuftom, in which they have been conflantly brought up. 
Never having ken ariy example that contradicted it, they 
}iave i)ot ^he lead idea of varying ffom it. Thus being 



fubmiflive from habit, as well as from rcafon, they, by 
their docility, maintain that pc^cc in their families, which 
they find edablifhed upon entering them. 

Of their Marriages, and DiJiin£lion of Ranis* 

PATERNAL authority, as I have elfcwhcrc obfcrved, 
is not Icfs facred and inviolable than the pre-eminence 
of the men. It ftili fubfifts among the Natchez, fuch at 
it was in the firft ages of the world. I'he children be- 
long to the father, and while he lives they are under h\i 
power. They live with him, they, their wives, and their 
children ', the fame hut contains, the whole family. The 
pld man alone commands there, and nothing but death 
puts an end to his empire. As thefe people have feldom 
or rather never any differences among them, the paternal 
authority appears in nothing more confpicuous than in the 

When the boys and girls arrive at the perfcft age of 
puberty, they vifit each other familiarly, and are fuffered 
ib to do. The girls, fenfible that they will be no longer 
miftrelTes of their heart, when once they are married, 
know how to difpofe of it to advantage, and form their 
wardrobe by the fale of their favours ; for there, as well 
as in other countries, nothing for nothing. The lover, 
far from having any thing to object to this, on the con- 
trary, rates the merit of his future {poufe, in proportion 
to the fruits (he has produced. But when they are mar- 
ried they have no longer any intrigues, neither the huf- 
band nor the wife, becaufe their heart is no longer their 
own. They may divorce their wives; it is, however, fo 
rare to fee the man and wife part, that during the eight 
years I lived in their neighbourhood, I knew but one ex<»' 
ample of it, and then each took with them the children of 
t;))(jjr own fex. , . . . , . 

2^4 If 


It M yming m«it hni ohtnihril a itirr* confoiit, nnd thfjf 
delirt* (o inmiyt it In not Iht Ir frithori, mul iniiih IcCm thrir 
nuitliriK, of ituiltf or fcmiiltf ivIiitionN who t^kr u|MMt (hrin 
to loiK'Nulo the mutch i it in the hctulu of the (wo rMmilittt 
nhMiCi whi) tiiT ul\iiiliy itrmtKiitiuHtithriiii nml (oiiirthitri 
molt*. Thrlf two oUi iitrii huve mt iittcivlrw, in whii h* 
M(\ri th« yuung iitnit htm luiiimtly inmlit m drnuuul oi th« 
l^ii), they fMiinMnr iC thnr Ite tiny rrltttioii ix twrrii rho 
two |)»riii«iii *nd if nny, whiu tlrgire it Im i for thry do 
not iiuiny within the (hitd drgret. Notwithitundin^ (iiii 
lnt«i-vi«W( And the two |D«rt!«R lin lotnid not within tlia 
pioltibitod dogrri!*, yvt if iht propolcd wilt* lt« ililti^ivvithlv 
to tho Ituitci, ({irthdliithci*, iic. ol' (lie hulhaiul, the nmtilt 
i» ntivur lonvludmh On tho •(her hmul, nnihition, Nva^ 
licQt iiml tltd othei' pHdionut (o ioiiintc;) with uii« n«ver 
IliHe in the bfoitn of thi* lutheiM (hole dii^UteH of nrtdire, 
wliicli mukr ui d«'(ii» to (vo ouiH^lveii perpfft\iM(ed In our 
(vif(ipnng« 1)01' ioHiivnctt (hem (o thwtiit their thildiert 
impiopvily, and much Uih to |'uri-*e dteir inelintuionii. My 
un ttdiniiaMe hrtimony, vciy woKJiy oC our imltntinni 
ihcy only nmny tiiole who love ojiv anotlivi, imd t)u>lo 
who love onr unothei* Aieonly marrivd wltrn their pKrontt 
(fgicc to it. It j« rait} tor young nt«n (o iiwtny hel'orc thoyr 
\k nvt<^and-twonty. Till they urrivo tit that nge they uro 
l0okrd u|K^t us too woAk» without undcrAanding iin4 

When the mArriA));e-d{iy \n nnrc fixed, prepurntlons uro 
mAdf for it hoih hy the men and women ) the men go n 
huntmg, and thti women pirpuiv the mtil/, And deck out 
the younp; mun's cftbin to the hert- of (heir power. On 
the wttlvling-dny the old m«n on (he part of the girl 
IravCvS his hut, and condu*5>!< the hride to (he hut of tho 
bridegroom i his whtdc fauiily follow him in order and 
filence \ thofe who ait; incltned to Inugh or be merryi in* 
dulging themftlvei only in a fmile. 

He finds before the other hut all the relations of the 
bridcgix)om| who receive aiul falutc him with their iifual 


O F T. O IT I 8 I A N A. 34} 

fKpumoit (if tnii^rutultttidii, iinitKly, hoo, hoo^ rrprntrJ 
ftfvi'ittl tiiitiri. Wliuii hfl onttm (hr Imr, iltci old mmi on 
lilt* \m\. (t| llic l)|iilr^r(l(>llt h)n t«» Itiin In titrir lillt{(Ul^P, 
nn pit thnt¥ to wliii li lin Nii(svrrii, y//. Ilr U nrxt dfi- 
firrd to ill down, luid ihrn not m word itHflM (or iirtir trii 
ntlnntri, it \)m\\\^ onr ol thrir prudrnt (iidoinN to TufFer « 
K«iiH to irU hinili'ir M littln nftrr liin MnivMl, liclort they 
hrgin m cMnvrir»ition i nnd ttrfidrn, tliry look ii|Hin the 
time (pntt In tompllittcntN nn thi«»wn Mwtiy, 

Aricr both the tdd men nic full/ lofh^l, thry rife, and 
X\w liildr^riiom nnd hrldc u|iprMiin|^ l)r(ora ihcntf they nflc 
thrni, if thry lovn ruch othn } uiid iC they Mrn willing to 
tNko onr nnother for mnn nnd wifr } ohft'i vinfj; to thrm ut 
thr fnmo time, thiir t^iry v\\%\\t not to tnnrry nnlcCrt thry 
propoltf to live itmicrthly together \ thnf nobody foriTt 
thrni, nnd thnt tui thry arc rmh othrr'n frrc rhnirr, they 
will hr thini^ out of the fMmily if thry do not livr irt 
pence. After thin rcmonftrnnce thr father of the bride- 
groom dellvrrn thr prefent which bin fon \n to mnkr into 
bin hnndii, thr brldo'H fRthrr ut thr fume tintr pbiciii)^ him« 
fclf by hor fido. 'I'hc bridagrooni then ttddr«llb the 
bride 1 ** Will you imva mo for yutir huiliund V Shi.* an- 
** fwcriii ** Moil willingly, nnd it given me joy i love 
me, UH well Ml 1 Ipve you \ for I love, and ever will love 
none but yuu." At thcfo worda the bridegroom cover* 
the bend of the biide with the prcfcnt which bo rcioivcd 
from bis futhcr, nnd fnyi tu her, ** I love yon, und bnvo 
thcccforo taken yon for my wife, nnd thin I give to your 
purentN, tu purchufo you." tic then givci the prefent to 
the bridc'it futhcr. 

Tho hun)Hnd weart n tuft of feathcm fuflcnod to hli 
hnir, which in in the form of a cue, nnd \\\\\\g% over hit 
left enr, to which in fnftonud n fprig of oak with the leavei 
on, and in bis left hand he Ueari a bow and arrows. The 
young wife beara in her left band a fmall branch of laurel, 
iind in her right a (talk of maiz, which wai delivered to 
hor by her mothc|f at the tiino (he received tho prcfent^ 


It >». 

t|5 I'll!' IIIS'rORY 

fu«m hrr hun»'.iMtl. 'V\un llnllc Ihr |»»rl«MU.M I" hn fuifl'iinrf, 
m*tt(i {i\Vrn it Worn lui with hi^ t'^Ui hniiil, unit Iiivn ** I 
iiin vo»n ImllMnl i" fhr rtnlvvrM, ninl •• \ urn y«Mii wilr.'* 
Vfuy <^it* rtirtkr hrtml^ H'ripioj idly with rtn h niluiN tr« 
l«lion'« I nnrr whiih l\r KiMh hci l«»vvnuli i\\v IumI, nnd 
f«yi, " I'luMc In «nir Wil, k»rp It tight ^** in a* 
tnuilt tts td lay* (to not defile llu- iiup(iu) bnt. 

The m.iiiinge icKin»H\y luiHj; iIum tontliMlnl, it«r 
ImIiNhmmmm i\\\\\ ll»v' hnilc, witit thfli lliriuts, lit liiuvn tn 
A irptllt, >uvl in tl\« rvcnin^; tliey begin iticli »tnMLCJ«,v\lut>li 
romituic otun lilt ilay- light. 

'I'ltc MJttiim ''i thr Nntcl»r/. in coinpofird of uotMlily ftiivl 
rouinuni pooplr. The voinmoti prople mv numiul iit tlu'li- 
la»>jjua|.»;ff /i/ii/y <l/u/if-.^wi/^v» that is, StittH'fii\iy \ ii iirtimr 
llowwer whivh p.ivrH them )»ii*(U oircnci", niul wl»ivl< it is 
pio|Hr to avoid piot\ouMv;in^ lutorc tluitt^ its it would not 
tail to put thciw iuto ii vny hiul hutiuuii-. The oMunioii 
yt\^tli! Arc to il\r l,Ul dc^ito (idtntilUvc to thr thtbilily, whu> 
•tT divided inivt Sums, tiobliH, mtd mctt ul rauk. 

The vSut^s nr»* the dolVendrintn of the itlrtn niul womnn 
wh« \M*otci\d<nl to hrtve inme down ffom the (i\n> Among 
thooihrf Irtwn thry {»tnr to the Natchez, they (mtitined th.u 
ihcff rtice ihonM rtUnys he dKlinguiflird fVom the bulk of 
th<^ MJition, and that i^^'^m* of thtMn (hould cve» be put lt> 
Jc'flth upon nnv ncoonnt. Tliey efhvblUhed likewiCe «n- 
txhfr utjigti which Is tomtd rtntonjj no other people, except 
it nsuion oC Sivthlnns tnentioned by Heiixlotus. They 
«^«^^rtuvd that nobility IhouM only be tl"«nl>«itted by the 
women. Their mule and Kemrtlc children wtw cquntly 
n;ttt\ovl Sun;(, (\nd re||:mt«d as f\ich« but with thin dil- 
IvreuAV, that the nuvles enjoyed thijl privilege only In their 
own perlon, rtnd during tlwir own live*. 'I'hcir children 
)idl only the title «>t nobles and; the male thitdrcn of 
Ihole rtoble.1 wvre t>nly men of rank. Thole men of rrtnk, 
lH»tever« if they diltini^uKhcd thcmfelves by their war- 
like e.xploiti^« might raUc thonfclvcii agiiin ta the rank of 

nobles i 

O F I. C) in 8 I A N A. "jiy 

iulilr^ I ttiit thrir ()iiltlirit birfimr only tticn nf rnnkf uftd 
tlic c'liililn'ii of thulb iiini «)f titiik, n^ well ni (if ihe 
otltrm, wrrr roniiiUMtioii with the (-(iiitnt(*n pi?nptr, nii4 
ilMliril rtfiHHiir '>•'• BtinkHriU. 'riuiN ii*i ilicle' pcnpli* nra 
vury lonp, -livtul, ami npjuinitly foe tlic ft»iirtli p;t'Mrrnti(»ii, 
it ollrn huppfH'' ♦•'"t « ■" ''ii Ccei Omip of his poUcrlfy 
uiminp the .SfinkuuU , hut they nrr nt grcnt pnihn to rnri- 
iTjil ihindp^nnl.i'inM of thdf r«in, tlpriiiilly from llrrtn(j;e?in, 
iiiul ttlttioft t«»tnlly li r»iwii thole }/m rtt-gnmd t hildrfii \ for 
whru th«!y fpeiik of them thry only Hty, tliry are denr to 
them. It in olhcrwifc with ihr frinnlc pof^frity of the 
Slim, for thfy totitlmie through iiil g( ii'r.ui»Mi'< to Piijoy 
their rrtnk, The defrciidiiMts of the 8imm hr|ii|r pretty 
nimicroim, it mi(j;ht he tv peeled thnt thole who jirc out of 
the prohlhited dcgrr^ei itiight intermnrry, rather thait nlly 
with the Stinktirdi \ luit a moft hnrbnrons nillom oldi[rcii 
them lo their mif-allljtiirt!^. When rtiiy of the Sump, either 
m»de or female, die, their law ordaimi that the hiiftiand or 
wife of that Still (hall he put to death on the day of the 
iMtermeoi cif the dccealbd : now hh an»»thcr law prohi- 
bits the iltlie of the Sunn from hc'iiig put to death, it ii 
thercf»»i<! impofllhle for the dcCccndanti of the Sune to 
matt h with earh oth(*r. 

Whether It tic that they are tired of this law, or that 
they wifh their Suns defcended of Trench Mood, I fliall 
not determine) but the wife of thcCJieat Sun came one 
day to vifit me fo early in the morning that I was not got 
out of bed. She was accompanied with her only diiugh« 
ter, a girl between fourteen and fifteen years of age, 
hartdfume und well Hinped \ Init flic only fcnt in her own 
name by my flavc \ fo that without getting up, I tnadc no 
fcrupic of defiring her to come in. When her daughter 
appeared 1 was not n llttio furpri/cd j but I fhook handi 
with them both, and dcfircd them to fit down. The 
daughter fat down on the foot of my bed, and kept her 
ryes continually fixed on me, while the mother addrcflcd 
|uric]f to nic In the mofl fcrious and pathetic tone. After 


Ul T ?i K If 1 51 r O !t Y 

loivif r()m)OluttMil» In tut?, aiul ftDUMtehdatittMH of our cur^ pvKvailvtl amHHg i\\v\W Vua, himI muiid with iiio- 
lutiiug uvv uii A l\ut)>tiih) (bi- hKi t)HUghi»t, that t iiti^ht 
hav« ii in itty powvi to i ivi!i»t) thuir nation hy HholinnMy 
thviv inhuit\Hn vuOoniH, »n(l intro^iuvin^ tliuii; of ihts 
Vrenvh. Ait 1 torfiaw t)\e lian^jm of i\nh un alliani:^, 
whivh would bf oppoiy hy tht? wln»ln nation ut tliy Nat-i 
rhw, ami at the im\e tinte wa» (WnHbli ihai th« ivltnt^ 
invnt of a itig)tte\l won^an in very Uiitn)ivlal)i«t t letiunei) 
h«( i\iK.\\ an aniWiM h» n\i^ht (Uhw nty |i«at hM^ip^I lor Iter 
«U^vg)u^r, m^ pievvnt hri IVoni making th« t^nie H|i|ili. 
%\\\\m to i'oHi« Urainl»i1i Knfnihinant who, by attejuiu^ 
thr (vHvi, might t^a^wih tK» Kittmh (Htiemmit to [\\\\\» 
ijiti^Omnn t^v«nt. I tti)tt \\h that hvi iiauufhteii- was hantt- 
IvNmf » and plwaii^d nir n\m h, a» 0\t> had a gmni iuart, and 
» w*»ll t\nn«d mind \ >'v»t lh9 lawn we ruttlved tVnm tht 
IfK^at Hintitf tot hud un to mavry women w)u) did Ufti 
l.rfy I and that t\io(fe f rem hmt^n who \\\fn\ with their 
daught«'i« tooH thi'in < ,)r a iim« i bni it wan not |iio-» 
l»vt that ihe daughter t . ihi? Uii^ai Snit (hould ht dti^toiy 
\\\ in that n\annvr, Thv tit^hM aifiui^li'od in iity i^oaOniii 
^\it wht'n thfy look tht-ir leave I pprv'ntv«»l jdainly that ihi 
^anghttr wa« iai tVoHv being (atifHed, ) Ufvi^t (aw hei 
iuww that day ioi waivli i and I h«ard i\\9 wa« Inon afi^r 
ttvairiied to anothei, 

f u>m thi» t^lathw thip rfadff may |w»t^eiv^ that there 
\\^\h nothit^g h\\\ prtidvnce an4 gooii (i^itfb tn peiAiade 
»hot*' \^^^^\W' to what i» reaton^Hle, and to |Mehprve their 
futndlhiu witho\it iiii^M nation* W^ may fahly attrm 
tha\ the ditV«tTnv:ea wo hav(> haid wtth the«n have hten 
moAv owtn^ to the KtYuvh than to them. Whe» they 
ii« ivftitc^ infoUiitly or o^i«Aively« th^ have no \vk iiMt^ 
it^«)«ty t^l ii\inii«« than other*. U thof0 who have ovcatioii 
to \\v\t s^nvM^g th«w, wilt but have (eiitimeiita ot humanityi 
^kn'y wiM in thv lu n)«ft wilh m.«iu 


8 l£ C r, IV. 


0/ th Tmtplei^ Tmh, fhrialit 0*td Pther rtlijihui CiN* 
mtuhi 9/ th Pt9ph »/ LouiiUna. 

Ifihnll imw (trrit eed (n uive iVitiin aci'nunt of the Diiftnmt 
th«t |ilev«il III geiintal amiing «ll the iirttiniiD nf North 
Ainf^rioA I «iul (hnfVi have a great reffcmhlaiue to eaoll 
iithrr, ai therB ii hardly any illftVreiice hi the mRiiner n( 
Ihhtking Hiul aiding aiiimig the (bverai nations. Theflu 
|n'oplH havt) no rtligtoii nNprtinhi by any HMleniHl woiniip* 
'Vhu (Irongt'ft pvlilenres that wb Hill (iver of their having 
any r«*llgion at all, mv thfir fefiipleu, and the t^ietnal flra 
♦herein kept np hy { imv «ii lliem. Home of them indeefl 
tlo not kcBp up the f ternat Are, And have turned (httir 
tfUiplffl Into tdiarnel-houfbf. 

Ilowpvcr, all tholfe pertptn, vy^lthout pjcreptlon, arknow- 
If'dge a Hupr^nte lining, hut thi-y nevpr on any arcount 
tiddreOi their prayers to him, from their Jut belief that 
(Jod, whiiui they call the Cheat Hpirir, U fo good, that 
he rannot do evil, whatever piovoiafinn he may have. 
'1 hey believe thfi f^xillence of two (Jieat Hpirits, a jjnod 
and a had. '1 hey do not, aa ) have iaid« Invoke Iha 
iSood 8plrit 1 hut they jnay to the bad, in order to avert 
fVom their perfons and poirf^fllona the»viU whiih he might 
Inflidt upon them. T hey pray to thn evil fplrlt, not be- 
caule they think him ulndghty \ for it is the (2uod Spirit 
whom they believe To | but becaufb, according to them, 
he governs the air, the ieafnna, the rain, tha fine weather, 
etui all that may beniHt or hurt the prudud^iona of th9 

They are very fuperftitloui in refpe^l to the flight of 
birdi, and the pailage of fume animals theit aie ftddom 
feen in their country. They are much im lined to he«r 
and believe dlvintia, efpeciaily in regard to difcovering 
things to come ) and they are kept in their isrrora by the 
Junji^louisi, who find their account in them. 




The natives have all the fame manner of bringing up 
their children, and are in general well (haped, and their 
limbs are juftly proportioned. The Chicafaws are 
the moft fierce and arrogant, which they undoubted!/ 
owe to their frequent mtercourfe with the Englifh of 
Carolina. They are brave j a difpofuion they may have 
inherited as the remains of that martial fpirit that prompted 
them to invade their neighbouring nations, by which they 
themfelves were at length greatly weakened. All the 
nations on the north of the colony are likewife brave, but 
they are more humane than the Chicafaws, and have not 
their high-fpirited pride. All thefe nations of the north, 
and all thofe of Louifiana, have been inviolably at- 
tached to us ever fmce our eftablifliment in this colony. 
The misfortune of the Natchez, who, without difpute, 
were the fineft of all thofe nations, and who loved us, 
ought not in the leaft to leflen our fentiments of thofe 
people, who are in general dlftlnguifhed for their natural 
goodnefs of character. All thofe nations are prudent, 
and fpeak little ; they are fober in their diet, but they are 
paflionately fond of brandy, though they are Angular in 
never tailing any wine, and neither know nor care to learn 
any compofition of liquors* In their meals they content 
themfelves with maiz prepared various ways, and fome- 
times they ufe fifli and flefli. The meat that they eat is 
chiefly recommended to them for being wholefome ; and 
therefore I have conje^ured that dog's fleih, for which 
we have fuch an averfion, muft however be as good as it 
is beautiful, fmce they rate it fo highly as to ufe it by way 
of preference in their feafts of ceremony. They eat no 
young game, as they find plenty of the largeft fize, and 
do not think delicacy of tafte alone any recommendation; 
and therefore, in general, they would not tafte our ragouts, 
but, condemning them as unwholefome, prefer to them 
gruel made of maiz, called in the colony Sagamlty. 

The Cha«5laws are the only ugly people among all the 
nations in Louifiana ; which is chiefly owing to the fat 

, with 



with which they rub their Ikin and their hair, and tx) their 
manner of defending themfelves againft the mofkitos, 
which they keep off by lighting fires of Ar-wood, and 
fianding in the fmoke. 

Although all the people of Louisiana have nearly the fame 
ufages and cuftoms, yet as any nation is more or lefs po- 
pulous, it has proportionally more or fewer ceremonies. 
Thus when the French firft arrived in the colony, fevcral 
nations kept up the eternal fire, and obferved other reli- 
gious ceremonies, which they have now difufed, fuicc 
their numbers have been af^atly diminished. Many of 
them ftill continue to have cKnplcs, but the common peo- 
ple never enter thcfe, nor ftrangers, unlefs peculiarly 
favoured by the nation. As I was an intimate friend of 
the fovereign of the Natchez, he (hewed me their temple, 
which is about thirty feet fquare, and {lands upon an 
artificial mount about eight feet high, by the fide of a 
fmall river. The mount flopes infenfibly from the main 
front, which is northwards, but on the other fides it is 
fomewhat fteeper. The four corners of the tqmple confift 
of four polls, about a foot and an half diameter, and ten 
feet high, each made of the heart of the cyprcfs tree, 
which is incorruptible. The fide- pofls are of the fame 
wood, but only about a foot fquare ; and the walls are of 
mud, about nine inches thick } fo that in the infide diere 
is a hollow between every poft. The inner fpace is di- 
vided from eafl to weft into two apartments, one of which 
is twice as large as the other. In the largeft apartment 
the eternal fire is kept, and there is likewife a table or 
altar in it, about four feet high, fix long, and two broad^ 
;Upon this table lie the bones of the late Great Sun in a 
coffin of canes very neatly made. In the inner apartment, 
which is very dark, as it receives no light but from the' 
door of communication, I could meet with nothing bu*^ 
two boards, on which were placed fome things like fmall 
toys, which I had not light to perufe. The roof is in the 
form of a pavilion, and very neat both within and with- 


oiit^ and on the top of it are placed thi-ee wooden bird^, 
twice as large as a goofe, with their heads turnied towards 
the eaft. The corner and flde-pofts, as has been men- 
tioned, rife above the earth ten kct high, and it is faid 
they are as much funk under ground ; it cannot therefore 
but iappear furprifing how the natives could tranrport fuch 
large beams, faibion them, and raife them upright, when 
we know of no machines they had for that purpofe. fie- 
fides the eight guardians of the temple, two of whom are 
always on watch, and the chief of thofe guardians, there 
alfo belongs to the fervice oLthe temple a mailer of the 
ceremonies, who is alfo miner of the myfterie^ ; fince, 
according to them, he converfes very ^miliarly with the 
Spirit. Above all thefe perfons is the Great Sun, who is 
at the fame time chief prieft and fovereign of the nation. 
The temples of fome of the nations of Louifiana are very 
mean, and one Would often be apt to milkake them for the 
huts of private perfons; but to thofe, who are acquainted 
with their manners, they are eafily diftingui(hable, as 
they have always before the door two pods formed like the 
ancient Termini, that is, having the upper part cut into 
the (hape of a man*s head. The door of the temple, 
which is pretty weighty, is placed between the wall and 
thofe two pofts, fo that children may not be able to remove 
it, to go and play in the temple. The private huts have 
alfo pofts before their doors, but thefe are never formed 
like Termini. 

None of the nations of Louisiana are acquainted with 
the cuftom of burning their dead, which was praflifed by 
the Greeks and Roitians ; tcr with that of the Egyptians, 
who ftudied to preferve them to perpetuity. The difFerent 
American nations have a moft Higious attention for their 
dead, and each have fome peculiar cuftoms in refpec^ to 
thdm i but all of them either inter them, or place them in 
tombs^ and carefully carry victuals to them for fome time. 
Thtfe tombs are either within their temples, or clofe ad- 
joining to themj or ki their neighbourhood. They are 


OF Louisiana. jjj 

raifed about three feet above the earth, and reft upon four 
pillars, which are forked ftakes fixed faft in the ground. 
The tomb, or rather bier, is about eight feet long, and a 
foot and a half broad } and after the body is placed upon 
it, a kind of bafket-work of twigs is wove round it, and 
covered with mud, an opening being left at the head for 
placing the victuals that are prefented to the dead perfon. 
When the body is all rotted but the bones, thefe are taken 
out of the tomb, and placed in a box of canes, which is 
depofited in the temple. They ufually weep and lament 
for their dead three days ; but for thofe who are killed in 
war, they make a much longer and a more grievous la- 

Among the Natchez the death of any of their Suns, as 
I have before obferved, is a moft fatal event ; for it is fure 
to be attended with the deftru6lion of a great number of 
people of both fexes. Early in the fpring 1725, the 
Stung Serpent, who was the brother of the Great Sun, 
and my intimate friend, was feized with a mortal diftem- 
per, which filled the whole nation of the Natchez with 
the greatcft confternation and terror 5 for the tu'o brothers 
had mutually engaged to follow each other to the Kind of 
fpirits ; and if the Great Sun fhould kill himfelf for the 
fake of his brother, very many people would likewife be 
put to death. When the Stung Serpent was defpaired of, 
the chief of the guardians of the temple came to me in 
the greateft confufion, and acquainting me with the 
mutual engagements of the two brothers, begged of m ; 
to intereft myfclf in preferving the Great Sun, and conf - 
quently a great part of the nation. He. made the fame 
requeft to the commander of the fort. Accordingly we 
were no fooner informed of the dea,th erf" the Stung 
Serpent, than the commander,^ fome of the principal 
Frenchmen, and I, went in a body to the hut of the 
Great Sun. We found him in defpair j but, after fome 
time, he feemed to be influenced by the arguments I ufed 
to difTuade him from putting himfelf to death. The 

A a death 

354 T Ml! HISTORY 

ilenth of the Stung Serpent wns ptiMiflird by the fnlng of 
two mufketa, which were «tWWtted hy ihc other vlllagei> 
thd immediAteiy crie« nnd Inttientittlohii were hem-d oo nil 
ftdc«. 'I'he Ciieat Sun, In the mcnit time, reitirtlned In*. 
eonrtddhie, tind fAt hritt forwurdl, with hid eyt^n towai-dii 
the gi-oumh In the evt'ninft, while wc were (till In his 
hut* he mrtde * fign to his frtvoiirite wife \ who In conft;- 
qiience of thnt threw « pailful nf wAter on the fire, tttwl 
ektlng>»l(hcd It. This was A fignnl for extlngulflilng ell 
the fihM of the nation, and filled every one with terrible 
ulamin, an It dtMioted that the Great Sni was ftlll refi^ilved 
to put hinidlf to drathi t gently chldcd him for altering 
his forn\er rrfi)luiion, but he alVuicd me he had not, and 
dcfircd \\H to po and fiecp Itrurely. We accordingly left 
him, pretending to rely on the afiurance he had given usi 
Init wc took up our lodging in the hut of his chief ftfr- 
vantp, and rtatloned a fiddler at the door of his hut, 
whom we »>rdrred to give us notice of whatever happened. 
There was no need tt) fear our being betrHyed by the wife 
of the Cireiit Sun, or any others about him i for none of 
«hen\ had the leail inclination to die, if they could help 
it. 0\\ the contrary, they all exprefled the grcatelt 
thanklulnels and gratitude to tia for our endeavours to 
•vert the threatened calamity front their nation. 

Bel«»-e we went to o\ir lodgings we entered the hut of 
ihe derv;ifed| and fbund him on his bed of ftatei di^flei! 
in hU finell cloaths, his Face painted with vermilion, 
(hod M if t'or A journey, with Ins feather^crown on hii 
hertd. To his bed Were fattened his arms, which Con- 
lilted of A double-barifled gun, a ptftol, a bow, a qulv«r 
full of arrows^ and a ttmiihawk. Round his bed were 
placed all the calumets of peace he had received during 
his lift^, And on a pole, planted in the ground near It, 
hung A chain of «my fix rings of cane painted rtdv to 
e\pix?rs the number of eneoncji h^ had flain» All his 
Jouicrtkks were i*o\>nd him, and titey prefcntcd victuals to 
him at the ufual hours, as if he were alive. Thcc ir* 




psttiy ill liti hut were compoftd of his rAvotirtte wire, nf a 
iecuntl wife, which he kept in minther village, and viiitet( 
when his favourite was with child ) of hit chantellor, hia 
phyflciaii, his chief domeftic, his pipe.btarer« and fome 
old women, who were all to be Aranglcd at hit Intcrmttif. 
To ther« viiSlinia a noble woman voluntarily joined her- 
felf, reiblving, from her friendfhip to the Stung Serpent, 
t« go and live with him in the country of fplriti. 1 r«<- 
gretted her on many accounts, but particularly aa (he wis 
intimately acquainted with the virtues of flmplea, had by 
her (kill faved many of our people's livesi and given me 
many ufefut inftru^lions. After we had fatiifled ourcurf- 
oHty in the hut of the decealbd, we retired to our hut, 
where we fpent the night. But at day^bfeak we weC* 
fuddenly awaked, and told that it was with difficulty the 
Great Sun was kept from killing himfetf. We haftened 
to his hut, and upon entering it t remarked difmay anil 
terror painted tipon the countenances of all who Were 
prcfcnt. The Great Sun held his gun by the butt-end, 
and iVumed enraged that the other Suns had feitoed upoh 
it, to prevent him from executing his purpoAi I addreii^ 
fed myfelf to himt and after opening the pan«»f the Idck, 
to let the priming fall out, t chided him gently for his not 
fldUng according to his former refolutioni Me pretended 
at ftrS not to lee me ) but, after fome time, he let go his 
hold of the mu(ket, and (hook hands with me without 
fpeaking a word. 1 then went towards his wife, who alJ 
this while had appearci in the utmoft agony and terror, 
and t iifked her if Oie was ill. She anfwered me, *• Yes, 
very 111^" and added, ** if you leave us, my hufband is it 
dead man, and all the Natchez will die ) flay then, for he 
opens his ears only to your words, which have the (harp^ 
mfs and ftrength of nrrows. You are his true friend, 
nnd do not laugh when you fpeak, like moit: of the French* 
men." The GrcAt Sun'at length confonted to order hia 
Hrc to be agiiin lightei), which was the fignal fvr lighting 

A a a th« 



th(* other firci of the ^mtioiii and dirpellcd all their npprc« 

Soon artei^ the nativei begun the dance of death* and 
prepahed for the funeral of the Htung Serpdntt Orders 
were given to put none to death on that occaflon) but 
thofe who were in the hut of the dcceafed. A child ho\^« 
,tVer had been already ftrangled by iti father and mother, 
which ranfoined their lives upon tht death of the Great 
Sun* and raifiid them from the rank of Stinkards to that 
of Nohlta. I'hofe who wtro appointed to die were con- 
dui^editwioe a day, and placed in two rows before the 
temple), where they adled oVcr the ftcnc of their death, 
each aocompanied hy eight of th<iir own relations who 
:Werc to be thfii^ cicccutioners, alid by that office exempted 
th^infclves from dying upon the death of any of the Suni), 
attd llkcwifc r^^ilcd themrelves to the dignity of men of 
■ i-auk. ,.^; .. .\ I 

Meah while t>\irty warttot^ brought in a pfifoner, who 
,ha\i formerly been married to a female Sun ; but, upon 
iher death, ihfhad of fubmitting to die with her, had fled 
Co New Orlconi^ and offered to become the hunter and 
4lave of ctur* commander in ehief» The eommander ac- 
cepting his offer t and granting him hid proCei^ion, he 
often vifited his countrymen, who, out of complaifanco 
to the commander, never offered to apprehend him: but 
that officer being now returned >td France, and the runaway 
ttpiiearing in theheighbourhood, he was now apprehended, 
and numbered mnong the other vidims. Finding himfctf 
thus unexpectedly, trapped, he began to cry bitterly ; but 
three old Women, who were his relations, officring to die 
ii\ his ffead, he was not only again exempted from death, 
but ratfed to the dignity of a man of rank. Upon this 
he afterwards became infolcnt, and profiting by what he 
had fecn and learned at New Orleans, he eafily, on many 
.occaftons, made his fcllow-tountrymen his dupes. 

. . «. On 


On the day of the interment, the wife of the deceafcd 
made a very moving fpecch to the French who were pre- 
fcnt, recommending her children, to whom ftic alfo nd« 
ilreflcd herfclf, to their friendftiip, and advifing n perpe- 
tu{^l union between the two nation*. Soon after the 
madcr of the ceremonies appeared in a red-feathered croWHf 
which half encircled his head, having a red ftafF in hit 
hand in the form of a croft, at the end of which hung i\ 
garland of black feathers. All the upper part of his bod/ 
\vaft painted red, excepting his arms, and from his girdle 
to his knees hung a fringe of feathers, the rows of which 
were alternately white and red, When he came before 
the hut of tjie deceafcd, he falutcd him with a great hoo^ 
and then began the cry of death, in which he was fol- 
lowed by the whole people. Immediately after the Stung 
Serpent was brought out on his bed of jftate, and was 
plrtccd on a litter, which fix of the guardirtn« of the tem- 
ple bore on their ftiot^ders. The proccfTion then began, 
the mafter of the ceremonies walking fnfl:, and afrcr him 
the oldcft warrior, holding in one hand the pole with th« 
rings of canes, and in the other the pipe of war, a mark 
of the dignity of the deceafcd. Next followed thccorpfc, 
after which came thofe who were to die at the interment. 
The whole procefllon went three times round the hut of 
the deceafcd, and then thofo who carried the corpfe pro- 
ceeded in a kind of march, every turn interfedling 
the former, until they came to the Knnple. At every turn 
the dead child was thrown by its parents before the bear- 
ers of the corpfe, ihut they might walk over it } and when 
the corpfe was placed in the temple the vi«Stim8 wne im- 
mediately flrangled. The Stung Serpent and hin two 
wives were buried in the fame grave v>'ithin the temple ; 
jtbe other vidlims were interred In different parts, and after 
the ceremony they burnt, according to cuftom, the hut 
^f the dcccafed, , ^ 

A -3 



S E C T. V. 

Of tht Arts and ManUfaSlurts of thi Nativeh 

THE arts and manufadlures of the natives are fo in^ 
fignificant, when compared with ours, that I (hould 
not have thought of treating of them, if fome pcrfons 
of diftindion had not defired me to fay fomething of them, 
in order to fhew the induftry of thofe people, and how 
far invention could carry them, in fupplying thofe wants 
which human nature is continually expofed to. 

As they would have frequent occafion for fire, the 
manner of lighting it at pleafure muft have been one of 
the firft things that they invented. Not having thofe 
means which we ufe, they bethought themfelves of an- 
other ingenious method which they generally pra£tife. 
They talce a dry dead flick from a tree, about the thick- 
i^efs of their finger, and preffing one end againfl another 
dry piece of wood, they turn it round as fwiftly as they 
can till they fee the fmoke appear, then blowing gently 
foon make the wood flame. 

Cutting inftruments are almoft continually wanted ; 
but as they had no iron, which, of all metals, is the 
mofl ufeful in human fociety, they were j^iliged, with 
infinite pains, to form hatchets out of large flints, by 
(harpening their thin edge, and making a hole through 
them for receiving the handle. To cut down trees with 
thefe axes would have been almofl an impradlicable work j^ 
they were therefore obliged to light fires round the rootsi 
of them, and to cut away the charcoal as the fire eat into 
the tree. They fupplied the want of knives for cutting 
their viduals with thin fplits of a hard cane, which they 
could eafily renew as they wore out. 

They made their bows of acacia wood, which is hard; 
and eaftiy cleft; and at firfl their bowftrings were made 
of the bark of the wood, but now they make them of 



the thonirs of hides. Their arrows are made of a fhrub 
that fends out long ftraight (hoots ; but they make fome 
of fmall hard reeds : thofe that are intended for war, or 
agninft the buffalo, the deer, or large carp, are pointed 
with the (harp fcale of the armed tifh, which is neatly 
faftened to the head of the arro.w with fplits of cane and 

The fkins of the beafts which they killed in hunting 
naturally prefented themfclves for their covering} but 
they muft be drefled however before they could be pro- 
perly ufed. After much praAice they at length difcovered 
that the brain of any animal fuffices to drefs it^ fkin. 
To few thofe (kins they ufe the tendons of animals beat 
and fplit into threads, and to pierce the (Icins they apply 
the bone of a heron's leg, (harpened like an awl. 

To defend themfelvcs againft the inclemencies of the 
weather, they built huts of wood, which were clofe and 
ftrong enough to refift the impetuofity of the wind. Thefe 
huts are each a perfect fquare ; none of them are lefs 
than fifteeii feet fquare, and fome of them are more than 
thirty feet in each of their fronts. They eredl thefe 
huts in the following manner : they bring from the woods 
feveral young walnut-trees, about four inches in dia- 
meter, and thirteen or twenty feet high j they plant the 
pronged of thefe in the four corners, and the others 
fifteen inches from each other in ftraight lines, for the 
fides of the building ; a pole is then laid horizontally 
along the fides in the inflde, and all the poles are ftrongly 
faftened to it by fplit canes. Then the four corner poles 
are bent inwards till they all meet in the centre, where 
they are ftrongly faftened together ; the fide-poles are then 
bent in the fame direftion, and bound down to the 
others ; after which they make a mortar of tnHd mixed 
with Spani(h beard, with which they fill up all the chinksy 
leaving no opening but the door, and the mud they cover 
^oth outfide and infide with mats m^de of the fplits of 

A a 4 cane. 


C4ne. The roof ii thatched with turf and Araw inteKt 
mixed, and over all is laid a mat of cane^, which ii faf- 
tened to the topi of the walls by the creeping plant. 
Thcfc huts will lafl; twenty years without any repairs. 

The natives having once built for themfelvci Axed 
habitations, would next apply themfelves to the culti- 
vation of the ground. Accordingly, near all their ha* 
bitations, they have fields of maiz, and of another nou« 
ri(hing giain called Choupichoul, which grows without 
culture. For dreiTing their fields they invented hoes, 
which are formed in the (hape of an L, having the lower 
part flat and (harp; and tota|(e the huOcfrom their corn 
they made large wooden mof tars, by holloy/ing the trunks 
of trees with fire. 

To prepare their mai« for food, and likcwife their ve- 
nifoii and game, there was a neccfTity for drcHing them 
over the fire, and for this purpofc they bethought them- 
felves of earthen ware, which is made by the women, 
who not only form the vefTcl, but dig up and mix the 
clay. In this they are tolerable artifts ) they make kettles 
of an extraordinary Aze, pitchers with a (mall opening, 
gallon bottles with long necks, pots or pitchers for their 
bear oil, which will hold forty pints ; laflly, large and 
fmall plates in the French fafhion ; I had fome made 
out of curiofity upon the model of my del f- ware, which 
•were a very pretty red. For fifting the flour of their 
maiz, and for other ufes, the natives make fievcs of va- 
rious finencfTes of the fplits of cane. To fupply them- 
felves with fifti they make nets of the bark of the lime- 
tree j but the lar^e filh they Ihoot v/Ith arrows. 

The beds of the natives are placed round the fides of 
their hutvS, about a foot and a half from the ground, and 
arc formed in this manner. Six' forked (lakes fupport 
two poles, which are crofied by three others, over, which 
canes are laid fo clofc as to form an even furface, and 
upon thefc arc laid fevcral bear fkins, which ferve for the 

' bed 

or LOUISIANA. 361 

V«d furniture ) a buffalo's (kin is the coverlet, and n fack 
>urt wirh Spanifh beard ii the buUlcr. The women 
lometimeR add to this furniture of the bed mats wove 
of canes, dyed of three colours, which colours in the 
weaving are formed into various figures. Thcfe mats 
render the bottom of the bed ft ill fmoothcr, and in hot 
weather they remove the bear /kins and lie upon them. 
Their fe.its or ftools, which they fcldom ufc, arc about 
fix or feven inches high, and the feat and feet are made of 
the fame piece. 

The women likewifc make a kind of hampers to carry 
corn, flefh, fifli, or any other thing which they want to 
tranfport from one place to another } they arc round, 
deeper than broad, and of all fizes. Here, as well as 
In other countries, the women take fpccial care to lay 
up fecurely all their trinkets and finery. They make 
balkets with long lids that rol) doubly over them, and in 
thefe they place their ear-rings and pendants, their bracc- 
l^M* garters, their ribbands for tiicir huir, and their 
vermilion for painting themfelvcs, if they have any, 
but when they have no vermilion they boil ochre, and, 
paint themfelves with that. 

The women alfo make the mens girdles and garters, 
and the collars for carrying their burdens. ThcTc collars 
are formed of two belts of the breadth of the hand of 
bear*s fkin, drclFcd fo as to foftcn it, and thcfc belts are 
joined together by long crofs rtraps of the (atnc leather, 
ihat ferve to tie the bundles, which are oftcncr carried 
by the women than the men. One of the broad belts 
goes over their (boulders, and the other acrofs their fore- 
head, fo that thofc two parts mutually eafc each other. 

The women alfo make fcvcral works in embroidery 
with the (kin of the porcupine, which is black and while, 
and is cut by them into thin threads, which ihcy dye of 
cjifFcrent colours. Their defigns greatly refembic tljofc 
which we meet with on gothic atchitcclurc ; they are 



THE h I S T O R Y^ 

Formed of ftraight lines, which when they meet atwayy 
crofs each other, or turn off at i«[uare angles. J^ 

The convcniencics for pafling rivers woul.d (bon be 
fuggeftcd to them by the floating of wood upon the water. 
Accordingly one of their methods of croffing rivers is 
upon floats of canes, which are called by them Cajeu, 
9nd are formed in this manner: They cut a great numbex: 
\of canes, which they tie up into faggots, part of which 
they faften together fide ways, and over thefe they lay a 
row crofsways, binding all clofe together, and then launch- 
ing it into the water. For carrying a great number of 
men with their ncceffary baggage, they foon found it 
neceffary to have other conveniencies j and nothing ap- 
peared fo proper for this as fome of their large trees hol- 
lowed ; of thefe they accordingly made their petty ugrcs, 
which as I mentioned above are fomecimes fo large as 
to carry ten or twelve ton weight. Thefe pettyaugres 
are condu(Sted by ihort oars, called Pagaies, about itx 
feet long, with broad points, which are not faftened to 
the veiTel, but managed by the rowei^ like (hovels. 


Of the Attire and Diver/tons of the Natives : Of their 
Meals and Faftings. 

TH E natives <i{ Louifiana, both men and women, 
wear a very thin drefs in the furamer. During 
the heat the men wear only a little apron of deer (kin, 
dreflfed white or dyeii black j but hardly any but chiefs 
vrear black aprons. Thofe who live in the neighbour- 
hood of the French fettkments wear aprons of coarfe 
limbourgs, a quarter of a yard broad, and the whole 
breadth of the cloth, or five quarters long j thefe aprons 
are faftened by a girdle about their waifts, and are tucked 
up between the thighs. 



During the heats the women wear only half a yahl o^' 
liflibourg ftuff about their middle^ which covers them 
down to the knees ; or in place of that they ufe dee^ 
ikin ; and the reft of the body both in men und women ia 

Many of the women wear cloaks of the bark of the 
mulberry- tree, or of the feathers of fwans^ turkies, or 
India ducks. The bark they take from young mulberry 
ihoots that rife from the roots of trees that have been cut 
down ; after it is dried in the fun they beat it to make all 
the woody part fall off, and they give the threads that 
remain a fecond beating, after which they bleach them 
by expoftng them to the dew. When they are well whiten- 
ed they fpin them about the coarfenefs of pack-thread, 
and weave them in the following manner : they plant two 
flakes in the ground about a yard and a half afunder, and 
having ilretched a cord from the one to the other, thef 
faften their threads of bark double to this cord, and then 
interweave them in « curious manner into a cloak of 
about a yard fquare with a wrought border round the 

The young boys and girls go quite naked; but die 
girls at the age of eight or ten put on a little petticoat, 
which IS a kind of fringe made of threads of mulberry 
bark. The boys do not wear any covering till they are 
twelve or thirteen years pf age. 

Some women even in hot weather have a fmall cloak 
wrapt round like a waiftcoat ; but when the cold fets in, 
they wear a fecond, the middle of which pafles under the 
right arm, and the two ends are faftened over the left 
Oioulder, fo that the two arms are at liberty, and one of 
the breads is covered. They wear nothing on their heads ; 
their hair is fuffered to grow to its full length, except in 
the fore-part, and it is tied in a cue behind in a kind of 
net made of mulberry threads. They carefully pick out 
all the hairs that grow upon any part of their body. 

J The 


t The {hoes of the men and women are of the fame 
fa(hion, but they rare|y wear any but when they travel.- 
They are made of deer-fkin, the fole and upper-leather 
of the fame piece, which is fewed together on the lipper 
part of the foot; they are cut about three inches longei;;- 
than the foot, and are folded over the toes ; the quarters 
are about nine; inches high, and faften round the leg like 
^z bufkin. Xh? womens ear- rings are made of the center 
part pf a targe fhell, called burgo, which is about the. 
thicl^nefii of one*s little Anger, and there is a hole, in the 
car about that fize for holding it. Their necklaces are 
compofed of feveral firings of longifli or roundifh kernel- 
(tones, fomewhat refembling porcelaine j, and with the 
fmalleft of thef<; k^rn^l-ftones they ornament their furs^ 
garters, &'c. 

From their early youth the women get a flrep.k pricked 
crofs their nofe; fome of then^ have a ftr«;ak pricked 
down the middle of their chin j others in different parts, 
efpecially the women of the nations who have the R it^ 
their language. I have feen fome who w^re pricked all 
over the upper part of the body, not even excepting thq^ 
breads which are extremely fenlible. 

In the cold weather the npen cojver themC«lves with afhirt 
made of two drelTed deer-fkins, which is more like a fur 
night-gown than a fhirt : they likewife, at the fame time, 
wear a kind of bieeches, which cover both the thighs 
end the legs. If the weather be very fevere, they throw 
over all a buffJo's (kin, which is drefled with the wool 
■ on, nirl ihis ihcy keep next tp their body to increafe thd 
wr.jmth. In the countries v/here they hunt beavers, they 
Biake robes of fix fkins of thofe animals fewed together. 

The youths here are. as much taken up about dre{s, 
and as fond of vying with each other in finery as in other 
countries ; they paint themfelves with vermilion very 
often i they deck themfelves with bracelets made of the 
ribs of deer, which are bent by the means of boiling. 



v^ter, and when polifhed, look as fine as iv6ry; they 
wear necklaces like the women, and fometimes have a 
fan in their hand.; they clip off the hair from the crown of 
the head, and there place a piece o^ fwan's (kin with the 
down on .J to. a few hairs that they leave on that part they 
faften the fineft white feathers that they can meet ^yith ; 
a part of their hair which is fuffered to grow long, they 
weave into a cue, which hangs over their* left ear. 

They likeWife have their nofc pricked, but no other 
part till they are warriors, and have performed fome brave 
z&ion, fuch as killing an enemy, and bringing off his 
fcalp. Thofe who have fignalized themfelves by fome 
gallant exploit, caufe a tomahawk to be pricked on. their 
left fhoulder, underneath which is alfo pricked the hieroi 
glyphic fign of the conquered nation. Whatever figure 
they intend to prick, is firft traced on the ikin with a bit 
of charcoal, and having fixed fix needles in a piece of 
wood in two rows, in fuch a manner that they only flick 
out about the tenth part of an inch, they prick the (kin 
all over the mark, and then rub charcoal duft oVer the 
part, which enters the pu natures, and leaves a mark that 
can never be effaced. This pricking generally gives a 
fit of ficknefs to the patient, who is obliged for fome 
time to live only on boiled maiz. The warriors alfo 
pierce the lower part of their ears, and make a hole an 
inch diameter, .which they fill with iron wire, Be(idQ4 
thefe ear-rings they have a belt hung round with little 
bells, if they can purchafe any from the French, fo that 
they march more like mules than men. When they can 
get no bells, they faffen to their belts wild gourds with 
two or three pebbles in each. The chief ornament of the 
fovereighs, is their crown of feathers j this crown is com-* 
pofed oi a black bonnet of net work, which is fattened 
to a red diadem about two inches broad. The diadem is 
embroidered with white kernel-ftones, and furmoiinteJ 
with white feathers, which in th^ fore -part are about 



eight inches long, and half as much behind. This crown 
or feather hat makes a very pleaflng appearance. 

All nations are not equally ingenious at inventing feafts, 
ihews, and diverfions, for employing the people agreeably, 
and filling up the void of their ufual employments. The 
natives of Louifiana have invented but a very few diver- 
fions, and thefe perhaps ferve their turn as well as a greatet 
variety would do. The Warriors pra^life a diverAon 
which is called the game of the pok, at which only two 
play together at a time. Each has a pole about eight feet 
long, refembling a Roman f, and the game confifts in 
rolling a flat round ftone, about three inches diameter and 
an inch thick, with the edge fomewhat floping, and 
throwing the pole at the fame time in fuch a manner, 
that when the ftone refts, the pole may touch it or be near 
it. Both antagoniils throw their poles at the fame time, 
and he whofe pole is neareft the ftone counts one, and has' 
the right of rolling the ftone. The men fatigue them- 
felves much at this game, as they run after their poles at 
every throw; and (ome of them are fo bewitched by it, 
that they game away one piece of furniture after another. 
Thefe gamefters however are very rare, and are greatly 
difcountenanced by the reft of the people. 

The women play with fmall bits of cane, about eight 
or nine inches long. Three of thefe they hold toofely in 
one hand, and knock them to the ground with another; tf 
two of them fall with the round fide undermoft, fhe that 
played counts one ; but if only one, fhe counts nothing. 
They are aihamed to be feen or found playing ; and as far 
as I could difcover, they never played for any ftake. 

The young people, efpccially the girls, have hardly any 
kind of diverfion but that of the ball : this coniifts in 
toffing a ball from one to the other with the palm of the 
hand, which they perform with a tolerable addrefs. 

When the natives meet with a Frenchman whom they 
know, they fhake hands with him, incline their head a 

/ Utile, 

.^'^VK^MI^HH^ ' 


little, and fay m, their own language, ^' Are you there, 
my friend f" If he has no fertous affair to propofe to 
them, or if they themfeWes have nothing of con(equencc 
to fay, they purfue their journey. 

If they happen to be going the feme way with a French* 
man, they never go before him, unlefs fomething of con« 
fequence oblige them. When you enter into their hut| 
they welcorafe you with the word of falutatton, which fig* 
nifics ** Are you there, my friend?'* then fhalce hands 
with you, and pointing to a bed, deftre you tp fit down. 
A filence of a few minutes then enfues till the ftranget' 
begins to fpeak, when he is offered fome vidluals, and 
defired to cat. You liiuft tafte of what they offer yotij^ 
otherwife they will imagine that you defpife them. v-^»* 

When the natives ^converfe together, however nume* 
rous the affembly be, never more than one perfon fpea!c» 
at once. If one of the company has any thing to fay to 
another, he fpeaks fo lev/ that none of the reft hear him. 
l^Iobody is interrupted, even with the chiding of a child ; 
and if the child be ftubborn', it is removed clfewhere. Ic, 
the council, when a point is deliberated upon and debated, 
they keep filence for a ihort time, and then they fpeak in 
their tarns, no one offering to interrupt another. 

The natives being habituated to their own prudent 
cuftom, it is with the utmoft difficulty they can keep from 
laughing, when, they fee feveral French men or "French 
women together, ajid always feveral of them fpeakingat 
the fame time. I had obferved them for two years ftifling 
"a laugh on thofe occafions, and had often afked the rcafon 
of it, without receiving any fatisfaftory anfwer. At 
length I prefTed one of them fo earneftly to fatisfy me, 
that after fome excufes, he told me in their language, 
«• Our people fay, that when feveral Frenchmen are to- 
gether, they fpeak ail at once, like a flock of geefe." 

All the nations whom I have known, and who inhabit 
from the fea a^ far as the Illinois, and eyea farther, whicU 



is a rpace of about fifteen hundred miles, carefully culti- 
vate the maiz corn, which they make their principal fub- 
fiftence. They make bread of it baked in cakes, another 
kind baked among the afhes, and another kind in water ; 
they make of it alfo cold meal, roafted meal, gruel, which 
jn this country is called Sagamity. This and the cold meal 
in my opinion are the two beft difhes that are made of it ; 
the others are only for a change. They eat the Sagamity 
as we eat foup, with a fpoon made of a buffalo's horn. 
When they eat flefh or fifh they ufe breads They like- 
wife ufe two kinds of millet, which they ihell in the man- 
ner of rice ; one of thefe is called Choupichoul, and the 
other Widlogouil, and they both grow almoft without 
any cultivation. 

In a fcarcity of thefe kinds of corn, they have recourfe 
to earth-nuts, which they find in the woods j but they 
never ufe thefe or chefnuts but when neceflSty obliges 

* ■ • ■ ^ 

The flefti-meats they ufually eat are the buffalo, the 
deer, the bear, and the dog : they eat of all kind of 
water-fowl and fifh ; but they have no other way of dref- 
ling their meat but by roafling or boiling. The following 
is their manner of roafling their meat when they are in the 
fields hunting : they plant a flake in the ground floping 
towards the fire, and on the point of this flake they fpit 
their meat, which they turn from time to time. To pre- 
ferve what they do not ufe, they cut it into thin pieces, 
which they dry, or rather; half-roafl, upon a grate made 
of canes placed crofs-ways. 7 hey never eat raw flefh, as 
fo many people have falfely imagined, and they limit 
themfelves to no fet hours for their meals, but eat when- 
ever they are hungry j fo that we feldom fee feveral of 
them eating at once, unlefs at their feafts, when they all 
eat off the fame plate, except the women, the hoys, and 
the young girls, who have each a plate to themfelves. 

Whqn the natives are fick, they neither eat flefh nor 
fifh, but take Sagamity boiled in th^ broths of meat. 



|o pre- 

:{h, as 
reral of 
|:hey all 

iefti nor 


When ft man fall« ficki bis wife fleept with the woman in 
the next bed to him, and the hMiband of that woman goes 
elfcwhere* The natives, when (hey cat with Frenchmen, 
tafte of nothing but of pure roaft and boiled : they eat no 
fallad, and nothing raw but firuit. Their drink is pure 
water or pure brandy, but thfy diilike wine and all made 

Having mentioned their manner of feedings I (hall fay 
a word or two of their manner of faftiag. When thef want 
rain, or when they defire hot weather for ripefting thirir 
corn, they addrefs themfelves tc the old man who has the 
greateft character for living wifely, and they intreat him to 
invoke the atrial fpirics, in order to obtain what th^ de- 
mand. This old man, who never refufes his countrj^men's 
requeft, prepares to faft for nine days together, i^e orders 
his wife to withdraw, and during the whole time he eats 
nothing but a di(b of gruel boiled in water^ without (alt, 
which js brought him once a day by his wife after fun-fet. 
They never will accept of aity reward for this fervice, 
that the fpirits may not be angry with them. ' 

SEC T. vn^ , 

Of the Indian Art of Vhxr. 

I Will now prefefit the reader with their manner of 
making war, which is ui^formly the fame among all 
the nations.- When one tpatipn intends to make war 
upon another in all the fcM:t08, they hokl a council of 
war, which is compofed of th^oldeft and braveft warriors. 
It is to be fuppofed that l^is nation has been infulted, 
that, the other has committed fome hoftilities t^ioft it» 
or that they have difturbed them in their hun^^g country, 
coming thither to fteal their gam<?» as they call it. There 
is always fome pretence for declaring war ; and this pre- 
tence, whether true or falfe, is explained by the war- 
chief^^who omits no circumftance that may excite his 

Ration to take up arms. 

Bb After 

370 THEHlsrORY 

After he has explained the reafons for the war, the old 
men debate the qu^ftion in prcfence of the great chief or 
fovereign of the nation. This fovereign and the great 
chief of war are only witnefles of the debate } for the 
opinion of the old men always prevails, and the two 
chiefs voluntarily agree to it, from their rcfpc6l and their 
great regard for the experience and wifdom of thofe vene- 
rable cpunfellprs. ^ , 

If it is refolved to demand from the other nation the 
reafon of the hoftilities committed by them, they name 
one of their braved and moft eloquent warriors, as a fe- 
cond to their fpeech-maicer or chancellor, who is to carry 
the pipe of peace, arid addreis that nation. Thefe two 
are accompanied by a troop of the braved warriors, fo 
that the enibafly has the appearance of a warlike expedi- 
tion ; and, if fatisfa6lion is not given, fometimes ends in 
one. The anabafladors carry no prefents with them, to 
(hew that they do not intend to fupplicate or beg a peace : 
they take with them only the pipe of peace, as a proof 
that they come as friend?. The embafly is always well 
received, entertained in the bed manner, and kept as long 
as pofTible; and if the other nation is not inclined to 
begin a war, they ma k^yef:y large prefents to the ambaf- 
fadors, and all their retinue, to make up for the lofles 
which their natio^i complains of« jj 

If a nation begins aflualhodilities without ihy formali- 
ties, the 'nation invaded is generailly aflided by feveral allies^ 
keep» itiblf on tht defenfive, gives orders to thbfe who 
live at ii great didance to join the main body of the nation, 
prepares logs for building a ifort^ and every morning fends 
fome walriors out upon iht fcout, choofing for that pur- 
'pofe thofe who trud more to' tlifrir heels than their heart. 

The aflidance of the allies 151 generally 'Ipliqilted by the 
pipe of peace^ the dalk of w,h'i<ih is abdiit four feet and a 
half long, and is covered all bver With the fkin of a duck's 
neck, the feathers of which ar^ glpflyahd of vki-ious 
, I colours. 


colours. To this pipe is faflencd a fan made of the fea- 
thers of white eagles, the ends of which are black, and 
aib ornamented with a tuft dyed a beautiful red. 

When the allies are aflcmblcd a general council is held 
in prefence of the fovcrcign, and is compofcd of the great 
war-chief, the war-chiefs of the allies, and all the old 
warriors. The great war-chief opehs the aflcnibly wilh 
a fpcech, in which he exhorts them to take vengeance of 
the infults they have received ; and afier the point is de- 
bated, and the war agreed upon, all the vvnrriors go a 
hunting to procure game for the war-fcaft, which, as well 
as the war-dance, lads three days. 

The natives diftinguifli the warriors into three clalTq?, 
namely, true warriors, who have always given proofs of 
their courage ; common warriors, and apprcnticc-war-> 
riors. They likewifc divide our military men into the two 
clafTes of true warriors and young warriors. By the former 
they mean the fettlers, of whom the greateft part, upon 
their arrival, were foldiers, who being now perfecflfy ac- 
' quainted with the tricks and wiles of the natives, pradijfe 
them upon their enemy, whom they do not greatly fearJ 
The yOung warriors are the foldiers of the regular troops, 
as the companies are generally compofed of young men, 
who are ignorant of the ftratagems ufed by the natives in 
time of war. ^"^ ^' 

When the war-fpaft is ready the warriors repair to it, 
painted from head to f^ot with firipes of different colours. 
They have nothing.on but their belt, from whence hangs 
their apron, their bells, or their rattling gourds, and their 
tomahawk. In their right hand they have a bow, and 
thofe of the north in their left carry a buckler formed of 
two round pieces of buffalo's hide fewed together. 

The feaft is kept in a meadow, the grafs of which is 

mowed to a great extent ; there the difhes, which are of 

hoUovi^wood, are placed round i a circles of about twelve 

or fifteen feet diameter, and the number of thofe circuUr 

i \ ' B b 2 tabl«8 


tables is proportioned to the largenels of the siTembly, in 
the midft of whom is placed the pipe of war upon the end 
of « pole feven or eight feet high. At the foot of this 
pole, in the middle of a circle, is placed the chief difli of 
all, which is a large dog roafled whole i the other plates 
are ranged circularly by threes j one of thefe contains 
linaiz boiled in broth lilce gruel, another roafted deer's 
JdeKh, and the other boiled. They all begin with eating 
of the dog, to denote their fidelity and attachment to their 
chief} but before they tafte of any thing, an old warrior, 
who, on account of his great age, is not able to accom- 
pany the reft to the war, makes an harangue to the war- 
riors, and by recounting his own exploits, excites them 
to a£l with bravery agaihft the enemy. All the warriors 
then, according to their rank, fmoke in the pipe of wat*, 
after which they begin their repaft ; but while they dat, 
they keep walking continually, to fignify that a warrior 
ought to be always in a£iion and upon his guard. 

While they are thus employed, one of the young men 
goes behind a buHi about two hundred paces off, and raifes 
the cry of death. Inftantly all the warriors feize their 
arms, and run to the place whence the cry comes ; and 
when they are near it the young warrior ibews himfelf 
again, raifes the cry of death, and is anfwered by all the 
reft, who then return to the feaft, and take up the vi£iuals 
which in their hurry they had thrown upon the ground. 
The fame alirm iS glvfen tWo dther tliries, and the war- 
riors each time a^ ^s at 'flrft. The War drink then goes 
round, which is a htiiy liquor dt^v^n from the leaves of 
the Ck&ne after they Hkve bt<6h a I6i1g «i^hile boiled. The 
feaft being ^nii^^d, thisy all afleihble about fifty piLtts 
ifrom a large pbft^ wlhich reprefehts the eiiemy j ^nd this 
each of them in his tlifn f-uhs iip tb, and ftrikes With his 
tohiahawk, recounting at the farhe time all his former 
brave exploits, and fohietimies boafting of valorous deeds 
that he never j^rformed. But they have the compiaiftfi^e 
to each other to pardbn this gtifi;ofiading« 


All of them haying (ucce{Ryc\y (Iruck the poft, they 
begin the dance of war with their arms jn tlicir hands ( 
and this dance and the war feaft are celebrated for three 
days togi.ihcr, aitcr which thcy Cct out for the war. Th« 
women fome time before are employed in pirparing victuals 
for their hitibands, and the old meQ in engraving upon 
bark tlic liicroglyphic fign of the nation that attacks, and 
of their numbir of warriors. 

Thi'ir manner of making war is to attack by furprize ; 
accordingly, when they draw near to any of the enemy's 
villages, thcy march only in the night; and that thcjr 
may not be difcovcred, raife up the grafs over which they 
trod. One half of the warriors watch, while the other 
half ficep in the tliickcft and moft unfrequented part of 
the wood. 

If any of their fcouts can difcovcr a hut of the enemy 
detached from the reft, they all furround it about day-breal^, 
and fome of the warriors entering, endeavour to knock 
the people Qn the head as they awa)c<:, or take fome man 
prifoncr. Having fcalpcd the dead, they carry off* the 
women and children prifoners, and place againft vi tree > 
near the hut the hieroglyphic picture, before which they 
plant two arrows with tlieir points crofling each other. 
Inftantly they retreat into the woods, and make great 
> turnings to conceal their route. 

The women and children whom they take prifoners are 
made flaves. But if they take a man prifoncr the joy is 
univerfal, and the glory of their nation is at its height. 
The warriors, when they draw near to their own villager 
gfter an expedition, raife t;he cry of war three times fuc- 
ce^vely ; and if they have a man prifoner with them, 
immediately go and look for three j)oles to torture him 
lipo|i} which, however weary or hungry they be, muft 
[^e provided before they t«\ke any refrefhment. When 
they have provided thofe poles, and tied the prifoner to 
,them^ the^y may then go and take fome viduals. The 

B b 3 polei 


poles are about ten feet long; two of them are planted 
upright in the ground at a proper diftancc, and the other 
is cut through in the middle, and the two pieces are faft- 
encd crofs-ways to the other two, fo thnt they form a fquare 
about five feet every way. The prifoncr being firft 
fcalpcd by the perfon who took him, is tied to this fquare, 
his hands to the upper part, and his feet to the lower, in 
fuch a manner that he forms the figure of a St. Andrcw'a 
croi's. The young men in the mean time having prepared 
fcveral bundles of canes, fetfire to them ^ and feveral of the 
warriors taking thofe flaming canes, burn the prifoner in 
different parts of his body, while others burn him in other 
parts with their tobacco-pipes. The patience of prifoneri 
in thofc mifcrablc circumflanccs is altogether aflonifliing. 
No cries or lamentations proceed from them ; and fome 
have been known to fuffcr tortures, and ftng for three 
days and nights without intermi/Tion. Sometimes it hap- 
pens that a young woman who has lofl her hufband in 
the war, a(ks the prifoner to fupply the room of the dc- 
ceafed, and her requcfl is immediately granted. 

I mentioned above that when one nation declares war 
againft another, they leave a picture near one of their viU 
lagcs. That pidlure is defigned in the following manner. 
On the top towards the right hand is the hieroglyphic 
fip;n of the nation that declares war : next is a naked man 
with a tomahawk in his hano } and then an arrow pointed 
againfl a woman, who is flying away, her hair floating 
behind htfr in the air •, immediately before this woman is 
the proper emblem of the nation againft whom the war is 
declared. All this is on one line; and below is drawn 
the figure of the moon, which is followed by one I, or 
more ; and a man is here reprefented, before whom is a 
number of arrows which feem to pierce a woman who is 
running away. By this is denoted, when fdch a moon is 
fo many days old, the^ will come in great numbers and 
attack fuch a nation ; but this lower part of the picture 
does not always carry true intelligence. The nation tha? 
'■ '■ ' ■ ■' -' ■ ha^ 


h^l offered the Infult, or commenced hoftilidcs wrong- 
fully, rarely finds any allies even among thofe nations who 
call them brothers. 

Ill carrying on a war they hav« no Aich thing as pitched 
battles, or carrying on of ficgcs } all the mifchief they do 
each other, is by furprife and fleirmilhing, and in thij 
their courage and addrefs confifts. Among them flight 
is no ways fhameful ; their bravery lies often in their 
legs } and to kill a man aflccp or at unawares, is quite at 
honourable among them, as to gain a fignal viAory after 
a flout battle. 

When a nation is too wealc to defend itfelf in the field, 
they endeavour to protect thcmfclvcs by a fort. This fort 
is built circularly of two rows of large logs of wood, the 
logs of the inner row being oppofite to the joining of the 
logs of the outer row. Thcfe logs arc about fifteen feet 
long, five feet of which are funk in the ground. The 
outer logs arc about two feet thick, and the inner about 
half as much. At every forty paces along the wall a cir- 
cular tower jets out ; and at the entrance of the fort» 
which is always next to the river, the two ends of the 
w^ll pafs beyond each other, and leave a fide opening: In 
the middle of the fort ilands a tree with its branches lopt 
off within fix or eight inches of the trunk, and this ferves 
for a watch-tower. Round this tree are fomc huts, for 
the prote£lion of the women and children from random 
arrows ; but notwithftanding all tliefc precautions for 
defence, if the bcfieged are but hindered from coming 
out to water, they are foon obliged to retire. 

When a nation finds itfelf no longer able to oppofc its 
enemy, th-e diicfs fend a pipe of peace to a neutral nation, 
and foiicit their mediation, which is generally fuccefsful, 
the vanquifhed nation fheltering themfelves under the name 
of the mediators, and for the future making but one 
?iation with them. 





K«t k may be obtlffvtd that when they ga to attaelc 
Mh«r«, it f>>metiitici haptitni thtt they loTft fonia of chttir 
own warriors. In that caft, they immediately, iC fxiAble, 
Icalp their deai friends» to hinder the enemy from having 
that fiibje^l of triumph* Moreover, when they return 
home^ whether as vi^ora or other wife, the jgreat war- 
chifif pays to the refpe^live families for thofe whom ht 
does not bring bacic with him ( which renders the chiefa 
very parcful of the lives of their warriors* 

C H A P. IV. 


Oftht ChtUi »/ Nt^^fotsi 9/ thiir Di/limptrf, and thi 
Manner if curing tbim* 

HAVING Hnifhed my account of the natives of 
Louifiana, I {hall conclude this treatife with 
ibme obfervations relating to the negroes } who, in th9 
lower part of the province efpecially, perform all the la- 
bours of agriculture. On that account I have thought 
proper to give fome inftru£lions concerning them, for the 
benefit of thofe who are inclined to fettle in that pro- 

The negroes muft be governed differently firom the 
Europeans { not becaufe they are black, nor becaufe they 
are fliives ) but becaufi? they think differently from the 
white men. 

Firft, they Imbibe a prejudice from their infancy, that 
the white men buy them for no other purpofe but to drink 
thcii* blood I which is owing to this, that when the firft 
negroes faw the Europeans drink claret, they imagined it 



mu blood, ii that wine it of ■ dctp rtd colour i To that 
nothing hut the ti«5luil fkpcrienoc of th« contrary can 
tiradkate the fmirc opinion, fiat ai none of thofe flavct 
who have had (hnt cxpcrienct ever return to thoir own 
country, the fame prtjudioo continual to iubfiA on the 
«oaft of Guinea where w« purchafe ilhom. Some who are 
Arangeri to the manner ojf thinlting that prevails among 
the iicgroeis, may perhaps think th^t the nbove remark ii 
of fjo conTequencc, in refpe^ to thofe fl.<vrs uho arc al- 
ftAK\y ((M to the t'Vetich, There have been iiiftancei 
however of bad conicquenccs fltawing frooj this preju- 
dice ; efpeciMlly if the negroeik found no old flave of thenr 
«wn country upon their (irftarrjvat in ourGolonies. Some 
of them have kiMod or drowned thcmfulveB, feveral of 
them have dclt^rted (which they call milking themfelvea 
Marons) and all thii from an apprehenfion that the white 
men were going to drink their blood. When they defert 
<hey believe they can get back to their own country \tf 
golhg round the fea, and may live in the woods upon the 
nruiti, which they imagine Are at common every where aa 
nrith them. ■ ■ ' 

They ire very fuperftitioui, and ire much attached to 
their prejudices, and little toys which they call grit^ grit. 
It would be improper therefore to take them from them, 
or even fpeak of them to thcip \ for they would believe 
themfelvei undone, if they were ftripped of thofe trink- 
ets. The old negroes foon make them lofe conceit of 

The iirft thing you ought to do when you purchafe 
negroes, is to caufe them to be examined by a fkilful fur- 
geon and an honeft msih, to difcover if they have the 
venereal or any other diftemper. When they are viewed, 
both men and women arc ftripped naked as the hand, and 
are carefully examined from the crown of the head to thi> 
fote of the feet, then between the toes and between the 
Angt^rs, in the mouth, in the cars, not excepting even the 


378 t H E H I S T O R V ) 

ptrtt naturally concealed^ though then expofed to f iew. 
You muft afk your examining furgeon if he is acquainted 
with the diftemper of the yawB» which ii the virus of 
Guinea, and incurable by a great many French Airgcons, 
though very fkilfi^ in the management of European 
diftempert. Be careful not to be deceived in this point j for 
your furgeon may be deceived himfelf) therefore attend 
at the examination yourfelf, and obferve carefully over all 
the body of the negro, whether you can difcovcr any 
parts of the fltin, which though black like the red, arc 
however as fmooth as a looking-glafs, without any tumor 
or rifrng. Such fpots may be eaftly difcovered j for the 
ikin of a per on who goes naked is ufually all over wrinkles. 
Wherefore if you fee fuch marks you muil reject the negro, 
whether man or woman. There arc always experienced 
furgeons at the fale of new negroes, who purchafe them ) 
and many of thofe furgeons have made fortunes by that 
means i but they generally keep their fecret to them^< 
felves. f 

t Another mortal diftemper with which many ncgroei 

from Guinea arc attacked, is the fcurvy. It difcovera 

itfelf by the gums, but fometimes it is fo i(ivetcrati? as ta 

appear outwardly, in which cafe it is generally fatal. If 

any of my readers iball have the misfortune to have a negro 

attacked with one of thofe diftempers, I will now teach him 

how to fave him, by putting him in a way of being radi-p 

cally cured by the furgeons,} for I have no inclination to 

fall out with thofe gentlemen. I learned this fecret fron^ 

a negro phyfician, who was upon the king's pli^ntation, 

when I took the fupcrintcndance of it. 

> .t 
You muft never put an iron,jnftrumcnt into the yawj 

fuch an application would be certain death. In order to 
open the yaw, you take iron ruft reduced to an impalpa- 
ble powder, and pafTed through a fme fearch ; you after- 
wards mix that powder with citron juice till it be of the 
confiftcncc u( an ointment, which you fprcad, upon a 
linen cloth grcafed with hog's grcafc, or frefh lard with- 


out f«lt, for want of a better. You lay the plaifter upon 
the yaw, and renew it evening and morning, which will 
open the yaw in a very (hort time without any incifion. 

The opening being once made, you take about the bulk 
of a goofe's egg of hog*i lard without fait, in which you 
Incorporate about an ounce of good terebinthine ; after 
which take a quantity of powdered verdigris, and foak it 
half a day in good vinegar, which you muft then pour ofF 
gently with all the fcum that floats at top. Drop a cloth 
all over with the verdigris that rcmaini, and upon that' 
apply your laft ointment. All thefe operations are por-^ 
formed without the aflillance of fire. The whole oint- 
ment being well mixed with a fpatula, you drefs the yaw 
with it) after that put your negro into a copious fweat, 
'and he will be cured. Take fpecial care that your furgeqn 
uies no mercurial medicine, as I have feen ; for that will 
occafion the death of the patient. 

The fcurvy is no lefs to be dreaded than the yaws ; 
neverthelefs you may get the better of it, by adhering 
exa£lly to the following prefcription : take fome fcurvy • 
grafs, if you have any plants of it, fomc ground-ivy, 
called by fome St. John's wort, fome watcr-crcflcs from a 
fpring or brook, and for want of that, wild crefTes } take 
thefe three herbs, or the two laft, if you have no fcurvy- 
grafs ; pound them, and mix them with citron-juice, to 
make of them a foft pafte, which the patient muft keep 
upon both his gums till they be clean, at all times but 
when he is eating. In the mean while he muft be fufTered 
to drink nothing but an infufion of the herbs above named* 
You pound two hnndfuls of them, roots and all, after 
warning off any eartli that may be upon the roots or 
leaves } to thefe you join a frcfti citron, cut into flices. 
Having pounded all together, you then ftccp them in an 
earthen pan in a pint of pure water of the mcafure of 
Paris; after that you add about the fize of a walnut of 
powdered and puriAed faltpetre, and to make it a little 



i«U#iing to the negro, you add hme powfifr Aigar. ABtor 
tin water has ftood one nj^c, you fqttMse out (he herlgfi 
prcMy ftrojigly. The whole tp pei;forined cold, or witl^.* 
^^t ^re. Such m the dofe for 4 hplUe of wa|:er Pftris 
•wafurei but a» the patient ought to drio]^ two pints ^ 
day» you may nake (evejral pints at 1^ time in thp »hpvQ 

• In thefe vmno diflempers the pititACf muft be fulpigtovtccl 
with good nourift^eat, and made to iweat copiouAy. It 
would be a miftake to think that they ought to be kept Co 
a fpan: diet J you muft give them oourifliiiig food, but « 
little at a time. A ncgno can no more than any other 
peribn fiijpport remedies upon bad food, and ftilj le^ u^n 
a fpare diet ; but the qmntity muft be proportioned to tho 
Aate of the patient, and the nature of the difteanper. 
Befides, good food makes the beft part of the remedy to 
thofe who in common ak but pooriy fed. The negco 
who taught me the(e two remedips, the great 
care 1 took of both the negro men and negro women* 
taught mt likewife the cure of all the diftempers to which 
the women are fubje^ ; for the negro womeh are as liable 
to difeafes as the white women. 

: ' ' SEC T. IT. 

Of the Manntr of governing tbt Negroes, 

WHEN a negro man or woman comes home to you, 
it is proper to carels them, to give them fome. 
thing good to eat, with a glafs of brandy ; it is beft to 
drefs them the fame day, to give theni to fleep 
on, and a covering. I fuppofe the others bave been 
treated in the fame manner ; for thofe marks of humanity 
fatter them, and attach them to their mafters..' If they 
^re fatigued or weakened by a journey, or by any diftem- 
pers, make them work'little ; but keep them always bufy 
us 4ong as they are able to do any thing, never fuftering 

' , . them 


them to be idle, but when they are at their meals^ Take 
care of them when they are fick, and give attention both 
to their remedies and their food, which laft ought then t9 
be more nouriihing than what they ufually fubftft upon. 
It is your intereft fo to do, both for dieir prefervation, 
'and to attach them more clofcly to you ; for Uiou^h many 
Frenchmen fay that negroes are ungrateful, I have expe- 
rienced that it is very eafy to render them much attached 
to you by good treatment, and by doing them juftjce, as 
I ihall mention afterwards. , , ,\ 

If a negro woman lies-in, caufe her to be taken carertif 
an evoy thing that her condition makes, neceflary, and let 
your wife, if you have one, not diAkun to take the im^ 
mediate care of her herfelf, or at leaft have an eye over 

A Chriftian ought to take care that the chtklreh be 
baptifed and inftru^ed, fince they hive an immorul CotA. 
The mother ought .then to receive half « ration mote then 
ufual, anda quart of niilk a day, to a^ her to nurie^her 

Prudence requires that your negroes be lodged at « 
proper diftance, td prevent them from being troublefiMoe 
tyr ofFenfive } but at the fame time near enough fer your 
eonveniently obferving^whiat paAs vmong them^ When 
'I (by that t^ •ought not to be placed fo near your habi- 
tation as to be dffenfive, I mean by that the iinell which 
4S natural to fome nations of negvoes, fuch as the Congos, 
the Angolas, the Aradas, and others. On this account 
it is proper to have in their camp a bathing place formed 
by thick planks, buried in the earth about a foot or a^foQt 
and a half at moft, and never more water in it than sdmut 
that depth, for fear left the children fliould drown tbem- 
ielves in it ; it ought likewife to have an edge, that the 
little childisen <nay not hare accefs to it, and there ought 
to be a pond without the camp to fupp^ it with water and 
keep iiih. The ii^gro camp ou^ht tp^^be inclolediiU uound 



3»s f ME HiS^TORY 

with palifadea, andtohaveitioor to (hut with a lock af^ 
ley-. The huts ought to be detached from each othei', 
for fear of fire, and tcJ be huih in dir^(^ Hnes, both, f<nr 
tHt fake of ncathefi, attd in 'order ta knW eafiljr the htit 
'of each negro. But that you may b^ ^ little incommoded 
as poffible with their natural fmell, yt^u mirfl: have the pre- 
caution to 'place the negro camp to thenorth or north- eaft 
of your houfe, as the winds that blow itbih tbcfe qtiar* 
ters are not fo warm a» the otheia, •»nil it is only wheh 
the negroes are warm that thefy fend forth a difagreeable 
•imell. . j: i.;-' ■'■--> . ' 

The negroes tfiathat^e the worft fmell aire thofe that are 
the leaft black*; and what I have faid of their bad fmell, 
'ought to warn you^ to leeepr always 'oii tho^ windward fide 
of them when you vifit them at their work j never to fuf- 
/er them to cememearyour childreri, who, excluflve of 
the' bad fmell, can learn nothing good from them, either 
isstto morals^ educfljtiony or language. .- ^ r 

"^'From what Ihare faid, I concludethat a French fkther 
and his wife are great enemies to their poflerity when they 
give their children fuch nurfes. Foe the milk being the 

^pureil blood of the woman, one mi^fl be. a ,ftep-mother 
indeed to give her child to a negro nurfe in fuch a country 
as Louifiana, where the mother has all conveniencies 
of being ferved, t^ accommodating: and carrying their 
childfen, who by that means may be always under their 

,eyes. The mother then has nothing elfe to do but to give 
the breafl to her child. 

I have no inclination to employ my pen in cenfuring the 
over-delicacy and felfifhnefs of the women. Who thus fa- 
crifice their children V it may, without further illuf^ration, 
be eafily perceived how much fociety is interefled in this 
affair. I (hall only fay, that for any kind of fervice what- 
ever s^iit the houfe, I would advife no other kind of 
negroes, either young or old, but Seiiegals, called among 
themfelvcs Diolaufs» becaufe of all the negroes I have 
Z known. 

OF*LOlitSlA>IA*. ^§3 

known, thefe have the purtfli M^ ; they lialve more (ide- 
lity and abetter underilandi)t|fthan the f eJRr,' and ar6 con- 
fequehtly fiUer for learning a trade, or for hienial fervices. 
' It is true they Ire not fo^lrori^ 'as th<^ others for the la> 
hours of the Add, ahd for bearing -the grejlt heats. 

The Senegals however are the blackeft, and I never faw 
any 'jwh6 had a bad ■fmell. They ari^ very grateful j 
and Jv^eii d)iV' knows h6"(^^ t(> him, they 

have^een ^d'uhd to facrificfe'tltieTf dwn life to favc that of 
their mafter. They are good commanders over other 
negroes, both' onaccoutifof their fidelity and gratitude, 
and becauib they feem to*^be bomfor commanding. ' As 
they are high-minded, they may be eafily encouraged to 
learn a tradej or to ferve in the koufe, by the diftin£):ion 
they will thereby acquiirfe over' the other negroes, and 
the neatnefs of drefs whiibh^'ihat condition will entitle 
them to. -•.';"Mjo:>)»b 6 - 


' When :a fettler wants to make a fortune, and manage 
his plantation with oeconomy, ' he ought to prefiir his inte- 
xeft to his pleafure, and onl/- take the lad by fnatches. 
He ought to be the.6rft up and the laft a-bed, that he 
may hayeanieye over every thing that palTes ,in his plan- 
tation., it is certainly his intereft that his negroes labour 
a good deal;' but it ought to bean equal and moderate 
labour^ for violent and edntinual labours v ould foon ex- 
ihauft ^dr ruin, them ; whereas by keeping them always 
moderately employed, they neither exhauft their flrength 
nor riiin their conftitution. By this they are kept in good 
healthy and labour longer, and With more good will : 
befides, it' muft be allowed that the day is long enough 
for an aifiduous labourer to defer ve the repofeof theeven- 
-Ing*.-^ -■•■■' 

To accuftom' them to labour in this manner I oblerved 
the following method : I took care to provide one piece of 
work for them before another was done, and I informed 
their commander or driver in their preienpe, that they 



might not loft time, feoM ipi coming to a(k what thtf 
were to do« ami otbert in waiting for an anfwer. fieTidot 
I wfnt feveral times a day to view them» by roads which 
they did not expeft, pretending to be going a hunting or 
coming from it. If I obferved them idle^ 1 reprimanded 
them, and if when they iaw me coming, they wrought 
too hard, I told them that they fatigued themfelvei, and 
that they could not continue at fuch hard labour during 
the whole day, without being harafTcd, which I did not 

When I furprifed them finging at their work* and per- 
oeived that they bad difeovered me, I foid to them chear* 
(ally. Courage, my boys, I love to fee you merry at your 
work I but do not fing fo loud, that you may not fatigue 
yourfelves, and at night you fliall have a cup of Tafia 
(or rum) to give you flrength and fpirits. One cannot 
believe the effc£k fuch a difcourfe would have upon thcur 
fpirits, which was eafUy difcernible from the chearfulneft 
upon their countenances, and their ardour at work. 

If it be ncceiTary not ta paft over any eflfential fault inf 
the negroes, it is no leis neceflary never to puiiiik them 
but when they have dcferved it, after a feriout enquiry and 
examination fupported by an abfolute certainty, ttnk& 
you happen to catch them in the h£k. But when you are 
fully convinced of the crime, by no means pardon them 
upon any aflurances or proteftations of theirs, or upon die 
folicitations of others ; but puniih them in proportion) to 
the fault th^y have done, yet always with humanity, that 
they may themfelvcs be brought to confels that they have 
dcferved the punifi^ment they have received. A Cbriftian 
is unworthy of that Jiame when he puniihcswith crueky, 
as is done to my knowledge in a certain colony, tafiick 
ft degree that they enteruin their guefta with fuch fpc^la- 
cles, which have more of barbarity than humanity in 
^em. When a negro oomcs from being whippisdy cauie 
the fkutt pacts to be ivaih^d wkh vinegar iBuxcd with fait, 


I which 
iting or 
et, and 
' during 
did not 

uid per* 
I chear- 
at your 
i fatigue 
>f Tafia 
t cannot 
ion their 

lib them 
uiry and 
r, unUfs 
I you are 
on them 
upon the 
ity, that 
bey have 
1 rpiAa- 
lanity in 
4, cauie 
vith falty 


Jamaica |Mp^r, which grows in the gartiens, attd ev«n ft 
little gtth|)owder. 

As ^e kHbvir fi^m b(peti«nc6 that moft tnth bf ft lb#' 
exthk^iibh, and Without education, Att fubje^ to thieve 
ih^ in thbir ntcefiltie^ It is not at all furprifihg tb Fee 
iltegroes thieves, when they Hre in want of every thihgi Ja# 
I hiave feen many badly M, badly cloithcd, and having 
rtOthing so lie upon but the ground. I (hall make but 
onift ^efl«£Hbn. If they ire flaves, it is ttlfo true that they 
ait iMen, And Capabtb Of bricomin^ Chriftians : befides^ 
it is your liitehtioh to dral^ adrhntage from them, is it 
ifOt therefore reafohable to take idl'thb cait of thdm that 
you efth ? We fee all thofe #ho underftand the goremu 
nitht of horfes give an extriioidinak-y attention to theni!» 
Whetlvir they be intfen<3ed for the fMdle or thedraught* 
In (hteiAdicafyn they ai« widl covered and kept in warm 
ttiWi. tti tlib luMMKier they iMVe a dolh thrown ot«^ 
tHmaif VOlteep tbdn from fhediift, and at all times good 
litter to lie upon. Every morning their dung is carried 
aWay» and they are well curried and combed. If you alk 
thOfe maAers, why they bcftow fo much pains upon beads f 
thiey wUl tell you, that, to make a horfe ierviceable to 
yoil) you miift take a good deal of care of him, and that 
it is for the intereft of the pcrlbn to whom a horfe bcIongSt 
jh to d«. After this example, can one4iope for labour 
from negroes, who very often are in want of ncceiTaries ? 
Can ofie expe^ fidelity from a man^ who Is denied what 
he ftaftds moft in; need of? When one fees a negro, who 
labours hard and with much affiduity, it is commpn toiay 
to )iim, by way of encouragement, that they are well 
{4eafed with hite, and that he is a good. negro. But Wneh 
any of them, who underftand our language, af e fo com- 
plimented, they very properly reply, Maffh-y tdhm mgr* 
he much ,fii% ntgn work much \ whin negrehas good ma^ir^ 

If I advile the planters to take great care of ^eik' 
Begroesi I at the Ifame time flieW (httn that their intereft 





it oonnedled in that with their humanity. But I do M 
left advife them always to diftruft them, without Teeming 
tp.iearthe^i, becaufe it ia as dangerous to ihew a con- 
oealpd enemy that you fe;Mr him, as to ^ Kim an injury. 

Therefore malce it your conftant cuftom to (hut you|; 
doors fecurely, and not to fulFer any negro tafleep in tho 
houfe with you, and in their power to open your door. 
Viiit your negroes from time to time,, at night and on days 
imd hours when they leaft exped you, ih order to keep, 
them always in fear of being found abibit from their huts* 
Endeavour to affign each of them a wife, to keep clear of; 
debauchery and its bad coniibquences. It is neceflary that- 
tht negroes have wiVes^ aiiid you ought to kndw that no- 
' thing attaches them fo much to a plantation as children*. 
But above all do not fufier any of them to abandon his. 
wife, when he has once made choice of oiie in your pre-< 
iisnce. Prohibit all iighting under pain of the )afl>9 other-, 
#ife the: women wHl .often raife fquabbles among the 
tocniis* i?;! jiiWw 51" :. ,. , .noc|ii ^i' (n tw I 

Do lidtfufFer yOUi* htlgr6es to carry their thildieil to the 
fidd with them, when thiey begin towiilk^ as they only 
fpoil the plants and take off the mothers froni their work. 
If you have a few negto ehtldren, it h better to employ 
in old negro womaii to keep them in the camp, with 
whom the mothers may leave fomething for their children 
to eat. This you will find to be the moft profitable way; 
Above all do riot fufFer the mothers ever to cari^ them to 
ftte edge of the water, where there is toomuchto be fearedJ 

J'or the better fubfiftence of your negroes, you ought, 
every week to give them a fmall quantity of fait and of 
Kerbs of your garden, to give a better relifli to their 
Coufcoii, which is a difh riiade of the irieil of rice oif maiaS 
foaked in broth. ' ! 

If you have any old negro, or one in weak health, em-' 
ploy him in fifhing both for yourfelf and your ni^groeSir 
Pis labour will be w«jl wo^th his fubfiilence. , 

3 Jt 

•, ( 

: I do lUr 
r a con- 

lut your 
ep in th0 
>ur dooir, 
d on 4ay9 
to keep, 
eir huti* 

> clear of 
iary that 
that no- 
ndon his 
rour pre- 
b, other- 
long the 

•; It:? 

sn to the 
ky only 
:ir work. 

> employ 
np, with 
ble way; 

them to 
le feared J 

)u ought. 

It and of 

to their 

; 01^ mai^ 


It is moreover for your own intereft to give your neg^tiet 
• fmall piece of wafte ground to improve at the end of 
your own, and to engage them to cultivate it for their own - 
profit, that they may be able to drefs a little betteir, by 
felling the produce of it, which you ought to buy from 
them upon fair and juft terms. It were better that they 
ihould employ themfelves in cultivating that field on Sun- 
days, when they are not Chriftians, than do worfe. In 
a word, nothing is more to be dreaded than to fee the 
negroes aflemble together on Sundays, fince, under pre« 
tence of Calinda or the dance, they fometimes get toge- 
ther to the number of three or four hundred, and make a 
kind of Sabbath, which it is always prudent to avoid; fot 
it is in thofe tumultuous meetings that they fell what they 
have ftolen to one another, and commit many crimes. In 
thefe likewife they plot their rebellions. 

To conclude. One may, by attention -and humanity* 
eafily manage negroes • and, as an inducement, one has 
the fatisfa£lion to draw great advantage from their laboun* 


Ith, eni-'